Language Variation and Change


This new five-volume anthology of major works has been produced in consultation with an editorial advisory board of distinguished scholars. It brings together the key texts of language variation and change to provide a comprehensive collection that represents the field's development and showcases the diverse communities that have been the subjects of investigation.

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This new five-volume anthology of major works has been produced in consultation with an editorial advisory board of distinguished scholars. It brings together the key texts of language variation and change to provide a comprehensive collection that represents the field's development and showcases the diverse communities that have been the subjects of investigation.

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Table of Contents

Volume I: Foundations and Methods

Part 1: Precursors

1. J. K. Chambers, ‘Louis Gauchat, Proto-Variationist’, Historiographica Linguistica, 2008, 35, 215–25.

2. John Fischer, ‘Social Influences on the Choice of a Linguistic Variant’, Word, 1958, 14, 47–56.

Part 2: Theoretical Principles

3. William Labov, ‘The Linguistic Variable as a Structural Unit’, Washington Linguistics Review, 1966, 3, 4–22.

4. Henrietta Cedergren and David Sankoff, ‘Variable Rules: Performance as a Statistical Reflection of Competence’, Language, 1974, 50, 333–55.

5. Gillian Sankoff, ‘A Quantitative Paradigm for the Study of Communicative Competence’, in Richard Bauman and Joel Sherzer (eds.), Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking (Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 18–49.

Part 3: Foundational Studies

6. William Labov, ‘Contraction, Deletion, and Inherent Variability of the English Copula’, Language, 1969, 45, 715–62.

7. Walt Wolfram, ‘The Relationship of White Southern Speech to Vernacular Black English’, Language, 1974, 50, 488–527.

8. Shana Poplack, ‘"Sometimes I’ll Start a Sentence in Spanish y Termino en Español": Toward a Typology of Codeswitching’, Linguistics, 1980, 18, 581–618.

Part 4: Methods

9. William Labov, ‘Some Principles of Linguistic Methodology’, Language in Society, 1972, 1, 97–120.

10. Barbara Horvath and David Sankoff, ‘Delimiting the Sydney Speech Community’, Language in Society, 1987, 16, 179–204.

11. Walt Wolfram, ‘Identifying and Interpreting Variables’, in Dennis Preston (ed.), American Dialect Research (John Benjamins, 1993), pp. 193–221.

12. Renee Blake, ‘Defining the Envelop of Linguistic Variation: The Case of "Don’t Count" Forms in the Copula Analysis of African American Vernacular English’, Language Variation and Change, 1997, 9, 57–79.

13. Robert Bayley, ‘The Quantitative Paradigm’, in J. K. Chambers and Natalie Schilling (eds.), The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, 2nd edn. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013), pp. 85–107.

Volume II: Issues and Debates in the study of variation

Part 1: The Nature of the Linguistic Variable

14. Beatriz Lavandera, ‘Where Does the Sociolinguistic Variable Stop?’, Language in Society, 1978, 7, 171–82.

15. Jenny Cheshire, ‘Syntactic Variation and Beyond: Gender and Social Class Variation in the Use of Discourse-New Markers’, Journal of Sociolinguistics, 2005, 9, 479–508.

Part 2: Style

16. Allan Bell, ‘Language Style as Audience Design’, Language in Society, 1984, 13, 145–204.

17. Natalie Schilling-Estes, ‘Investigating "Self-conscious" Speech: The Performance Register in Ocracoke English’, Language in Society, 1998, 27, 53–83.

Part 3: Perception, Processing, and Attitudes

18. Kathryn Campbell-Kibler, ‘The Nature of Sociolinguistic Perception’, Language Variation and Change, 2009, 21, 135–56.

19. William Labov, Sharon Ash, Maya Ravindranath, Tracey Weldon, Maciej Baranowski, and Naomi Nagy, ‘Properties of the Sociolinguistic Monitor’, Journal of Sociolinguistics, 2011, 15, 431–64.

20. Dennis Preston, ‘Language with an Attitude’, in J. K. Chambers and N. Schilling (eds.), The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, 2nd edn. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013), pp. 158–86.

Part 4: Functional Compensation

21. Judith Hochberg, ‘Functional Compensation for /-s/ Deletion in Puerto Rican Spanish’, Language, 1986, 62, 609–21.

22. Richard Cameron, ‘Ambiguous Agreement, Functional Compensation, and Nonspecific Tú in the Spanish of San Juan, Puerto Rico and Madrid, Spain’, Language Variation and Change, 1993, 5, 304–34.

Part 5: The Role of Frequency in Variation and Change

23. Joan Bybee, ‘Word Frequency and Context of Use in the Lexical Diffusion of Phonetically Conditioned Sound Change’, Language Variation and Change, 2002, 14, 261–90.

