Landmarks in Humanities / Edition 2

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Landmarks in Humanities is a single-volume survey of global culture designed for students of humanities, cultural history, and history of the arts. In chronological sequence, Landmarks highlights the most notable monuments of the human imagination—those works of art and architecture, literature, philosophy, and music that have been foremost in shaping the world's cultures. The text reflects the author's extensive background in the study of Humanities which has enabled her to craft a narrative that is at once brief and comprehensive, giving students a thorough understanding of the humanities without overwhelming them with detail. Each of the text's fifteen chapters is centered on a key idea related to the period being discussed and contains a series of valuable pedagogical features including chapter ending timelines, high- quality maps, and boxed material examining primary sources and cross-cultural comparisons. In addition, an outstanding supplements package accompanies the text, featuring a wealth of resources for both students and instructors.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780073523965
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc.
  • Publication date: 11/28/2008
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 512
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Gloria Konig Fiero was born and raised in New York City. She earned her Masters degree in Art History at the University of California, Berkeley, and her Ph.D. in Interdisciplinary Humanities at the Florida State University. She has taught Humanities, World History, and Art History for more than twenty-five years. She has written and lectured extensively on medieval and renaissance topics and on the arts of both East and West as they reflect the human condition. She currently divides her time between New Orleans, Louisiana, and New York City.

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Table of Contents

Origins: The First Civilizations


Paleolithic Culture

Ideas and Issues: Keeping Track of Time

Neolithic Culture

Parallels: Mother Earth

Parallels: Stone Circles

The Birth of Civilization

From Counting to Writing

Parallels: The Invention of Writing

Metallurgy: The Bronze Age


"Land between the Rivers"

Myths, Gods, and Goddesses

Mesopotamia's Ziggurats

Gilgamesh: The First Epic

Parallels: Temple Towers

Babylon: Hammurabi's Law Code

Iron Technology

Ideas and Issues: From Hammurabi's Code

Landmarks of the Iron Age

The Persian Empire

Africa: Ancient Egypt

Theocracy and the Cult of the Dead

Akhenaten's Reform

Parallels: Pyramids Ancient and Modern

Egyptian Women

Egyptian Art

New Kingdom Temples

Literature and Music

Africa: Western Sudan

The Nok Terra-cottas

The Americas

Beyond the West: Ancient India

Indus Valley Civilization

The Vedic Era

Hindu Pantheism

Ideas and Issues: Hindu Pantheism and Reincarnation

Beyond the West: Ancient China

The Shang Dynasty

The Aristocracy of Merit

The Mandate of Heaven

Spirits, Gods, and the Natural Order

Daoism: The Philosophy of the Way


The First Civilizations Timeline

2 Classicism: The Greek Legacy

Ancient Greek Civilization

Aegean Civilizations

Mycenaean Civilization

The Heroic Age

Parallels: In the Beginning

The Greek Gods

Greek City-States and the Persian Wars

Athens and the Golden Age

The Athens of Pericles

The Olympic Games

Ideas and Issues: Pericles: The Greatness of Athens

Greek Drama

Greek Poetry

Greek Philosophy

Naturalist Philosophy: The Pre-Socratics

The Sophists

Socrates and the Quest for Virtue

Plato and the Theory of Forms

Beyond the West: Chinese Philosophy


Ideas and Issues: Confucius: Moral Advice

Aristotle and the Life of Reason

Ideas and Issues: The Syllogism

Aristotle and the State

Ideas and Issues: Man Is a Political Animal

The Classical Style

Key Features

Greek Painting

Greek Sculpture: The Archaic Period

Greek Sculpture: The Classical Period

Parallels: The Sculptured Male Form

Greek Architecture: The Parthenon

Parallels: Greek Classicism and Neoclassicism

The Sculpture of the Parthenon

Ideas and Issues: The Battle over Antiquities

Greek Music and Dance

The Hellenistic Age

Hellenistic Schools of Thought

Hellenistic Art


Ancient Greece Timeline

3 Empire: The Power and Glory of Rome

The Roman Rise to Empire

Rome’s Early History

The Roman Republic

Roman Literature

Latin Prose Literature

Philosophic Thought

Ideas and Issues: Stoic Detachment and Acceptance

Epic Poetry

Lyric Poetry and Satire

Ideas and Issues: Horace: "Carpe Diem" ("Seize the Day")

