Laser in Manufacturing

Overview

Generally a laser (light amplification by stimulated emission ofradiation) is defined as “a device which uses a quantummechanical effect, stimulated emission, to generate a coherent beamof light from a lasing medium of controlled purity, size, andshape”. Laser material processing represents a great numberof methods, which are rapidly growing in current and differentindustrial applications as new alternatives to traditionalmanufacturing processes. Nowadays, the use of lasers inmanufacturing is an emerging area ...

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Overview

Generally a laser (light amplification by stimulated emission ofradiation) is defined as “a device which uses a quantummechanical effect, stimulated emission, to generate a coherent beamof light from a lasing medium of controlled purity, size, andshape”. Laser material processing represents a great numberof methods, which are rapidly growing in current and differentindustrial applications as new alternatives to traditionalmanufacturing processes. Nowadays, the use of lasers inmanufacturing is an emerging area with a wide variety ofapplications, for example, in electronics, molds and dies, andbiomedical applications.
The purpose of this book is to present a collection of examplesillustrating the state of the art and research developments tolasers in manufacturing, covering laser rapid manufacturing, lasersin metal forming applications, laser forming of metal foams,mathematical modeling of laser drilling, thermal stress analysis,modeling and simulation of laser welding, and the use of lasers insurface engineering.
This book can be used as a research book for a final undergraduateengineering course or as a subject on lasers in manufacturing atthe postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a usefulreference for academics, laser researchers, mechanical,manufacturing, materials or physics engineers, or professionals inany related modern manufacturing technology.

Contents

1. Laser Rapid Manufacturing: Technology, Applications, Modelingand Future Prospects, Christ P. Paul, Pankaj Bhargava, Atul Kumar,Ayukt K. Pathak and Lalit M. Kukreja.
2. Lasers in Metal Forming Applications, Stephen A. Akinlabi, MukulShukla, Esther T. Akinlabi and Tshilidzi Marwala.
3. Laser Forming of Metal Foams, Fabrizio Quadrini, DeniseBellisario, Erica A. Squeo and Loredana Santo.
4. Mathematical Modeling of Laser Drilling, Maturose Suchatawat andMohammad Sheikh.
5. Laser Cutting a Small Diameter Hole: Thermal Stress Analysis,Bekir S. Yilbas, Syed S. Akhtar and Omer Keles.
6. Modeling and Simulation of Laser Welding, Karuppudaiyar R.Balasabramanian, Krishnasamy Sankaranarayanasamy and Gangusami N.Buvanashekaran.
7. Lasers in Surface Engineering, Alberto H. Garrido, RubénGonzález, Modesto Cadenas, Chin-Pei Wang and FarshidSadeghi.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848213692
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/27/2012
  • Series: ISTE Series , #686
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 256
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface J. Paolo Davim xi

Chapter 1 Laser Rapid Manufacturing: Technology, Applications, Modeling and Future Prospects Christ P. Paul Pankaj Bhargava Atul Kumar Ayukt K. Pathak Lalit M. Kukreja 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Laser rapid manufacturing 2

1.3 Laser rapid manufacturing system 4

1.3.1 High power laser system 4

1.3.2 Material feeding system 5

1.3.3 CNC workstation 13

1.4 Various laser rapid manufacturing systems 13

1.5 Relevant processing parameters 16

1.6 Typical applications of LRM 24

1.6.1 Colmonoy-6 bushes 24

1.6.2 Solid and porous structures of Inconel-625 27

1.6.3 Cemented carbide components 33

1.6.4 Erosion wear resistant surfaces 37

1.7 LRM process modeling 41

1.8 LRM process control 51

1.8.1 Measurement of melt-pool temperature 53

1.8.2 Measurement of track geometry 55

1.8.3 LRM process controllers 56

1.9 Future prospects 57

1.10 Conclusion 59

1.11 Acknowledgments 60

1.12 Bibliography 60

Chapter 2 Lasers in Metal Forming Applications Stephen A. Akinlabi Mukul Shukla Esther T. Akinlabi Tshilidzi Marwala 69

2.1 Introduction 69

2.2 Laser 70

2.3 Metal forming - introduction 72

2.4 Laser beam forming 73

2.4.1 Principles of LBF 74

2.4.2 Parameters influencing the LBF process 75

2.5 LBF mechanisms 84

2.5.1 Temperature gradient mechanism (TGM) 86

2.5.2 Buckling mechanism 88

2.5.3 Point mechanism 89

2.5.4 Shortening or upsetting mechanism 90

2.6 Advantages and disadvantages of LBF 91

2.7 LBF of a steel plate 92

2.7.1 Introduction 92

2.7.2 Material 92

2.7.3 Laser system 93

2.7.4 Experimental LBF setup 94

2.8 Design of experiments 95

2.8.1 Taguchi design 96

2.8.2 Effect of LBF factors on the resulting curvature 99

2.9 Sample characterization 100

2.9.1 Optical microscopy 100

2.9.2 Microhardness 102

2.9.3 Tensile test 102

2.10 Conclusion 104

2.11 Bibliography 104

Chapter 3 Laser Forming of Metal Foams Fabrizio Quadrini Denise Bellisario Erica A. Squeo Loredana Santo 109