24. James A. Walker, ‘Form, Function, and Frequency in Phonological Variation’, Language Variation and Change, 2012, 24, 397–415.

Part 6: The Origins of African American English

25. Guy Bailey, ‘The Relationship Between African American and White Vernaculars in the American South’, in Sonja L. Lanehart (ed.), Sociocultural and Historical Contexts of African American English (John Benjamins, 1998), pp. 53–92.

26. Shana Poplack, ‘How English Became African American English’, in Ans van Kemenade and Bettelou Los (eds.), The Handbook of the History of English (Wiley-Blackwell, 2006), pp. 453–76.

27. John R. Rickford, ‘Against Consensus: Challenging the New Anglicists’ Contentions Concerning the Development of AAE’, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Symposium about Language and Society: Austin, April 15–17, 2005, Texas Linguistic Forum, 2006, 49, 22–38.

28. Walt Wolfram, ‘Reexamining the Development of African American English: Evidence from Isolated Communities’, Language, 2003, 79, 282–316.

Volume III: Language Change

Part 1: Starting Points

29. William Labov, ‘The social Motivation of a Sound Change’, Word, 1963, 19, 273–309.

30. Anthony Kroch, ‘Reflexes of Grammar in Patterns of Language Change’, Language Variation and Change, 1989, 1, 199–244.

Part 2: Apparent time, Age Grading, Life Span

31. Guy Bailey, Thomas Wikle, Jan Tilley, and Lori Sand, ‘The Apparent Time Construct’, Language Variation and Change, 1991, 3, 241–64.

32. Suzanne Evans Wagner, ‘Age Grading in Sociolinguistic Theory’, Language and Linguistics Compass, 2012, 6, 371–82.

33. Gillian Sankoff, ‘Adolescents, Young Adults and the Critical Period: Two Case Studies from Seven-Up’, in Carmen Fought (ed.), Sociolinguistic Variation (Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 121–39.

Part 3: Types of Change

34. Gregory R. Guy, ‘The Sociolinguistic Types of Language Change’, Diachronica, 1990, 7, 47–67.

35. Carmen Silva-Corvalán, ‘Bilingualism and Language Change: The Extension of Estar in Los Angeles Spanish’, Language, 1986, 62, 587–609.

36. Matthew J. Gordon, ‘Theoretical and Methodological Issues in the Study of Chain Shifts’, Language and Linguistics Compass, 2011, 5, 784–94.

Part 4: Change in Syntax, Morphology, and Phonology

37. Hans Van de Velde, Roeland van Hout, and Marinel Gerritsen, ‘Watching Dutch Change: A Real Time Study of Variation and Change in Standard Dutch Pronunciation’, Journal of Sociolinguistics, 1997, 1, 361–91.

38. Ruth King, France Martineau, and Raymond Mougeon, ‘The Interplay of Informal and External Factors in Grammatical Change: First-person Plural Pronouns in French’, Language, 87, 470–509.

39. Ann Taylor and Susan Pintzuk, ‘The Interaction of Syntactic Change and Information Status Effects in the Change from OV to VO in English’, Catalan Journal of Linguistics, 2011, 10, 71–94.

Part 5: Grammaticalization

40. Gillian Sankoff and Penelope Brown, ‘The Origins of Syntax in Discourse: A Case Study of Tok Pisin Relatives’, Language, 1976, 52, 631–66.

41. Ziqiang Shi, ‘The Grammaticalization of the Particle le in Mandarin Chinese’, Language Variation and Change, 1989, 1, 99–114.

Part 6: New Varieties

42. Paul Kerswill and Ann Williams, ‘Creating a New Town Koine: Children and Language Change in Milton Keynes’, Language in Society, 2000, 29, 65–115.

43. Ricardo Otheguy, Ana Celia Zentella, and David Livert, ‘Language and Dialect Contact in New York: Toward the Formation of a Speech Community’, Language, 2007, 83, 770–802.

Volume IV: Internal and External Constraints

Part 1: Internal Constraints

44. Gregory Guy and Sally Boyd, ‘The Development of a Morphological Class’, Language Variation and Change, 1990, 2, 1–18.

45. Ann Houston, ‘A Grammatical Continuum for (ING)’, in Peter Trudgill and J. K. Chambers (eds.), Dialects of English: Studies in Grammatical Variation (Longman, 1991), pp. 241–57.

46. Thomas Wasow, ‘Remarks on Grammatical Weight’, Language Variation and Change, 1997, 9, 81–105.

47. Miriam Meyerhoff, ‘Animacy in Bislama? Using Quantitative Methods to Evaluate Transfer of a Substrate Feature’, in James Stanford and Dennis Preston (eds.), Variation in Indigenous Minority Languages (John Benjamins), pp. 369–96.

