Landforming: An Environmental Approach to Hillside Development, Mine Reclamation and Watershed Restoration / Edition 1

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Landform grading provides a cost-effective, attractive, and environmentally compatible way to construct slopes and other landforms that are stable and blend in with the natural surroundings. Landform grading design and construction technology have advanced rapidly during the past decade, and this book explains the technique, its uses, its various applications, and its significant advantages.

Landforming: An Environmental Approach to Hillside Development, Mine Reclamation and Watershed Restoration presents the first comprehensive and practical guidebook to the innovative techniques of landform grading and revegetation.

Citing numerous practical applications in such areas as hillside housing developments, mass grading operations, and surface mining and watershed reclamation projects, the authors-one an internationally recognized instructor and the other an engineer with over thirty years of practical experience in the field-have teamed up to provide valuable information on: The aesthetic and ecological benefits of landform grading and revegetation, Analyses that demonstrate the stability of landform designed slopes, Real-world design/construction procedures, Construction in both upland slope areas and in stream corridors, Analytical procedures and design aids to assist implementation, Well-documented and comprehensive case studies of actual projects.

Written in straightforward language and liberally illustrated with informative photographs and schematic drawings, the text should prove of value to practicing professionals in such diverse fields as land planning, civil and geotechnical engineering, landscape architecture, and geology as well as to personnel in a variety of local,state, and federal regulatory agencies and environmental interest groups.

About the Author:
Horst J. Schor a guest lecturer at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Dresden University of Technology, Germany, and the University of California, Irvine

About the Author:
Donald H. Gray, PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Michigan

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Landforming presents the first comprehensive, hands-on instruction guide for this emerging discipline." (Civil Engineering; 10/07)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471721796
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 8/3/2007
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 368
  • Product dimensions: 6.56 (w) x 9.31 (h) x 0.87 (d)

Meet the Author

Horst J. Schor is the originator o the Landforming and Revegetation Concept and is Principal of H. J. Schor Consulting. He has developed landform grading designs that have been implemented in a variety of hillside grading and mining reclamation projects for a diverse list of clients. He has been a guest lecturer at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Dresden University of Technology, Germany, and the University of California, Irvine.

Donald H. Gray, PHD, is Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Michigan. In addition to speaking and teaching internationally, he has coauthored three books on subjects related geotechnical engineering and biotechnical slope protection.

