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Laboratory Manual Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry / Edition 9

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More About This Textbook


This laboratory manual contains 42 experiments for the standard sequence of topics in general, organic, and biological chemistry.

General Chemistry:
Measurement and Significant Figures; Conversion Factors in Calculations; Density and Specific Gravity; Atomic Structure; Electronic Configuration and Periodic Properties; Nuclear Radiation; Compounds and Their Formulas; Energy and Specific Heat; Energy and States of Matter; Chemical Reactions and Equations; Reaction Rates and Equilibrium; Moles and Chemical Formulas; Gas Laws; Partial Pressures of Gas Mixtures; Solutions, Electrolytes, and Concentration; Soluble and Insoluble Salts; Testing for Cations and Anions; Solutions, Colloids, and Suspensions; Acids, Bases, pH and Buffers; Acid-Base Titration.
Organic and Biological Chemistry:
Properties of Organic Compounds; Structures of Alkanes; Reactions of Hydrocarbons; Alcohols and Phenols; Aldehydes and Ketones; Types of Carbohydrates; Tests for Carbohydrates; Carboxylic Acids and Esters; Aspirin and Other Analgesics; Lipids; Glycerophospholipids and Steroids; Saponification and Soaps; Amines and Amides; Synthesis of Acetaminophen; Plastics and Polymerization; Amino Acids; Peptides and Proteins; Enzymes; Vitamins; DNA Components and Extraction; Digestion of Foodstuffs; Analysis of Urine.

A comprehensive lab manual for anyone who wants to learn more about general, organic, and biological chemistry.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780805330250
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 12/7/2005
  • Edition description: Lab Manual
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 413
  • Sales rank: 108,619
  • Product dimensions: 8.30 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