Roman Drama

Art and Empire

Roman Architecture

Parallels: Roman Classicism and Neoclassicism

Roman Sculpture

Roman Painting and Mosaic

Roman Music

The Fall of Rome

Beyond the West: China’s Rise to Empire

The Qin Dynasty

The Han Dynasty

Han Literature

Visual Arts and Music


Ancient Rome Timeline

4 Revelation: The Flowering of World Religions


The Hebrews

Parallels: Codes of Conduct

The Hebrew State

The Hebrew Bible

The Arts of the Hebrews


The Greco-Roman Background

Mystery Cults

Judea Before Jesus

The Coming of Jesus

Paul: Co-Founder of Christianity

Ideas and Issues: Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount

The Spread of Christianity

The Christian Identity

Ideas and Issues: The Non-Canonical Gospels

Christian Monasticism

Ideas and Issues: The Christian Calendar

The Latin Church Fathers

Symbolism and Early Christian Art

Ideas and Issues: Neoplatonism

Early Christian Architecture

Byzantine Art and Architecture

The Byzantine Icon

Early Christian Music


The Coming of Muhammad

The Qur'an

The Spread of Islam

Early Islamic Art and Architecture

Beyond the West: Buddhism

Early Buddhist Architecture

Parallels: Jesus and the Buddha: Humility


World Religions Timeline

5 Synthesis: The Rise of the West

The Germanic Tribes

Germanic Culture

Germanic Art

Parallels: Interlace: Secular and Sacred

The Age of Charlemagne

The Carolingian Renaissance

Parallels: The Monastic Complex East and West

The Monastic Complex

The Medieval Book

Parallels: Holy Books and Manuscripts

Beyond the West: Japan

The Birth of the Novel

Ideas and Issues: Handwriting as an Art

Feudal Society

The Feudal Contract

Parallels: Feudalism East and West

The Lives of Medieval Serfs

The Norman Conquest

The Norman Castle

The Bayeux Tapestry

The Crusades

Feudal-Age Literature

The Song of Roland

The Poetry of the Troubadours

The Medieval Romance and the Code of Courtly Love

Early Medieval Music

Beyond the West: China

Tang and Song

Chinese Technology

Chinese Porcelain

Chinese Landscape Painting

Liturgical Drama


Early Middle Ages Timeline

6 Christendom: Europe in the Age of Faith

The Medieval Church

Sin and Salvation

Ideas and Issues: The Supremacy of the Church

The Literature of Mysticism

Saint Francis: Medieval Humanist

Parallels: Mysticism: Christian and Muslim

Medieval Towns

Medieval Drama

Dante’s Divine Comedy

Ideas and Issues: Dante: The Ninth Circle of Hell

The Medieval University

Medieval Scholasticism

Ideas and Issues: Aquinas: Whether Woman Should Have Been Made in the First Reproduction of Things

The Pilgrimage Church

Romanesque Architecture

Romanesque Sculpture

The Gothic Cathedral

Chartres Cathedral: Gothic Landmark

Medieval Painting: The Gothic Altarpiece

Parallels: Temple-Shrines: Christian and Hindu

Medieval Music

Medieval Musical Notation

Medieval Polyphony

The "Dies Irae"

The Motet

Beyond the West: India and China

Religious Icon

Instrumental Music


High Middle Ages Timeline

7 Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance

Transition: Medieval to Renaissance

The Black Death

The Rise of Constitutional Monarchy

The Hundred Years' War

The Decline of the Church

The Arts in Transition


Christine de Pisan


Parallels: The New Realism in Literature and Art

Giotto's New Realism

The Ars Nova in Music

The Italian Renaissance

Renaissance Humanism

Petrarch: "Father of Humanism"

Ficino: The Platonic Academy

Pico della Mirandola: The Dignity of Man

Ideas and Issues: Pico: Free Will and Human Perfectibility

Castiglione: The Well-Rounded Person

Ideas and Issues: The Renaissance Gentleman and the Renaissance Lady

The Printing Press

Machiavelli and Power Politics

Ideas and Issues: Whether It Is Better to Be Loved than Feared

Early Renaissance Art

Early Renaissance Architecture

Early Renaissance Painting

Early Renaissance Sculpture

High Renaissance Art

High Renaissance Architecture

Leonardo da Vinci

Parallels: Restoration or Ruin?