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Table of Contents

Preface     xiii
Introduction to Landform Grading and Revegetation     1
Form and Function in Nature     1
Human Impact on Landforms     3
Historical Development     5
Objectives and Challenges     10
References     12
Surficial Erosion and Mass Wasting of Slopes     13
Introduction     13
Definitions     13
Surficial Erosion     13
Mass Wasting     14
Salient Characteristics and Differences     14
Nature of Surficial Erosion     15
Agents and Types of Erosion     15
Mechanics of Erosion     16
Principal Determinants of Erosion     16
Rainfall Erosion     16
Wind Erosion     18
Types of Water Erosion     18
Soil Loss Predictions     21
Historical Development     21
Applications of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)     22
Limitations of USLE     24
Erosion Control Principles     25
Nature of Mass Wasting     26
Types of Slope Movement     26
Causes of Slope Failure     27
Indicators of Slope Instability     28
Slope Stability Predictions     28
Approaches to Analysis     28
Limit-Equilibrium Analysis     29
Shear-Strength Parameters     31
Translational Slope Failures     32
Control of Mass Wasting     35
Slope-Stability and Channel-Erosion Thresholds     36
Significance     36
Approaches     36
Slope-Stability Threshold     36
Threshold of Erosion by Saturation Overland Flow     48
Stability Fields and Threshold Boundaries     51
Summary     52
References     54
Influence of Vegetation on Hillside Stability     57
Introduction     57
Influence on Surficial Erosion     58
Stabilizing Functions     58
Vegetation Cover Factor     58
Recommended Vegetation     59
Influence on Mass Stability     60
Hydromechanical Effects     60
Beneficial Effects     60
Detrimental Effects     62
Root Morphology and Strength     63
Introduction     63
Depth and Distribution of Root Systems     63
Root Strength     67
Root and Fiber Soil Reinforcement     69
Force-Equilibrium Models     69
In Situ Direct-Shear Tests     69
Stability Analyses     70
Guidelines for Maximizing Benefits of Vegetation     73
General Observations     73
Selection Strategies     73
Placement Strategies     74
Grading and Site Preparation     75
Optimizing Compaction     78
Management Strategies     85
Summary     88
References     89
Influence of Topography on Slope Stability and Hydrology     93
Introduction     93
Modeling Approaches and Assumptions     94
Conceptual Modeling     95
General     95
Mass Stability     96
Surficial Erosion     97
Physical-Mathematical Models     98
General     98
Mass Stability     99
Surficial Erosion     102
Laboratory and Field Tests     107
General     107
Mass Stability     107
Surficial Erosion     107
Equilibrium Profiles of Natural Slopes     110
Summary     112
Role of Drainage Networks and Drainage Densities     113
Drainage Density and Zero-Order Watershed     113
References     117
Geomorphic Evolution of Slopes     119
Introduction     119
Role of Geologic Processes     120
Geomorphology     121
Slope Attributes and Characteristics     121
Classification of Slopes     121
Slope Profiles and Elements     122
Slope Processes     123
Approaches to Slope Evolution Prediction     124
Traditional approach     124
Morphometric approach     125
Process approach     125
Empirical approach     125
Anthropogenic Slopes and Landforms     125
Slope Evolution and Long-Term Stability     126
Evolution and Morphometry of Spoil Mounds     126
Evolution and Morphometry of Natural Slopes     127
Effect of Climate on Hillslope Form     132
Digital Terrain Models     134
Salient Characteristics of Digital Terrain Models     134
Example of a Linked, Digital Terrain Model-SIBERIA     136
Applications of Digital Terrain Modelling     139
Design of Stable Landforms      140
References     143
Hillside Grading Fundamentals     146
Introduction     146
Purpose of Grading     146
Grading Considerations     147
Major Stakeholders     147
Selection of Grading Equipment     148
Importance of Subsurface Conditions     151
Elements of Hillside Grading     153
Preparatory Operations     153
Clearing and grubbing     153
Preapplication of water     153
Removal of deleterious materials     154
Special Conditions and Precautions     155
Groundwater removal     155
Surface drainage control     157
Unstable slopes and landslides     158
Faults     161
Volume changes     161
Hard, well-indurated rock     162
Cuts and Fills     163
Cuts and Cut Slopes     166
Cut construction     166
Selective grading     166
Cut slope construction and remediation     166
Fills     171
Fill slope construction     171
Deep fills     171
Fill slope remediation     171
Erosion Control During Grading     173
Economics of Grading     173
References     178
Principles of Landform Grading     179
Introduction     179
The Traditional Method     179
Conventional Slopes and Their Design Elements     179
Slope plan and profile shape     179
Drainage devices     179
Building Pads     180
Landscaping     180
Historical Use and Observations     181
The Improved Method     184
Contour Slopes and Their Design Elements     184
Slope plan and profile shape     184
Drainage devices     184
Building Pads     184
Landscaping     185
Historical Use and General Observations     185
The Environmentally Responsive New Technique     186
Landform Slopes and Their Design Elements     186
Slope plan and profile shape     186
Drainage devices     186
Plateaus and Building Pads     188
Revegetation Landscaping     189
Repair and Rejuvenation Techniques for Either Man-Made or Damaged Natural Landscapes     192
General Observations     192
Direct Slope Replication      192
Complete or Partial In Situ Landform Restoration     193
Creation of New Physiographic Landforms     196
Slope-Form Restoration via Landform Grading     196
Landform Restoration after Mass Grading and Fining     198
Surface Mining Reclamation     199
Impact of Surface Mining     199