Part 2: Gender and Sexuality

48. Peter Trudgill, ‘Sex, Covert Prestige and Linguistic Change in the Urban British English of Norwich’, Language in Society, 1972, 1, 179–95.

49. Penelope Eckert, ‘The Whole Woman: Sex and Gender Differences in Variation’, Language Variation and Change, 1989, 1, 245–67.

50. Richard Cameron, ‘Aging and Gendering’, Language in Society, 2005, 34, 23–61.

51. Rob Podesva, ‘Phonation as a Type of Stylistic Variable: The Use of Falsetto in Constructing a Persona’, Journal of Sociolinguistics, 2007, 11, 478–504.

Part 3: Class, Networks, and Speech Communities, and Communities of Practice

52. Anthony Kroch, ‘Toward a Theory of Social Dialect Variation’, Language in Society, 1978, 7, 17–36.

53. Robin Dodsworth, ‘Modeling Socioeconomic Class in Variationist Sociolinguistics’, Language and Linguistics Compass, 2009, 3, 1314–27.

54. Lesley Milroy and James Milroy, ‘Social Network and Social Class: Toward an Integrated Sociolinguistic Model’, Language in Society, 1992, 21, 1–22.

55. Otto Santa Ana and Claudia Parodi, ‘Modeling the Speech Community: Configuration and Variable Types in the Mexican Spanish Setting’, Language in Society, 1998, 27, 23–51.

56. Penelope Eckert, ‘Three Waves of Variation Study: The Emergence of Meaning in the Study of Variation’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 2012, 41, 87–100.

Part 5: Ethnicity

57. Sharon Ash and John Myhill, ‘Linguistic Correlates of Interethnic Contact’, in David Sankoff (ed.), Diversity and Diachrony (John Benjamins, 1986), pp. 33–44.

58. John R. Rickford, ‘Ethnicity as a Sociolinguistic Boundary’, American Speech, 1985, 60, 99–125.

59. Sarah Benor, ‘Ethnolinguistic Repertoire: Shifting the Analytic Focus in Language and Ethnicity’, Journal of Sociolinguistics, 2010, 14, 159–83.

Volume V: Extensions and Applications of Sociolinguistics

Part 1: Language Acquisition

60. Julie Roberts, ‘Hitting a Moving Target: Acquisition of Sound Change in Progress by Philadelphia Children’, Language Variation and Change, 1997, 9, 249–66.

61. J. K. Chambers, ‘Dialect Acquisition’, Language, 1992, 68, 673–705.

62. Jennifer Smith, Mercedes Durham, and Hazel Richards, ‘The Social and Linguistic in the Acquisition of Sociolinguistic Norms: Caregivers, Children, and Variation’, Linguistics, 2013, 51, 285–324.

Part 2: Second-Language Acquisition

63. H. D. Adamson and Vera Regan, ‘The Acquisition of Community Speech Norms by Asian Immigrants Learning English as a Second Language: A Preliminary Study’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1991, 13, 1–22.

64. Robert Bayley, ‘Competing Constraints on Variation in the Speech of Adult Chinese Learners of English’, in Robert Bayley and Dennis R. Preston (eds.), Second Language Acquisition and Linguistic Variation (John Benjamins), pp. 97–120.

65. Hanh thi Nguyen and Marlys A. Macken, ‘Factors Affecting the Production of Vietnamese Tones: A Study of American Learners’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 2008, 30, 49–77.

66. Kimberly Geeslin and Aarnes Gudmestad, ‘An Exploration of the Range and Frequency of Forms in Potentially Variable Structures in Second-language Spanish’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 2010, 32, 233–63.

Part 3: Variation in Sign Languages

67. James Woodward, ‘Black Southern Signing’, Language in Society, 1976, 5, 211–18.

68. Robert Bayley, Ceil Lucas, and Mary Rose, ‘Phonological Variation in American Sign Language: The Case of 1 Handshape’, Language Variation and Change, 2002, 14, 19–53.

69. Adam Schembri, David McKee, Rachel McKee, Sara Pivac, Trevor Johnston, and Della Goswell, ‘Phonological Variation and Change in Australian and New Zealand Sign Languages: The Location Variable’, Language Variation and Change, 2009, 21, 193–232.

Part 4: Applying Sociolinguistics

70. Anne H. Charity, ‘Linguists as Agents for Social Change’, Language and Linguistics Compass 2, 2008, 923–39.

71. Walt Wolfram, Jeffrey Reaser, and Charlotte Vaughn, ‘Operationalizing Linguistic Gratuity: From Principle to Practice’, Language and Linguistics Compass 2, 2008, 1109–34.

72. William Labov and Bettina Baker, ‘What is a Reading Error?’, Applied Psycholinguistics, 2010, 31, 735–57.

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