PART 1: General Chemistry

1 Measurement and Significant Figures 7

A. Measuring Length 8

B. Measuring Volume 9

C. Measuring Mass 9

2 Conversion Factors in Calculations 17

A. Rounding Off 17

B. Significant Figures in Calculations 19

C. Conversion Factors for Length 20

D. Conversion Factors for Volume 21

E. Conversion Factors for Mass 22

F. Percent by Mass 23

G. Converting Temperature 24

3 Density and Specific Gravity 29

A. Density of a Solid 29

B. Density of a Liquid 30

C. Specific Gravity 30

D. Graphing Mass and Volume 31

4 Atomic Structure 35

A. Physical Properties of Elements 36

B. Periodic Table 37

C. Subatomic Particles 38

D. Isotopes 39

5 Electronic Configuration and Periodic Properties 45

A. Flame Tests 46

B. Electron Configuration 47

C. Graphing A Periodic Property: Atomic Radius 49

6 Nuclear Radiation 55

A. Background Count56

B. Radiation from Radioactive Sources 57

C. Effect of Shielding, Time, and Distance 58

7Compounds and Their Formulas 67

A. Electron-Dot Structures 68

B. Ionic Compounds and Formulas 69

C. Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals 70

D. Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions 70

E. Covalent (Molecular) Compounds 71

F. Electron Dot Structure and Molecular Shape 73

8 Energy and Specific Heat 81

A. Specific Heat of A Metal 81

B. Measuring the Caloric Value of a Food 83

C. Food Calories 84

9 Energy and States of Matter 91

A. A Heating Curve for Water 91

B. Graphing a Cooling Curve 93

C. Energy in Changes of State 94

10 Chemical Reactions and Equations 101

A. Magnesium and Oxygen 101

B. Zinc and Copper (II) Sulfate 102

C. Metals and HCl 102

D. Reactions of Ionic Compounds 103

E. Sodium Carbonate and HCl 103

11 Reaction Rates and Equilibrium 113

A. Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions 114

B. Rates of Reactions 114

C. Reversible Reactions 115

D. Iron (III)-thiocyanate Equilibrium 117

12 Moles and Chemical Formulas 125

A. Finding the Simplest Formula 125

B. Formula of a Hydrate 128

13 Gas Laws 133

A. Boyle’s Law 133

B. Charles’ Law 135

14 Partial Pressures of Gas Mixtures 145

A. Partial Pressures of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Air 145

B. Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere 146

C. Carbon Dioxide in Expired Air 146

15 Solutions, Electrolytes, and Concentration 153

A. Polarity of Solutes and Solvents 153

B. Electrolytes and Conductivity 154

C. Electrolytes in Body Fluids 155

D. Concentration of a Sodium Chloride Solution 155

16 Soluble and Insoluble Salts 163

A. Soluble and Insoluble Salts 163

B. Solubility of KNO3 164

C. Testing the hardness of Water 165

D. Purification of Water 166

17Testing for Cations and Anions 173

A. Tests for Positive Ions (Cations) 174

B. Tests for Negative Ions (Anions) 174

C. Writing the Formulas of Your Unknown Salt 174

D. Testing Consumer Products for Some Cations and Anions 175

18 Solutions, Colloids, and Suspensions 181

A. Identification Tests 181

B. Osmosis and Dialysis 182

C. Filtration 182

19 Acids, Bases, pH and Buffers 189

A. pH Color Using Red Cabbage Indicator 189

B. Measuring pH 190

C. Effect of Buffers on pH 192

20 Acid-Base Titration 199

A. Acetic Acid in Vinegar 200

B. Titration of an Antacid 201

PART II: Organic and Biological Chemistry

21 Properties of Organic Compounds 207

A. Color, Odor, and Physical State 207

B. Solubility 207

C. Combustion 208

D. Functional Groups 209

22 Structures of Alkanes 215

A. Structures of Alkanes 215

B. Constitutional Isomers 216

C. Cycloalkanes 219

D. Haloalkanes 220

23 Reactions of Hydrocarbons 227

A. Types of Hydrocarbons 227

B. Combustion 229

C. Bromine Test 229

D. Potassium Permanganate Test 229

E. Identification of Unknown 230

24 Alcohols and Phenols 235

A. Structures of Alcohols and Phenol 236

B. Properties of Alcohols and Phenol 236

C. Oxidation of Alcohols 237

D. Ferric Chloride Test 238

E. Identification of Unknown 238

25 Aldehydes and Ketones 243

A. Structures of Some Aldehydes and Ketones 243

B. Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones 244, 245

C. Iodoform Test for Methyl Ketones 245

D. Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones 245

E. Identification of an Unknown 247

26 Types of Carbohydrates 253

A. Monosaccharides 253

B. Disaccharides 254

C. Polysaccharides 255

27Tests for Carbohydrates 263

A. Benedict’s Test for Reducing Sugars 263

B. Seliwanoff’s Test for Ketoses 263

C. Fermentation Test 263

D. Iodine Test for Polysaccharides 263

E. Hydrolysis of Disaccharides and Polysaccharides 265

F. Testing Foods for Carbohydrates 266

28 Carboxylic Acids and Esters 271

A. Carboxylic Acids and Their Salts 271

B. Preparation of Esters 272

C. Hydrolysis of Esters 274

29 Aspirin and Other Analgesics 283

A. Preparation of Aspirin 284

B. Testing Aspirin Products 285

C. Analysis of Analgesics 286

30 Lipids 293

A. Triacylglycerols 293

B. Physical Properties of Lipids and Fatty Acids 294

C. Bromine Test for Unsaturation 203

D. Preparation of Hand Lotion 296

31 Glycerophospholipids and Steroids 301

A. Isolating Cholesterol in Egg Yolk 301

B. Isolating Lecithin in Egg Yolk 302

32 Saponification and Soaps 307

A. Saponification: Preparation of Soap 307

B. Properties of Soap and Detergents 307

33 Amines and Amides 313

A. Structure and Classification of Amines 313

B. Solubility of Amines in Water 314

C. Neutralization of Amines with Acids 315

D. Amides 316

34 Synthesis of Acetaminophen 321

A. Synthesis of Acetaminophen 321

B. Isolating Acetanilide from an Impure Sample 322

35 Plastics and Polymerization 331

A. Classification of Plastics 331

B. Gluep and Slime 332

C. Polystyrene 333

D. Nylon 333

36 Amino Acids 341

A. Structures of Amino Acids 341

B. Chromatography of Amino Acids 342

37Peptides and Proteins 347

A. Peptide Bonds 347

B. Structure of Proteins 348

C. Denaturation of Proteins 349

D. Isolation of Casein (Milk Protein)350

E. Color Tests for Proteins 351

38 Enzymes 359

A. Effect of Enzyme Concentration 360

B. Effect of Temperature 361

C. Effect of pH 362

D. Inhibition of Enzyme Activity 363

39 Vitamins 371

A. Solubility of Vitamins 372

B. Standardization of Vitamin C 373

C. Analysis of Vitamin C in Fruit Juices and Fruit Drinks 373

D. Heat Destruction of Vitamin C 374

40 DNA Components and Extraction 370

A. Components of DNA 380

B. Extraction of DNA 381

41 Digestion of Foodstuffs 387

A. Digestion of Carbohydrates 387

B. Digestion of Fats 388

C. Protein Digestion 389

42 Analysis of Urine

A. Color, pH and Specific Gravity 395

B. Electrolytes 396

C. Glucose 396

D. Ketone Bodies 396

E. Protein 396

F. Urobilinogen 396


Materials and Solutions 397

Standard Laboratory Materials 397

Additional Materials Needed for Individual Experiments 397

Preparation of Solutions Used in the Laboratory 410

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