The Language Of Evaluation / Edition 1

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This is the first comprehensive account of the Appraisal Framework, an approach developed over the past decade for analyzing the language of evaluation, the linguistic realization of attitudes, judgments and emotion and the ways in which these evaluations are negotiated interpersonally. The underlying linguistic theory is explained and justified, and the application of this flexible tool, which has been applied to a wide variety of text and discourse analysis issues including classroom interaction, academic English, literary stylistics, language of the law and of health professionals, political rhetoric and casual conversation, is demonstrated throughout by sample text analyses drawn from a range of registers, genres and fields.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781403904096
  • Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
  • Publication date: 11/1/2005
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 256
  • Product dimensions: 5.50 (w) x 8.50 (h) x 0.81 (d)

Meet the Author

JAMES R. MARTIN is Professor of Linguistics (Personal Chair) at the University of Sydney, Australia. His research interests include systemic theory, functional grammar, discourse semantics, register, genre, multimodality and critical discourse analysis, focussing on English and Tagalog - with special reference to the transdisciplinary fields of educational linguistics and social semiotics. Recent publications include Working with Discourse (with David Rose, 2003), Re/Reading the Past (edited with Ruth Wodak, 2003), Genre Relations (with David Rose, 2006), and Knowledge Structure ( edited with Fran Christie, 2007). Professor Martin was elected a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities in 1998, and was awarded a Centenary Medal for his services to Linguistics and Philology in 2003.

PETER R.R. WHITE is Lecturer in Linguistics and Media at the University of Adelaide, South Australia. His most recent publications include Appraisal - the Language of Evaluation and Stance' in The Handbook of Pragmatics. He maintains an email and discussion list on Appraisal theory at He is a former print, radio and television jourbanalist and jourbanalism trainer.

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Table of Contents

List of Tables and Figures


Introduction 1

Contested terms? 3

Gender, language and feminist theory 5

Sexuality, language and queer theory 6

Communities of practice 8

Exploring relationships between gender, desire and sexuality 11

Language, sexuality and identity: our perspective 14

Tactics of intersubjectivity 22

Key arguments 24

1 Examining Lesbian Conversations as Discourses of Identity and Resistance 25

Is there such a thing as 'lesbian conversation'? 26

Structural-functional discourse analysis (SFDA) 28

Francis and Hunston's system of analysis 31

Summary of analysis 47

Gender and sexuality identities 48

Lesbian conversations and communities of practice 49

2 Analysing Evaluation in Coming Out Narratives 53

'Coming out' 54

Appraisal 56

Judgement 60

The data 62

Themes in coming out narratives 63

Concluding remarks 84

3 The Language of Shame, Risk and Concealment 87

Approaching this research 87

Shame 88

Discourse and transgression 91

Ethics and the lesbian teacher 93

Discourse, performativity, identity 96

Lesbian performance and visibility 97

Concealment/disguisement 99

Performing with pronouns 101

Lesbian discourse strategies 103

Deictic centring and confounding 104

Inside/outside? 105

Inside/outside: a materialist view 107

Conclusion 109

4 Discourse and Identity in a Corpus of Lesbian Erotica 112

Pornography or erotica? 113

Using a specialised corpus 117

Setting the context: lesbians don't talk about sex! 118

Corpus linguistics and the study of erotic texts 120

Lexical frequency findings 124

Collocations of some frequent words 125

Keywords 130

A lesbian authorship ofself? 133

5 Sexual Identity and Gender: Discursive Constructions of 'Butch' and 'Femme' in Film 137

Femme and butch: past and current debates 138

The use of film as data: levels of representation 144

Techniques of analysis 146

Bound 150

Gazon Maudit 155

Set It Off 159

Some conclusions 164

6 Camp Codes and Subtle Outing: How the British Broadsheet Press Learned Gay Slang 166

The political context of outing 167

Case study 1 Michael Portillo: some brief biographical notes 169

Case study 2 Peter Mandelson: some brief biographical notes 171

Linguistic framework of outing 174

The broadsheet data 178

Pragmatic outing 179

Camp discourse 186

Discussion 192

Conclusion 196

Conclusion 198

Returning to communities of practice 199

Relationships between sexuality and gender 200

Identity 202

Iterability 204

Tactics of intersubjectivity 205

Studying sexuality using applied linguistics 206

Moving forward 208

Bibliography 210

Index 220

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