Kitchen Planning: Guidelines, Codes, Standards

Overview

The leading resource for professional kitchen designers, Kitchen Planning is the definitive, one-stop reference based on the NKBA's Kitchen and Bathroom Planning Guidelines and the related Access Standards published in 2012. This kitchen design "bible" presents the best practices developed by the association's committee of professionals. Illustrated in full color throughout with clear graphics that allow visual learners to easily absorb both technical and aesthetic information, this second edition is completely ...

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Overview

The leading resource for professional kitchen designers, Kitchen Planning is the definitive, one-stop reference based on the NKBA's Kitchen and Bathroom Planning Guidelines and the related Access Standards published in 2012. This kitchen design "bible" presents the best practices developed by the association's committee of professionals. Illustrated in full color throughout with clear graphics that allow visual learners to easily absorb both technical and aesthetic information, this second edition is completely revised and redesigned throughout with new photographs and with a special emphasis on client needs, research, and references to industry information.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118367629
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/18/2013
  • Series: NKBA Professional Resource Library Series , #1
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 496
  • Sales rank: 831,028
  • Product dimensions: 8.60 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION . . . XIX

CHAPTER 1: KITCHEN HISTORY AND TRENDS 1

A Brief History of the Kitchen. . 1

The Colonial Kitchen 2

Hearth and Beehive Ovens 2

The Modern Kitchen 3

The Victorian Kitchen 3

The Beecher Kitchen 4

The Plumbed Sink 4

Standardization: The 1900s 5

The Laboratory Look 5

Major Kitchen Trends Through the 1900s. . 6

Early 1900s 6

The 1920s 7

The 1930s 9

The 1940s 10

The 1950s 11

The 1960s 12

The 1970s 12The 1980s 13

The 1990s 15

Current and Continuing Design Trends – The 2000s . . 18

Demographic and Population Trends . 18

Population Diversity 18

An Aging Population 19

Household Composition 19

Consumer References 20

Space Usage Trends . 21

Environmental Awareness Trends . . . . 24

Activity Trends . . . . . 24

Location Trends . . . . 27

Product Trends . . . . . 28

Summary. . . 28

CHAPTER 2: KITCHEN DESIGN RESEARCH . . . . . 29

Early Studies. 29

Studies at Mid-Century.. . . . . 30

Guides For Arrangement Of Urban Family Kitchens 31

Energy Saving Kitchen 31

Kitchen Guidelines 32

Kitchen Research in the 1990s32

Virginia Tech Kitchen Research33

Someone’s In The Kitchen 33

Content Analysis 34

Personal Interview and Cooking Activity 34

National Telephone Survey 34

Results and Implications 35

Kitchen Storage Research Project 40

Kitchen Inventory Survey 40

Kitchen Design Research.. . . . 41

Measuring for Storage Needs 41

Implications 42

Summary. . . 42

CHAPTER 3: INFRASTRUCTURE CONSIDERATIONS. . . . 43

Codes. . . . . . 43

Structural Issues . . . . 44

Floors. . . . . . 44

Oversized Appliances 45

Stability and Evenness 46

Moisture Control 48

Walls.. . . . . . 48

Load-Bearing Walls 48

Uneven Walls 49

Insulation 50

Doors and Windows 50

Door Choices 51

Window Options 53

Plumbing. . . 55

Plumbing Fixtures 55

Water Delivery 56

Drain/Waste/Vent Pipes 57

Septic Systems 59

Hot Water 59