Importance of Replicating Original Topography and Hydrology     202
Elements of Critical Concern     203
Design Alternatives     204
The shape of the footprint     204
The orientation of the footprint     206
Slope profile in cross section     206
The slope in frontal and plan view     207
Revegetation and reforestation     209
Summary and Conclusions     210
References     210
Essential Design Elements for Slope Forms and Landforms     211
Introduction     211
Natural Landscape Elements     211
Origin of Natural Slope Forms     211
Natural Drainage Forms     213
Natural Vegetation Patterns     213
Basic Slope Forms-"The Architecture of Slopes"     214
General Observations     214
Ridges and Swales-Perpendicular to the Slope Crest     214
Ridges and Swales-Diagonally across the Slope Face     215
Ridges and Swales-Curvilinear across the Slope Face     218
Elbow Shapes across the Slope Face     218
Pyramid- and Cone-Shaped Slope-Face Elements     218
Wishbone Configurations     218
Convex Ridges and Concave-Foot Slopes     220
Compound and Composite Shapes     220
Degree of roundness or angularity     222
Width     223
Height     223
Proportion     223
The Rock Element as Part of the Natural Landscape     224
Reference     224
Implementation of the Landform Grading Plan     225
Requirements for Successful Implementation     225
Obstacles to Implementation     225
Implementation Strategies     226
Land Planning and Initial Site Design     226
Meetings with Regulatory Agency     226
Allaying Engineering Concerns     227
Geotechnical Engineering     228
Introduction of Concept to Grading Designers     228
Planning and Surveying Requirements     229
Planning Requirements     229
Surveying Requirements      229
The Grading Phase     231
Retraining of Grading Personnel     231
Ground Preparation     233
Slope Construction     233
Fill Construction and Compaction Control     233
Construction of Valley or "Daylight" Fills     233
Slope-Drainage Devices     234
Terrace Drains     234
Down-Drains     235
Interceptor Drains     236
Toe Drains     237
Hardened Drain Limitations     237
Revegetation     238
Conventional Landscaping vs. Revegetation     238
Landform Revegetation     238
The Application of Water on the Slope Face through Irrigation     241
High-Pressure Spray Method     241
Low-Pressure Spray Method     241
Placement of Rocks and Boulders     241
Cost Considerations and Analyses     245
Land-Planning Costs     245
Design Engineering Costs     245
Surveying Costs     245
Landscape Architect Costs     247
Construction and Grading Costs     247
Public and Regulatory Response to Landform Grading     249
Introduction     249
The Development Process      249
Overall Governing Agency or Authority     249
The Land-Planner's Perspective     249
The Civil Engineer's Perspective     250
Regulatory Agencies' Perspectives     250
Owners' and Developers' Perspectives     251
Interdisciplinary Team Approaches     251
Standards and Codes     252
Difficulties with Promulgation     252
"Prescriptive" vs. "Performance" Standards     253
Project-Approval Benefits of Landform Grading     253
Agencies that have Adopted or Implemented Landform Grading     254
Future Applications of Landform Grading     262
References     264
Landforming Projects-Watershed Restoration and Mining Reclamation     265
Introduction     265
School Girl's Glen     265
Project Type     265
Project Location     266
Client and Project Owner     266
Site Conditions and Problems     266
Repair and Restoration Goals     267
Treatment Considerations     267
Selected Treatments     269
Performance Evaluation     272
References     274
Asaayi Lake Northwest Drainage-Landform Restoration     274
Type of Project     274
Location     274
Client     275
Repair and Restoration Goals     275
Site Conditions and Problems     275
Treatment Considerations     276
Selected Treatment     277
Initial design concept     278
Final design configuration     279
Performance Evaluation     282
Postscript     285
References     285
Oil Sands Mining Reclamation, Syncrude Canada     286
Project Type     286
Project Location     286
Client     286
Site History     286
Site Conditions and Potential Problems     286
Repair and Restoration Goals     290
Treatment Considerations     290
Selected Demonstrations and Treatments     291
Project no. 1-Landform demonstration site no. 1     291
Project no. 2-Reconfiguration of an existing tailings dump through landform grading     294
Project no. 3-"Delandform grading"     295
Performance Evaluation     297
Postscript     298
Landforming Projects-Hillside Developments and Mass-Grading Applications      299
Introduction     299
Hollywood Hills Project     299
Type of Project     299
Location     299
Clients     300
Projects History     300
Earthwork Disposal and Placement Considerations     301
Environmental Mitigation Design Considerations     302
Alternative Grading Studies     303
Common Design Characteristics of Disposal Fills     303
Final Design Configurations and Locations     304
Fill F     304
Fill B     310
Fill C     312
Fill A     314
Post-Construction Evaluation and Observations     319
Anaheim Hills, California     322
Type of Project     322
Location     323
Clients     323
Jurisdictional Issues     323
Site Conditions and Development Constraints     323
Initial Development Plan-Community Objections     324
Adopted Plan-Landform Grading Alternative     325
Highlights and Features of Landform Grading Plan     325
Performance Evaluation     327
Talega, California     332
Type of Project      332
Location     332
Client     332
Jurisdictional Issues     332
Public and Regulatory Agency Responses     333
City of San Clemente's response     333
The County of Orange's Position     335
Final resolution and agreement among stakeholders     335
Highlights and Features of Project     336
Conclusions     339
Operational findings     339
Economic considerations     339
Appendix     343
Index     347
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