The High Renaissance in Venice

Renaissance Music

Josquin des Prez

The Madrigal

Instrumental Music

Beyond the West: The Glories of the Ottoman Empire

Renaissance Dance


Renaissance Timeline

8 Reform: The Northern Renaissance and the Reformation

Renaissance and Reformation

Christian Humanism

Luther and the Protestant Reformation

Ideas and Issues: Luther's Challenge to the Church

The Spread of Protestantism

Calvin and Calvinism


Ideas and Issues: Calvin: Predestination

The Anglican Church

Religious Persecution and Witch-Hunts

Sixteenth-Century Literature






The Shakespearean Stage

Beyond the West: Japanese Theater

Shakespeare's Play

Northern Art

Jan van Eyck



The Protestant Reformation and Printmaking

Parallels: Devotional Images: Pathos and Remorse


Cranach and Holbein

Parallels: Humanism: East and West


Northern Music

Music and the Reformation

Elizabethan Music


Northern Renaissance Timeline

9 Encounter: European Outreach and Expansion

Global Travel and Trade

European Expansion


Cultural Heritage

West African Kingdoms

African Literature

Parallels: Text and Image: The Oba of Benin

Ideas and Issues: African Myths: The Origin of Death

African Music and Dance

African Sculpture

Parallels: Africa's Legacy

The Europeans in Africa

The Americas

The Arts of Native North America

Ideas and Issues: Mohawk Myth: How Man Was Created

The Arts of Meso- and South America

Maya Civilization

Inka Civilization

Aztec Civilization

Cross-Cultural Encounter

The Spanish in the Americas

Ideas and Issues: Cortés: Destroying Aztec "Idols"

The Columbian Exchange


Africa and the Americas Timeline

10 Baroque: Piety and Extravagance

The Catholic Reformation

Loyola and the Jesuit Order

Ideas and Issues: Loyola: The Church Militant

Mannerist Painting

Music and the Catholic Reformation

The Italian Baroque

Italian Baroque Architecture

Italian Baroque Sculpture

Parallels: Text and Image: Saint Teresa's Vision

Italian Baroque Painting

Parallels: Text and Image: The Book of Judith

The Northern Baroque

The Rise of the English Commonwealth

The King James Bible


Ideas and Issues: Donne: No Man Is an Island


The London of Christopher Wren

Seventeenth-Century Holland



The Aristocratic Baroque

Louis XIV and the Arts

Parallels: Absolutism and the Arts: East and West

Theater Arts

Academic Art

The Aristocratic Baroque Portrait

Parallels: Aristocratic Art: East and West

Velázquez and Rubens

Beyond the West: Aristocratic Landmarks



Baroque Music


The Birth of Opera


Music at the Court of Louis XIV

Handel and the English Oratorio

Bach and Religious Music

Instrumental Music


Bach and the Instrumental Music


Baroque Timeline

11 Enlightenment: Science and the New Learning

The Scientific Revolution


Bacon and the Empirical Method

Ideas and Issues: Bacon: Science and Religion

Descartes and the Birth of Modern Philosophy

Newton's Synthesis

The Enlightenment

Locke: Enlightenment Herald

Montesquieu and Jefferson

Ideas and Issues: Two Views of the Social Contract

The Philosophes

The Crusade for Progress

Enlightenment and the Rights of Women

Ideas and Issues: Wollstonecraft: Make Women Free

Kant and Enlightenment Ethics

Rousseau: Enlightenment Rebel

Adam Smith: Economic Theory

Revolutions of the Late Eighteenth Century

Literature and the Enlightenment

Pope: Poet of the Age of Reason

Newspapers and Novels

Slave Narratives

Satire: Swift and Voltaire

The Visual Arts and the Enlightenment

Hogarth's Visual Satires

The Rococo Style

Rococo Painting

Parallels: Love and Lovers

Neoclassical Architecture

Parallels: The Neoclassical Vogue

Neoclassical Sculpture

Neoclassical Painting

Music and the Enlightenment

Eighteenth-Century Classical Music

The Birth of the Symphony Orchestra



Beyond the West: Japan

The Way of Tea and Zen


Enlightenment Timeline

12 Romanticism: Nature, Passion, and the Sublime

Heralds of Romanticism

Napoleon: Romantic Hero

Nineteenth-Century Philosophers

Darwin's Origins of Species

The Industrial Revolution

Romantic Literature

Wordsworth and the Poetry of Nature

Shelley and Keats

Ideas and Issues: Shelley: "Ozymandias"