Summary. . . 60

CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS . . . . 61

Green Building . . . . . 61

Energy Management in the Kitchen . . 63

Energy Star. 63

Water Quality64

Water Quality Standards. . . . . 64

Primary Drinking Water Standards . . . 64

Secondary Drinking Water Standards . 65

Canadian Water Quality Guidelines . . 65

Other Water Contaminants.. . 66

Water Quality Testing 67

Solving Water Quality Problems . . . . . 68

Water Treatment Equipment.. 69

Filters 69

Water Softeners 69

Iron Removal Equipment 70

Neutralizers 70

Distillation Units 71

Reverse Osmosis Unit 71

Disinfection Methods 71

Summary. . . 72

Water Conservation . 72

Air Quality. . 73

Source Control . . . . . 73

Indoor Air Quality and Construction 74

Renovation Hazards 74

Air Cleaning. 75

Ventilation Systems and Filters75

Moisture Problems . . 76

Moisture from Kitchens. . . . . 77

Moisture Basics 77

Molds and Moisture . 78

Molds and Health 79

Preventing Moisture Problems79

Waste Management in the Home . . . . 82

Planning for Waste in the Kitchen. . . . 82

Community Practices and Regulations 83

Waste Management Appliances 83

A Recycling Center . . 84

Noise. . . . . . 86

Sound Insulating Construction Techniques . . . 89

CHAPTER 5: HUMAN FACTORS AND UNIVERSAL DESIGN IMPLICATIONS . . . . 91

Anthropometry. . . . . 91

Structural Anthropometry 92

Functional Anthropometry. . . 95

Reach Ranges 99

Range-of-Joint Motion 100

Mobility Aids . . . . . 101

Comfort Zone . . . . 104

Anthropometry of Children. 104

Ergonomic & Universal Design . . . . . 105

History and State of the Art 106

Equitable Use 107

Flexibility in Use 108

Simple and Intuitive Use 109

Perceptible Information 110

Tolerance for Error 111

Low Physical Effort 112

Size and Space for Approach and Use 113

Dispelling Myths. . . 115

U.S. Access Codes, Laws and Standards . . . . 116

American National Standard For Accessible and

Useable Buildings and Facilities (ANSI A117.1) 116

Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) 117

Fair Housing Act Accessibility Guidelines 117

“Safe Harbors” 117

Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines 118

Canadian Policies and Practices . . . . 118

Ontarians with Disabilities Act 119

ODA 119

Residential Rehabilitation Assistance Program 119

Incorporating Human-Based Kitchen Design 120

CHAPTER 6: ASSESSING NEEDS. . . 121

Elements of a Design Program . . . . . 122

Interviewing the Client. . . . . 122

Prepare for the Interview 122

Needs Assessment Forms 123

Client Information Forms 123

Job Site and House Information Forms 124

Personal Information 124

Getting To Know Your Client (Form 1) . . . . . 124

Getting to Know Your Client’s Home (Form 2) . . . . . 125

Type of Home 126

The Home of the Future 127

Activities in the Kitchen (Form 3) . . . 127

Storage in the Kitchen (Form 4) . . . . 128

Your Client’s Kitchen (Forms 5 and 6) . . . . . 129

Appliances 130

Client Preferences and Specifications 130

Budget 131

The Job Site 131

New Construction 131

Job Site Inspection (Form 7). 132

Dimensions (Forms 8 Through 13) . . 132

Preparing the Client 134

Establish A Plan 134

Ready For the Design Program? . . . . 135

Form 1: Getting to Know Your Client 136

Form 2: Getting to Know Your Client’s Home 143

Form 3: Checklist for Kitchen Activities [Client Checklist] 145

Form 4: Kitchen Storage Inventory [Client Checklist] 150

Form 5: Cabinetry, Surfaces, and Kitchen Features Checklist [Client Checklist] 166

