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A Young Sailors' Assistant
By William Brady
Dover Publications, Inc.Copyright © 2002 Dover Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved.
We shall first commence with knotting a rope-yarn.
1.—TO KNOT ROPE-YARNS.
Take the two ends of the yarns, and split them open about two inches from the end; and if to make a smooth knot, you may scrape down a little with a knife, so as to make the ends lay smooth; you then crutch them together as you see in Plate No. 1. Take two opposite ends (leaving the other two dormant), pass one of the ends under, and the other over the standing part of the yarn, connecting them together at the same side you took them from at first; then jam your knot taut, and see if it will stand test by stretching the yarn from knee to knee, and hauling on it; if it stands without drawing, you may trim the ends, and go on.
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2.—TO MAKE A FOX.
Take two or three rope-yarns and make them fast to a belaying-pin; stretch them out taut, and twist them together on your knee; then rub it down smooth with a piece of old tarred parcelling. This is called a Fox, and is used for many purposes, such as making gaskets, mats, plats, temporary seizings, bending studding-sails, &c.
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3.—TO MAKE A SPANISH FOX.
Take a single rope-yarn and make one end fast as before to a belaying-pin, and untwist and twist it up again the contrary way, and rub it smooth. This is used for small seizings, &c.
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4.—TO MAKE A KNITTLE.
A Knittle is made of two or three rope-yarns laid up together by hand, twisting them between the thumb and finger, and laying them up against the twist of the yarn. They are used for many purposes on board a ship, particularly for hammock clews.
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To make an overhanded knot, you pass the end of the rope over the standing part and through the bight.
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6.—FIGURE OF EIGHT KNOTS.
Take the end of your rope round the standing part, under its own part and through the lower bight, and your knot is made.
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Pass the end of your rope round the standing part, and bring it up through the bight—this is one half-hitch; two of these, one above the other, completes it.
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8.—REEF, OR SQUARE KNOT.
First make an overhanded knot round a yard, spar, or anything you please; then bring the end being next to you over the left hand and through the bight; haul both ends taut, and it is made.
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9.—A BOWLINE KNOT.
Take the end of the rope in your right hand, and the standing part in the left—lay the end over the standing part, then with your left hand turn the bight of the standing part over the end part, so as to form a cuckold's neck on the standing part; then lead the end through the standing part above, and stick it down through the cuckold's neck, and it will appear as in the Plate.
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10.—BOWLINE ON THE BIGHT.
Take the bight of the rope in your right hand, and the standing part in the other; throw a cuckold's neck over the bight with the standing parts, then haul enough of the bight up through the cuckold's neck to go under and over all parts; jam all taut, and it will appear as in the Plate.
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11.—A RUNNING BOWLINE.
Take the end of the rope round the standing part, through the bight, and make a single bowline upon the running part, and the knot is made.
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12.—A TIMBER HITCH.
Take the end of a rope round a spar; pass it under and over the standing part then pass several turns round its own part and it is done.
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13.—A FISHERMAN'S BEND.
With the end of a rope take two round turns round a spar, or through the ring of a kedge-anchor; take one half hitch around the standing parts, and under all parts of the turns; then one half hitch around the standing part above all, and stop the end to the standing part; or you can dispense with the last half hitch, and tuck the end under one of the round turns, and it becomes a studding-sail bend.
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14.—A ROLLING BEND.
A rolling bend is something similar to a fisherman's bend. It is two round turns round a spar as you see in the plate, two half hitches around the standing part, and the end stopped back.—(See Plate.)
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15.—A CARRICK BEND.
This bend is more used in bending hawsers together than for any other purpose. In forming this bend you will take the end of the hawser, and form a bight, by laying the end part on the top of the standing part, so as to form a cross; take the end of the other hawser, and reeve it down through this bight, up and over this cross; then pass the end down through the bight again on the opposite side, from the other end, for one end must be on the top, and the other underneath, as you see in the plate.
If both end parts come out at the top it will be a granny's knot. (Remember this.)
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This is generally used in the ends of lanyards, to hook the tackle to, in setting up rigging; to form it, you first lay the end part of the lanyard across the standing part, which will form a bight; then lay hold of the bight with one hand on each side of it, breaking it down, and turning it over from you two or three times; clap both bights together, and hook on to both parts.—(See Plate.)
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17.—A SHEET OR BECKET BEND.
Pass the end of a rope through the bight of another rope, or through the becket of a block; then round both parts of the bight, or becket, and take the end under its own part, as you see in the plate. It is sometimes put under twice, and the end stopped back to the standing part.