Byron: Romantic Hero

Blake: Romantic Mystic

Goethe's Faust

The Female Voice

Mary Shelley's Frankenstein

American Romanticism


Ideas and Issues: Emerson: I Am Part of God

Ideas and Issues: Thoreau: Nature as Teacher

Whitman's Romantic Individualism

Ideas and Issues: Douglass: Slave Morality

Romanticism in the Visual Arts

The Romantic Landscape

American Painting

Parallels: Landscape: West and East

The Popular Hero: Goya and Géricault

Revolutionary Heroism: Delacroix

Romantic Sculpture

Parallels: Lady Liberty

Romantic Architecture

Romantic Music and Dance

The Symphony: Beethoven

The Art Song: Schubert

Program Music: Berlioz

Piano Music: Chopin

The Romantic Ballet

Beyond the West: Exploring Africa

Grand Opera: Verdi

Music-Drama: Wagner


Romanticism Timeline

13 Materialism: The Industrial Era and the Urban Scene

The Global Dominion of the West

Advancing Industrialism

Colonialism and the New Imperialism

Social and Economic Realities

Marx and Engels

Nietzsche's New Morality

Ideas and Issues: Progress: The False Idea

Literary Realism

The Novels of Dickens and Twain

Russian Realism: Dostoevsky and Tolstoy

Ideas and Issues: Dostoevsky: Lords of the Future

Flaubert and the Literary Heroine

Zola and the Naturalistic Novel

Realist Drama: Ibsen

Late-Nineteenth-Century Architecture

Cast-Iron Structures

The Skyscraper

Realism in the Visual Arts

The Birth of Photography

Courbet and French Realist Painting

Millet: "Peasant Painter"

Daumier's Social Realism

The Scandalous Realism of Manet

Realism in American Painting


Monet: Pioneer Impressionist

Renoir and Degas

Parallels: Photographs and Paintings

Cassatt: American Impressionist


Parallels: Japanese Prints and European Paintings


Art Nouveau

Van Gogh and Gauguin

Beyond the West: The Lure of the Exotic: Oceania
Seurat and Cézanne

Late-Nineteenth-Century Sculpture

Parallels: Sculpture and Dance

Late-Nineteenth-Century Music

Verismo Opera: Puccini and Bizet

Musical Impressionism: Debussy


Materialism Timeline

14 Modernism: The Assault on Tradition

New Directions

The New Physics

The Freudian Revolution

Ideas and Issues: Religion as Mass-Delusion

War and Revolution

World War I

Aftermath of World War I

The Harlem Renaissance

The Russian Revolution

Ideas and Issues: The Mexican Revolution

Hitler and World War II

Beyond the West: Mao's China

Modern Literature

The Imagists

Ideas and Issues: Yeats: “The Second Coming”

Eliot and Yeats

Modern Fiction and Drama

Science Fiction and the Futurist Novel

Modern Art

Picasso and Cubism

Parallels: "Magical Objects"


Matisse and Fauvism

Nonobjective Art

Abstraction in Early Modern Sculpture


Fantasy, Dada, and Surrealism

Photography and Film

Modern Architecture

Wright and Modern Architecture

The Bauhaus and the International Style

Music and Dance



Modern Music-Drama and Opera

Modern Music in Soviet Russia and America


Modern Dance


Materialism Timeline

15 Globalism: Information, Communication, and the Digital Revolution

Post-War Convulsions


Ideas and Issues: Sartre: Man Makes Himself

Theater of the Absurd

The Cold War

Ideas and Issues: Communism versus Capitalism

The Quest for Equality

The End of Colonialism

The Quest for Racial Equality

Ideas and Issues: White No Longer

Black Identity in the Arts

The Quest for Gender Equality

Ideas and Issues: De Beauvoir: Woman as "Other"

Sexual Identity

Ethnicity and Identity

Science and Technology

String Theory and Chaos Theory

The Human Genome

Language Theory

The Information Explosion

Postmodernism: Art as Information

Contemporary Literature

Art and Architecture

Abstract Expressionism

Parallels: Action Painting: East and West

Pop Art


Post-Pop Abstraction

New Realism

Total Art

Video Art

Parallels: Updating Manet

Computers and New Media Arts

Architecture in the Information Age

Green Buildings

Music and Dance

Cage and Aleatory Music

Microtonality and Minimalism

Opera and Choral Music

Electronic Music and Computers

Rock and Popular Music


Into the Twenty-First Century

Beyond the West: China: The “Great Criticism”


Information Age Timeline


Further Reading

Literary Credits

Picture Credits

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