Kaplan Essential Review: High School Chemistry

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Content covers matter, energy and measurement, atomic structure, bonding, the periodic table, the mathematics of chemistry, kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases, redox, electrochemistry, and organic chemistry.
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Overview

Content covers matter, energy and measurement, atomic structure, bonding, the periodic table, the mathematics of chemistry, kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases, redox, electrochemistry, and organic chemistry.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780684868219
  • Publisher: Kaplan Publishing
  • Publication date: 10/1/1999
  • Pages: 304
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.36 (h) x 0.72 (d)

Table of Contents

How to Use This Book

PART I: Study Tips

Chapter 1: Taking Tests: Some Basic Advice

PART II: Diagnostic Test

Practice Test 1: Diagnostic Test
Answers: Practice Test 1

PART III: Chemistry Review

Chapter 2: Matter, Energy, and Measurement
Chapter 3: Atomic Structure
Chapter 4: Bonding
Chapter 5: The Periodic Table
Chapter 6: The Mathematics of Chemistry
Chapter 7: Kinetics and Equilibrium
Chapter 8: Acids and Bases
Chapter 9: Redox and Electrochemistry
Chapter 10: Organic Chemistry
Chapter 11: Nuclear Chemistry
Chapter 12: Laboratory Activities

PART IV: Practice Tests and Answers

Reference Tables for Chemistry
Practice Test 2
Answers: Practice Test 2
Practice Test 3
Answers: Practice Test 3
Practice Test 4
Answers: Practice Test 4
Practice Test 5
Answers: Practice Test 5

Subject Index

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First Chapter

Chapter 11 Nuclear Chemistry

I. Artificial Radioactivity.

Elements can be made radioactive by bombarding their nuclei with high-energy particles such as protons, neutrons, and alpha particles.

A. Artificial transmutation -- Bombardment of nuclei by accelerated particles may result in the formation of new elements.

1. Accelerators -- Electric and magnetic fields are used to accelerate charged particles.

II. Nuclear Energy

In nuclear reactions, mass is converted to energy.

A. Fission -- can be brought about by "neutron capture" by an atom, which results in splitting the atom (fission fragments), liberation of energy, and release of two or more neutrons. The liberation of energy is the result of conversion of mass into energy. Nuclei such as uranium-235 fission spontaneously -- a natural form of radioactivity.

1. Fuels -- Uranium-233, uranium-235, and plutonium-239 are fissionable.
2. Moderators -- For efficient nuclear fission, it is necessary to slow the speed of the neutrons using "moderators," which are materials that have the ability to slow down the neutrons without absorbing them.
3. Control rods -- made of material with good ability to absorb neutrons, these work with moderators to control the reaction by adjusting the number of neutrons available.
4. Coolants -- are used to keep the temperatures generated at reasonable levels within the reactor and to carry heat to the exchangers and turbines.
5. Shielding -- Internally, it protects the walls of the reactor from radiation damage, and externally, it protects the employees from exposure to radiation.

B. Fusion reaction -- the process of combining two nuclei to form a heavier one. The energy released in some fusion reactions is much greater than in a fission reaction.

1. Fuels -- The isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium [2H], and tritium [3H], are used as fuels in fusion reactions designed to produce commercial energy in the future, and used in nuclear weapons.
2. High-energy requirement -- Since each nucleus carries a positive charge, they repel each other the closer they get. In order for them to interact, they must travel at enormous speeds (have enough kinetic energy) to overcome the repulsion.

C. Radioactive waste -- Fission products are very radioactive and must be isolated from the general population and stored for a long time or disposed of in special ways.

D. Radioisotopes.

1. Based on chemical activity -- Since they are chemically similar to their more stable relatives (the same element) they can be used as tracers in chemical reactions.
2. Based on radioactivity -- Radioisotopes are used in medical diagnoses, therapy, and food preservation and as a means of measuring physical dimensions of many industrial products.
3. Based on half-life -- They give a fairly consistent method of dating some geologic events.
4. When the atomic mass for an element on the Periodic Table is given as an integer, this indicates both the longest lived isotope of that element and the fact that there are no stable isotopes of that element (examples are Po, Tc, and all elements heavier than Np).

