Land Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change: NASA's Earth Observing System and the Science of ASTER and MODIS / Edition 1

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Global environmental change remains a constant theme that resonates worldwide. The dynamics of the Earth system fosters complex spatio-temporal variations that highlight the significance of, and the need to monitor the Earth as a unified whole. Accurate, timely, and reliable data are a precursor to analyze and study several aspects of the integrated Earth system. Remote sensing observations have catalyzed several aspects of Earth system science by providing panoptic views and time-series measurements of the study environment in ways nearly impossible to replicate by traditional ground based methods. NASAS Earth Observing Systems (EOS) primary goal is to study and understand all interacting components of the Earth as a dynamic system, Land Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change based on the scientific knowledge derived from data produced by two EOS instruments, ASTER and MODIS, which are part of the Terra and Aqua satellite missions. As global environmental change in the Anthropocene age becomes more ubiquitous, the papers presented in this volume demonstrate the value of EOS mission as a rich synergistic confluence of science, engineering, and technology, which helps us decipher how our terrestrial systems both contribute and respond to global environmental change.


The primary audience for this book includes Earth and environmental science researchers and professionals, including those who use land remote sensing data.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
From the reviews:
“This book is directed to those involved in monitoring land surfaces using remotely sensed data … . provides a solid reference to the current science and application of the ASTER and MODIS sensors. This book encompasses both the technical aspects and the wide range of applications of both sensors. … provides an excellent reference for the technical specifications and consideration in these sensors. … Those who use ASTER or MODIS imagery for land observations should consider finding room on their bookshelves for this book.” (Anthony L. Nguy-Robertson, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, January, 2012)
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Bhaskar Ramachandran is a senior scientist who supports the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) science mission at the Earth Resources and Observation Science (EROS) Center at the U.S. Geological Survey in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. He currently supports the MODIS science mission, and has performed similar roles for the Landsat-7 and ASTER missions in the past. His current research interests include the use of semantic web capabilities, and building ontologies to represent geospatial science knowledge domains. Chris Justice is a Professor and Research Director at the Geography Department of the University of Maryland. He is the land discipline chair for the NASA MODIS Science Team and is responsible for the MODIS Fire Product. He is a member of the NASA NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Team. He is the NASA Land Cover Land Use Change Program Scientist. His current research is on land cover and land use change, the extent and impacts of global fire, global agricultural monitoring, and their associated information technology and decision support systems. Michael Abrams received his degrees in Biology and Geology from the California Institute of Technology. Since 1973 he has worked at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in geologic remote sensing. He served on the science team for many instruments, including Skylab, HCMM, Landsat, and EO-1. Areas of specialization are mineral exploration, natural hazards, volcanology, and instrument validation. He has been on the US/Japan ASTER Science Team since 1988, and became the ASTER Science Team Leader in 2003.

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Table of Contents

Part I The Earth Observing System and the Evolution of ASTER and MODIS

1 Evolution of NASA's Earth Observing System and Development of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Instruments Vincent Salomonson Michael J. Abrams Anne Kahle William Barnes Xiaoxiong Xiong Yasushi Yamaguchi 3

2 Philosophy and Architecture of the EOS Data and Information System Martha Maiden 35

3 Lessons Learned from the EOSDIS Engineering Experience Evelyn Nakamura 49

Part II ASTER and MODIS: Instrument Design, Radiometry, and Geometry

4 Terra ASTER Instrument Design and Geometry Hiroyuki Fujisada 59

5 ASTER VNIR and SWIR Radiometric Calibration and Atmospheric Correction Kohei Arai Kurtis Thome Akira Iwasaki Stuart Biggar 83

6 ASTER TIR Radiometric Calibration and Atmospheric Correction Hideyuki Tonooka 117

7 Terra and Aqua MODIS Design, Radiometry, and Geometry in Support of Land Remote Sensing Xiaoxiong Xiong Robert Wolfe William Barnes Bruce Guenther Eric Vermote Nazmi Saleous Vincent Salomonson 133

Part III ASTER and MODIS: Data Systems

8 ASTER and MODIS Land Data Management at the Land Processes, and National Snow and Ice Data Centers John Daucsavage Marilyn Kaminski Bhaskar Ramachandran Calli Jenkerson Karla Sprenger Ron Faust Tamara Rockvam 167

9 An Overview of the EOS Data Distribution Systems H.K. Ramapriyan Robin Pfister Beth Weinstein 183

10 The Language of EOS Data: Hierarchical Data Format Larry Klein Andrey Savtchenko Abe Taaheri Cid Praderas Siri Jodha Singh Khalsa 203