Form 6: Appliance Preference Checklist [Client Checklist] 179

Form 7: Job Site Inspection 189

Form 8: Dimensions of the Kitchen – Floor Plan 196

Form 9: Dimensions of the Kitchen – Elevations 197

Form 10: Dimensions of Mechanical Devices 198

Form 11: Window Measurements 199

Form 12: Door Measurements 200

Form 13: Fixture and Appliance Measurements 201

CHAPTER 7: KITCHEN PLANNING. 203

Location and Types of Kitchens . . . . 203

Location of Kitchen 203

Work Zone 203

Social Area 204

Types of Kitchens 204

Closed Arrangements 205

Open Arrangements 208

Size of Kitchens 213

The Center Concept 214

Designing Kitchen Centers 221

Background on the Guidelines 221

Access Standards 222

Food Preparation Centers and Guidelines . . . 222

Traffic and Work Aisles 223

Entry 223

Work Aisles 225

Circulation 227

Sink Center.228

Food Preparation Activities 228

Cleanup Activities 229

Other Activities 230

Recommendations 230

Refrigeration Center .. . . 241

Recommendations 241

Cooking Centers. . . . 244

Recommendations 245

Combining Centers 257

Arranging the Centers 257

Counter Areas 261

Storage 266

Cabinet Calculations 282

Serving and Dining Guidelines . . . . . 292

Recommendations 293

Dining 296

Recommendations 296

That’s Entertaining . 301

Kitchens for Caterers 301

Outdoor Kitchens 302

Location 302

Equipment 303

Space Planning 305

A Kitchen Where You Need It306

Morning Kitchen 306

Mini Kitchen 306

Considerations 306

Summary. . 308

CHAPTER 8: MECHANICAL PLANNING . . 309

Wiring/Electrical . . . 309

Wiring 309

Receptacles 312

Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters 313

Special Wiring Needs 343

Communications 315

Gas 316

Heating. . . 316

Types of Heaters 316

Considerations for the Kitchen . . . . . 320

Cooling . . . 321

Natural Cooling 322

Mechanical Cooling 322

Ventilation. 323

Updraft Ventilation Systems 326

Microwave Ovens and Ventilation System Combinations 328

Downdraft Ventilation Systems 328

Ventilation Efficiency 329

Ducts 330

Fan Size 330

Replacement Air 332

Noise 332

Controls and Features 333

Lighting. . . 333

Natural or Daylighting 334

Types of Artificial Lighting 335

General or Ambient Lighting 335

Task Lighting 338

Accent Lighting 338

Lighting Fixtures 338

Location 340

Controls 342

Low Voltage Lighting 343

Safety 344

CHAPTER 9: MORE THAN A KITCHEN . . . 345

The Family Foyer or Mudroom . . . . . 345

Designing the Family Foyer/Mudroom 349

Coats, Jackets, Hats, and Other Outerwear 349

Seating Area 352

Design Details 353

Materials 353

Mechanical Systems 353

Home Planning Center. . . . . 354

Locating the Home Planning Center 355

The Desk Area 356

Desk Area Storage 358

Clearance Around the Desk Area 359

Lighting 360

A Standing Desk 360

Household Communications 361

Computer Workstation 362

A Laundry Area . . . . 364

What Type of Laundry? 364

Laundry Equipment 366

Utility Service 368

Space Planning in the Laundry Area 369

Laundry in Transition 371

Storage 373

Ironing 374

A Craft/Hobby Area 376

A Gardening Area . . 379

Planning the Indoor Garden Area 379

Work Counter Area 379

A Garden Sink 381

Storage 382

A Growing Area 383

Social Spaces . . . . . 383

The Kitchen Sitting Area 383

Summary. . 392

CHAPTER 10: A CLOSER LOOK AT YOUR CLIENT . . . . . 393

Addressing Differences. . . . . 393

Design Considerations for Users . . . . 394

Across The Lifespan 394

Children. . . 395

Middle Years 399

Aging. . . . . 400

Physical Changes 400

Mobility . . . 404

Kitchen Design Implications 405

Refrigeration Center 411

Flooring 412