Questions

1. Which of the following cannot be used to bombard atoms?

1. protons
2. neutrons
3. electrons
4. all of the above can be used to bombard atoms

2. An isotope is

1. a different form of the same element.
2. a charged atom.
3. always radioactive.
4. an atom that is not charged.

3. Splitting of atoms is also called

1. merging.
2. moderating.
3. fusion.
4. fission.

4. If U-238 is the form of uranium listed on the periodic table, then U-233

1. does not exist.
2. weighs more than U-238.
3. has five fewer neutrons then U-238.
4. has five more neutrons than U-238.

5. The speed of a chain reaction is regulated in a nuclear reactor

1. by using coolants.
2. with internal shielding.
3. with external shielding.
4. by using moderators.

6. Which of the following is not true of a fission reaction?

1. an atom is split
2. neutrons are released
3. it results in fission fragments
4. lightweight nuclei interact

7. Radioactive decay

1. occurs in unstable isotopes.
2. is spontaneous.
3. Both 1 and 2 are correct.
4. Neither 1 nor 2 is correct.

8. The half-life of a radioactive isotope

1. is the time it takes for one half of the sample to decay.
2. is the time it takes for all of the sample to decay.
3. is always more than 10,000 years for any given isotope.
4. cannot be mathematically calculated.

9. Carbon-14

1. is oxidized to produce a fixed ratio of 14CO2 to 12CO2.
2. decays into Nitrogen-14.
3. incorporation continues after the death of the animal plant.
4. None of the above is correct.

10. Nuclear bombardment reactions are useful because

1. they are inexpensive to produce.
2. they require no kinetic energy to initiate.
3. they create many artificial radioactive isotopes.
4. None of the above is correct.

11. Radiation

1. can be useful in food preparation.
2. causes disruption of cells in living tissue.
3. can be useful in the treatment of cancer.
4. All of the above are correct.

12. Which of the following is true?

1. Fission of U-235, pound for pound, produces more energy than fusion of hydrogen isotopes.
2. Fission provides less energy than fusion.
3. Fission and fusion provide exactly the same amount of energy.
4. None of the above are true.

13. Which of the following is true of a fusion reaction?

1. An atom is split.
2. Neutrons are released.
3. It results in fragments.
4. Lightweight nuclei interact.

14. Cancer is suitable for radioactive therapy

1. because cancer cells are more susceptible than normal cells to radiation.
2. only for lymph tissue.
3. only as a last resort.
4. Cancer is not suitable for radiotherapy.

15. Which of the following is false?

1. Nuclear fission involves the splitting of one nucleus into two smaller nuclei.
2. The mass lost in a fission reaction is converted to energy.
3. Fission reactions provide nuclear power.
4. A "runaway" nuclear chain reaction is not possible.

16. Which of the following is true about cold fusion?

1. Cold fusion theory states that nuclear fusion reactions can be performed under ordinary laboratory conditions.
2. Cold fusion involves the electrolysis of ordinary water.
3. Cold fusion research strongly supports the original cold fusion theory.
4. All of the above are true.

17. Nuclear power plants transfer the heat given off by nuclear materials by using

1. moderators.
2. water.
3. uranium.
4. lead shielding.

18. Which of the following is used as a coolant in nuclear power plants?

1. asbestos
2. water
3. uranium
4. lead shielding

19. Which of the following is true of moderators in a nuclear reactor?

1. They are optional.
2. They are necessary.
3. They are not necessary.
4. None of the above is correct.

20. Which of the following is false?

1. Matter can be converted to energy.
2. Energy can be converted to matter.
3. When matter is converted to energy, some is destroyed.
4. Matter can be neither destroyed nor created.

Answers

1. The correct answer is 4. Atoms can be bombarded with any particle; the ones small enough to hit the atom would have the most significant effect. Since all three of these particles help make up the atom, the likelihood is that, given enough of them over a long enough period of time, they would hit the atom.