Part IV ASTER Science and Applications

11 The ASTER Data System: An Overview of the Data Products in Japan and in the United States Hiroshi Watanabe Bryan Bailey Kenneth Duda Yoshiaki Kannari Akira Miura Bhaskar Ramachandran 233

12 ASTER Applications in Volcanology Minoru Urai David Pieri 245

13 Issues Affecting Geological Mapping with ASTER Data: A Case Study of the Mt Fitton Area, South Australia Robert Hewson Thomas Cudahy 273

14 ASTER Data Use in Mining Applications Sandra Perry Fred Kruse 301

15 ASTER Imaging and Analysis of Glacier Hazards Jeffrey Kargel Roberto Furfaro Georg Kaser Gregory Leonard Wolfgang Fink Christian Huggel Andreas Kääb Bruce Raup John Reynolds David Wolfe Marco Zapata 325

16 ASTER Application in Urban Heat Balance Analysis: A Case Study of Nagoya Soushi Kato Yasushi Yamaguchi 375

17 Monitoring Urban Change with ASTER Data Maik Netzband Elisabeth Schöpfer Matthias S. Möller 397

18 Estimation of Methane Emission from West Siberian Lowland with Subpixel Land Cover Characterization Between MODIS and ASTER Wataru Takeuchi Tomoko Nakano Yoshifumi Yasuoka 421

19 ASTER Stereoscopic Data and Digital Elevation Models Thierry Toutin 439

20 Using ASTER Stereo Images to Quantify Surface Roughness Amit Mushkin Alan Gillespie 463

21 Technoscientific Diplomacy: The Practice of International Politics in the ASTER Collaboration Dan Plafcan 483

Part V MODIS Science and Applications

22 MODIS Land Data Products: Generation Quality Assurance and Validation Edward Masuoka David Roy Robert Wolfe Jeffery Morisette Scott Sinno Michael Teague Nazmi Saleous Sadashiva Devadiga Christopher O. Justice Jaime Nickeson 509

23 MODIS Directional Surface Reflectance Product: Method, Error Estimates and Validation Eric Vermote Svetlana Kotchenova 533

24 Aqua and Terra MODIS Albedo and Reflectance Anisotropy Products Crystal Barker Schaaf Jichung Liu Feng Gao Alan H. Strahler 549

25 MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Zhengming Wan Zhao-Liang Li 563

26 MODIS Vegetation Indices Alfredo Huete Kamel Didan Willem van Leeuwen Tomoaki Miura Ed Glenn 579

27 Leaf Area Index and Fraction of Absorbed PAR Products from Terra and Aqua MODIS Sensors: Analysis, Validation, Refinement Ranga Myneni Yuri Knyazikhin Nicolay Shabanov 603

28 MODIS-Derived Terrestrial Primary Production Maosheng Zhao Steven Running Faith Ann Heinsch Ramakrishna Nemani 635

29 MODIS-Derived Global Fire Products Christopher O. Justice Louis Giglio David Roy Luigi Boschetti Ivan Csiszar Diane Davies Stefania Korontzi W. Schroeder Kelley O'Neal Jeff Morisette 661

30 MODIS Snow and Ice Products, and Their Assessment and Applications George Riggs Dorothy Hall 681

31 Characterizing Global Land Cover Type and Seasonal Land Cover Dynamics at Moderate Spatial Resolution With MODIS Data Mark Friedl Xiaoyang Zhang Alan Strahler 709

32 MODIS Vegetative Cover Conversion and Vegetation Continuous Fields Mark Carroll John Townshend Matthew Hansen Charlene DiMiceli Robert Sohlberg Karl Wurster 725

33 Multisensor Global Retrievals of Evapotranspiration for Climate Studies Using the Surface Energy Budget System Matthew McCabe Eric Wood Hongbo Su Raghuveer Vinukollu Craig Ferguson Z. Su 747

Part VI The Future of Land Remote Sensing

34 The Evolution of U.S. Moderate Resolution Optical Land Remote Sensing from AVHRR to VIIRS Christopher O. Justice Eric Vermote Jeff Privette Alain Sei 781

35 The Future of Landsat-Class Remote Sensing Samuel Goward Darrel Williams Terry Arvidson James Irons 807

36 International Coordination of Satellite Land Observations: Integrated Observations of the Land John Townshend John Latham Christopher O. Justice Anthony Janetos Richard Conant Olivier Arino Roberta Balstad Alan Belward Jay Feuquay Jiyuan Liu Dennis Ojima Christiana Schmullius Ashbindu Singh Jeff Tschirley 835

Index 857

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