Dexterity/Strength/Balance/Stamina. 413

Kitchen Design Implications 413

General 413

Sink Center 414

Cooking Center 415

Refrigeration Center 416

Storage 416

Vision. . . . . 417

Kitchen Design Implications 418

Lighting 418

Color and Cueing 419

Storage 421

Controls 421

Sink Center 422

Cooking Center 422

Hearing and Speech 422

Kitchen Design Implications 424

General 424

Noise Control 425

Visual Cueing 425

Cognition. . 425

Kitchen Design Implications 426

General 426

Refrigeration Center 428

Storage 428

Summary. . 428

CHAPTER 11: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER . . . . 429

The Design Process. 430

The Design Program.. . . . . . 432

Goals and Purpose 433

Objectives 433

Activities and Relationships 433

Relationship Matrix 436

Bubble Diagram 437

The Design Drawing.. . . . . . 438

Templates 438

Room Outline 441

Visual Diagrams 445

Three Dimensions and Vertical Relationships 445

Priority Areas 446

A Sample Design Drawing 447

Finishing The Floor Plan 456

Adjusting the Dimensions 456

Vertical Relationships 458

Evaluating and Checking 461

Putting It All Together – A Sample Project . . 466

A Sample Design Program 467

Goals and Purpose 467

Scope of the Project 468

Objectives and Priorities 468

Activities and Relationships 469

The Design Solution 469

Leah and Matthew’s Kitchen 472

CHAPTER 12: KITCHEN PLANNING GUIDELINES WITH ACCESS STANDARDS. . . . 475

Kitchen Planning Guideline 1: Door/Entry . . 476

Kitchen Planning Guideline 2: Door Interference . . . . 477

Kitchen Planning Guideline 3: Distance Between Work Centers . . . . . . 478

Kitchen Planning Guideline 4: Separating Work Centers . . . . . 479

Kitchen Planning Guideline 5: Work Triangle Traffic . . 480

Kitchen Planning Guideline 6: Work Aisle . . . 481

Kitchen Planning Guideline 7: Walkway . . . . 484

Kitchen Planning Guideline 8: Traffic Clearance at Seating . . . 485

Kitchen Planning Guideline 9: Seating Clearance . . . . 487

Kitchen Planning Guideline 10: Cleanup/Prep Sink Placement 489

Kitchen Planning Guideline 11: Cleanup/Prep Sink Landing Area . . . . . 490

Kitchen Planning Guideline 12: Preparation/Work Area . . . . . 491

Kitchen Planning Guideline 13: Dishwasher Placement492

Kitchen Planning Guideline 14: Waste Receptacles . . . 493

Kitchen Planning Guideline 15: Auxiliary Sink 494

Kitchen Planning Guideline 16: Refrigerator Landing Area . . . 495

Kitchen Planning Guideline 17: Cooking Surface Landing Area . . . . . . 496

Kitchen Planning Guideline 18: Cooking Surface Clearance . . 498

Kitchen Planning Guideline 19: Cooking Surface Ventilation . 499

Kitchen Planning Guideline 20: Cooking Surface Safety . . . . . 500

Kitchen Planning Guideline 21: Microwave Oven Placement . 501

Kitchen Planning Guideline 22: Microwave Landing Area . . . . 502

Kitchen Planning Guideline 23: Oven Landing Area . . 503

Kitchen Planning Guideline 24: Combining Landing Areas . . . 504

Kitchen Planning Guideline 25: Countertop Space . . . 505

Kitchen Planning Guideline 26: Countertop Edges . . . 506

Kitchen Planning Guideline 27: Storage . . . . 507

Kitchen Planning Guideline 28: Storage at Cleanup/Prep Sink 509

Kitchen Planning Guideline 29: Corner Cabinet Storage . . . . . 510

Kitchen Planning Guideline 30: Electrical Receptacles . 511

Kitchen Planning Guideline 31: Lighting . . . . 512

GLOSSARY. . . . 513

APPENDIX. . . . . 520

LIST OF PHOTOS . . . . . 540

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ... 542

REFERENCES. . 545

RESOURCES. . . 547

INDEX . . 551

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