2. The correct answer is 1. Our definition uses the prefix "iso-" for "same" and the root "-tope" for conveying the fact that two substances are the same element in a different form.

3. The correct answer is 4. Fusion relates to fusing of things and fission relates to fissures or cracks that occur when things split. Therefore, fission is our word for splitting atoms.

4. The correct answer is 3. The 238 and the 233 indicated here refer to mass numbers of the two isotopes of uranium noted in the question. Since they both refer to uranium, the number of protons is the same, but the difference in mass must be five fewer neutrons in U-233.

5. The correct answer is 4. Nuclear reactions are controlled by rods called moderators or control rods made of a material designed to absorb neutrons.

6. The correct answer is 4. A fission reaction is one in which large nuclei are split into smaller nuclei, so it is not true that a fission reaction involves the interaction of lightweight nuclei.

7. The correct answer is 3. The nature and definition of radioactivity is that it involves the spontaneous loss (or emission) of radiation (in the form of rays or particles) from an unstable isotope.

8. The correct answer is 1. Half-life was originally designed to be able to predict, from the constant rate of loss of particles and/or energy in radioactive substances, how much of the substance in question would remain after a known period of time. This became known as the half-life.

9. The correct answer is 2. Carbon-14 does not oxidize to produce a C-14/C-12 ratio of CO2 or of any compound of C-12; it decays radioactively. Therefore choice 2 is the answer and not choice 1.

10. The correct answer is 3. One rich area of study in nuclear chemistry is the artificial isotopes that spring from nuclear bombardment of atoms.

11. The correct answer is 4. All of the answers (1, 2, and 3) offered are true about radiation.

12. The correct answer is 4. Choice 1 is the exact opposite of the correct answer as it is the fusion of H-2 and H-3 together that yields the greatest amount of energy per reaction and therefore per gram of material. Almost any two nuclei can be fused to produce a third nucleus -- the energy release, however, in almost all of these fusion reactions is not significant if at all. Choice 3 cannot be correct since the processes are very different. Choice 2 is tricky because it is true only if you compare the two processes for the same amount of starting material and only if you compare those reactions actually used in the nuclear energy/weapons industry. As it stands, however, the statement is too general to be correct.

13. The correct answer is 4. In the more familiar process of fusion, the nuclei of lightweight atoms are fused to produce energy (see answer 6).

14. The correct answer is 1. Cancer-cell growth is accelerated usually because the nucleus is somehow made more active. This very act makes it absorb more radioactive energy as well, spelling doom for the cancer cells that are bombarded with (and therefore take up most of the) radiation than the surrounding normal tissue.

15. The correct answer is 4. A runaway nuclear reaction is entirely possible and is what occurs in nuclear bombs. Unfortunately, it also occurs in a state yielding far less energy than a nuclear bomb does in a short period of time but is nonetheless damaging such as the accident at Chernobyl. Nuclear power plants do not contain enough critical mass to become bombs, but their total energy output can be damaging when they become "runaway."

16. The correct answer is 1. This is the fundamental and yet to be substantiated theory behind cold fusion. Present-day investigations into cold-fusion research do not support the original cold-fusion theory; the group is, in fact, seeking a way to formulate the theory, and the process is certainly not the simple electrolysis of water.

17. The correct answer is 2. This water heats other water not in contact with the reactor by use of a heat exchanger. The secondary heated water is then used to run a steam turbine that turns a generator. The other materials are not employed in running turbines.

18. The correct answer is 2. The coolant used in nuclear reactors is large pools of water. The other materials simply will not do it. Asbestos is probably outlawed, and lead acts as a shield, not a coolant.

19. The correct answer is 2. Moderators are not optional: They are necessary in nuclear reactors to capture stray neutrons and thereby slow or shut down the reaction. Failure to do so results in massive amounts of heat and possible fires. There is not enough uranium in a nuclear power plant to explode.

20. The correct answer is 3. When converting matter to energy or vice versa, it is important to point out that nothing is lost. All matter and converted energy are accounted for.

Copyright © 1999 by Kaplan Education Centers

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