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18.—A BLACK-WALL HITCH.
This is used with a lanyard, in setting up rigging, to hook a luff tackle to, instead of a cat's paw, where the end of the lanyard is not long enough to form a paw; but a strap and toggle is preferable to both.
To make a black-wall over a hook, you form a bight, or rather a kink with the end of the lanyard, having the end part underneath, and the standing part on the top; stick the hook through the bight, keeping the bight well up on the back of the hook (as you see in the plate), until you set taut the tackle.
Note.—You can learn it much better by practice than explanation.
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19.—A ROLLING HITCH.
With the end of a rope take a half-hitch around the standing part; then take another through the same bight, jaming it in above the first hitch and the upper part of the bight, then haul it taut, and dog your end above the hitch, around the standing part, or you may take a half-hitch around the standing part and stop the end back with a yarn.
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20.—A SALVAGEE STRAP.
To make a salvagee strap, you may get a couple of spike nails, and drive them into an old piece of plank, or whatever you can find convenient to answer the purpose, or get two hooks, lash them to any convenient place, as far apart as the length you intend to make the strap; take the end of the ball of rope-yarns, and make it fast to one of the spikes or hooks, then take it round the other one, and keep passing the rope-yarn round and round in this manner, hauling every turn taut as you pass it, until it is as stout as you wish it to be.
If it is to be a very large strap, marl it down with stout spun-yarn; if of middling size, marl with two single rope-yarns; if a small strap, a single rope-yarn.
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21.—A PUDDING FOR A MAST OR YARD.
Take a piece of rope of the required length, and splice an eye in each end; get it on a stretch, worm it, and then parcel it according to the shape you want it. They are generally made as you see in the Plate, large in the middle, tapering gradually toward the ends, and made flat on the side that goes next the yard or mast. When you have got it the size required, marl it down, commencing in the middle and marling both ways until you come to the eye; if it is intended for a yard it is generally covered with thick leather or green hide; if for a mast, it is pointed over for neatness.
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23.—A SHORT SPLICE.
To splice the two ends of a rope together, you first unlay the rope to a sufficient length, then crutch them together as you see in the plate; you must then lay hold of the three strands next to you in your left hand, holding them solid around the other part until you stick the three upper ends, or, if it is a large rope, you may stop the ends with a yarn; then take the upper or middle end, pass it over the first strand next to it, stick it underneath the second strand, and haul it taut in the lay of the rope; turn the rope a little towards you, and stick the second end as you did the first; the third in the same manner, hauling them taut along the lay of the rope;—turn the rope round, stick the other three ends in the same manner, and it will appear as in the plate.
Note.— If you intend to serve over the ends, you need not stick them but once; but if not you must stick them twice, and cross-whip them across the strands so as to make them more secure. If the ends are to be served, take a few of the underneath yarns, enough to fill up the lay of the rope for worming, then scrape or trim the outside ends, and marl them down ready for serving.
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23.—A LONG SPLICE.
To make a long splice, unlay the ends of two ropes to a sufficient length, crutch them together in the same manner as a short splice; unlay one strand for a considerable length, and fill up the space which it leaves with the opposite strand next to it; then turn the rope round and lay hold of the two next strands that will come opposite their respective lays, unlay one and fill up with the other as before; then cut off the long strands, and it will appear as in the Plate.
To complete this splice, you will split the strands equally in two, then take the two opposite half strands and knot them together, so as to fill up the vacant lay; then you stick the ends twice under two strands with all six of the half strands, leaving the other six neutral; then stretch the splice well before you cut the ends off, and it is finished.
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An eye-splice is made by opening the end of a rope, and laying the strands at any distance upon the standing part of the rope, according to the size of the eye-splice you intend to make; you then divide your strands by putting one strand on the top and one underneath the standing part, then take the middle strand, (having previously opened the lay with a marlinespike,) and stick it under its respective strand, as you see in the Plate. Your next end is taken over the first strand and under the second; the third and last end is taken through the third strand on the other side.
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25.—A CUT SPLICE.
Cut a rope in two, and according to the size you intend to make the splice or collar—lay the end of one rope on the standing part of the other, and stick the end through between the strands, in the same manner as an eye-splice, and it will appear as in the plate. This forms a collar in the bight of a rope, and is used for pendants, jib-guys, breast-backstays, odd shrouds, &c.
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26.—A FLEMISH EYE.
Unlay the end of a rope, open the strands and separate every yarn, divide them in two halves, then take a piece of round wood the size you intend to make the eye, and half-knot about one-half of the inside yarns over the piece of wood; scrape the remainder down over the others; marl, parcel, and serve, or if preferable, hitch it with hambro-line. This makes a snug eye for the collars of stays. (See Plate.)
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37.—AN ARTIFICIAL EYE.
Take the end of a rope and unlay one strand to a certain distance, and form the eye by placing the two strands along the standing part of the rope and stopping them fast to it; then take the odd strand and cross it over the standing part, and lay it into the vacant place you took it from at first; work around the eye, filling up the vacant strand until it comes out at the crutch again, and lies under the other two strands; the ends are tapered, scraped down, marled, and served over with spun-yarn.
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28.—TO WORM AND SERVE A ROPE.
Worming a rope, is to fill up the vacant space between the strands of the rope with spun-yarn; this is done in order to strengthen it, and to render the surface smooth and round for parceling.
Parceling a rope is wrapping old canvass round it, cut in strips from two to three inches wide, according to the size of the rope; the strips of canvass to be well tarred and rolled up in rolls before you commence to lay it on the rope. The service is of spun-yarn, clapped on by a wooden mallet such as you see in the plate, called a serving mallet; it has a large score cut in the under part of it, so as to fay on the rope, and a handle about a foot long, or according to the size of the mallet. The service is always laid on against the lay of the rope; a boy passes the ball of spun-yarn at some distance from the man that is serving the rope, and passes it round as he turns the mallet; when the required length of service is put on, the end is put under the three or four last turns of the service and hauled taut.
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Note.—It has always been customary to put on parceling with the lay of the rope in all cases; but rigging that you do not intend to serve over, the parceling ought to be put on the contrary way.
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29.—TO CLAP ON A THROAT AND QUARTER SEIZING.
Splice an eye in one end of the seizing, and take the other end round both parts of the rope that the seizing is to be put on; then reeve it through the eye, pass a couple of turns and heave them hand-taut; then make a marlinespike-hitch on the seizing, by taking a turn with the seizing over the marlinespike, and laying the end over the standing part; push the marlinespike down through, then under the standing part and up through the bight again. Heave taut the two turns of the seizing with the spike; pass the rest and heave them taut in the same manner, making six, eight, or ten turns, according to the size of the rope; then pass the end through the last turn, and pass the riding turns, five, seven, or nine, always laying one less of the riding than of the first turns; these should not be hove too taut—the end is now passed up through the seizing, and two cross-turns taken between the two parts of the rope, and round the seizing; take the end under the last turn and heave it taut; make an overhanded knot on the end of the seizing, and cut off close to the knot.
Note.—When this is put on the end of a rope, and round the standing part, it is called an end-seizing; if on the two parts below the end, a middle or quarter-seizing. A throat-seizing is passed the same way, but is not crossed with the end of the seizing.
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30.—TO MAKE A TURK'S HEAD.
Turk's heads are made on man-ropes, and sometimes on the foot-ropes of jib-booms in place of an overhanded knot, as the Turk's head is much neater than the knot, and considered by some an ornament. It is generally made of small white line. Take a round turn round the rope you intend to make the Turk's head on,—cross the bights on each side of the round turn, and stick one end under one cross, and the other under the other cross; it will then be formed like the middle figure in the plate, after which follow the lead until it shows three parts all round, and it is completed.
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31.—TO SHEEPSHANK A ROPE OR BACKSTAY.
This is intended for shortening a backstay; the rope is doubled in three parts, as you see in the Plate, and a hitch taken over each bight with the standing part of the backstay and jamed taut.
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32.—TO PUT A STRAND IN A ROPE.
This is done in case of one strand of a rope getting chafed or magged, and the other two remaining good. To perform this, you take your knife and cut the strand at the place where it is chafed, and unlay it about a couple of feet each way; then take a strand of a rope as near the size as possible, and lay it in the vacancy of the rope, (as you see in the Plate,) and stick the ends the same as a long splice.
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33.—TO WALL AND CROWN.
Unlay the end of a rope, and with the three strands form a wall knot, by taking the first strand and forming a bight; take the next strand, and bring it round the end of the first, the third strand round the second, and up through the bight of the first—this is a wall. (See Plate.)
To crown this, lay one end over the top of the knot, which call the first, then lay the second over it, the third over the second, and through the bight of the first. It will then appear as you see in Plate No. 3.
Excerpted from The Kedge-Anchor by William Brady. Copyright © 2002 Dover Publications, Inc.. Excerpted by permission of Dover Publications, Inc..
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