3.1 Introduction 109

3.2 Scientific background 110

3.2.1 Aluminum foam sandwich panels 110

3.2.2 Open-cell aluminum foams 111

3.2.3 Laser forming 113

3.3 Materials and experimental methods 113

3.3.1 Materials 115

3.3.2 Laser bending tests 115

3.3.3 Material analyses 117

3.4 Experimental results and discussion 117

3.4.1 Open-cell foams 117

3.4.2 Closed-cell foams (AFS panels) 120

3.4.3 The comparison 121

3.4.4 Obtaining high bending angles 123

3.4.5 Mechanical testing 124

3.4.6 Micro-structural analysis 125

3.5 Numerical modeling 127

3.5.1 The finite element model 127

3.5.2 Laser processing simulation 127

3.5.3 Compression test simulation 129

3.5.4 Numerical results 131

3.6 Conclusions 134

3.7 Bibliography 135

Chapter 4 Mathematical Modeling of Laser Drilling Maturose Suchatawat Mohammad Sheikh 139

4.1 Introduction 139

4.2 Solid heating 141

4.3 Melting 145

4.4 Vaporization 151

4.5 Mathematical model of laser percussion drilling incorporating the effects of the exothermic reaction 156

4.5.1 Modeling the pulse-on heating process 156

4.5.2 Solidification during pulse-off 164

4.6 Experimental procedures for model verification 167

4.7 Results and discussion 168

4.8 Conclusion 173

4.9 Bibliography 173

Chapter 5 Laser Cutting a Small Diameter Hole: Thermal Stress Analysis Bekir S. Yilbas Syed S. Akhtar Omer Keles 179

5.1 Introduction 179

5.2 Modeling heating and thermal stress 181

5.2.1 Heating analysis 181

5.2.2 Thermal stress analysis 183

5.3 Numerical simulation 184

5.4 Experimental 185

5.5 Results and discussion 186

5.6 Conclusion 201

5.7 Acknowledgements 201

5.8 Bibliography 201

Chapter 6 Modeling and Simulation of Laser Welding Karuppudaiyar R. Balasabramanian Krishnasamy Sankaranarayanasamy Gangusami N. Buvanashekaran 203

6.1 Introduction 204

6.2 Process mechanisms 204

6.3 Operating parameter characteristics 206

6.4 Types 207

6.4.1 Gas laser 208

6.4.2 Solid state laser 208

6.4.3 Diode laser 209

6.4.4 Fiber lasers 209

6.5 Material considerations 209

6.6 Applications of laser welding 211

6.7 Strengths and limitations of laser welding 212

6.8 Developments and advances in laser welding processes 213

6.9 Modeling and analysis of the laser welding process 214

6.9.1 Design of experiments 214

6.9.2 Box-Behnken design 215

6.9.3 Artificial neural network 216

6.9.4 Finite element analysis 219

6.10 A case study 220

6.10.1 Experimental setup 220

6.10.2 Mathematical modeling of built joint 222

6.10.3 Process parameters interaction effect on the butt joint profile 227

6.10.4 ANN modeling 230

6.10.5 Finite element analysis 234

6.11 Comparison of statistical analysis, the finite element method and an ANN 241

6.12 Conclusion 243

6.13 Acknowledgment 244

6.14 Bibliography 244

Chapter 7 Lasers in Surface Engineering Alberto H. Garrido Rubén González Modesto Cadenas Chin-Pei Wang Farshid Sadeghi 247

7.1 Introduction 248

7.2 Characteristics of laser radiation 248

7.2.1 Monochromaticity 248

7.2.2 Directionality and divergence 249

7.2.3 Coherence 249

7.3 Advantages of laser devices 249

7.4 Laser surface cladding 250

7.4.1 Introduction 250

7.4.2 Process description 251

7.4.3 Process parameters 252

7.5 Laser surface cladding by powder injection 253

7.5.1 Types of powder injection techniques 255

7.6 Energetic study of the cladding process 257

7.6.1 Energy losses due to reflection off the surface of the cladding area 260

7.6.2 Energy losses due to radiation 261

7.6.3 Energy losses due to convection 262

7.6.4 Energy used in creating and bonding the coating 263

7.7 Control parameters of laser surface cladding 264

7.8 Widely used materials and alloys 266

7.9 Laser surface treatments 266

7.9.1 Introduction 266

7.9.2 Laser hardening 267

7.9.3 Laser surface melting 267

7.9.4 Laser surface texturing 267

7.10 Laser surface texturing techniques 272

7.10.1 Melting 272

7.10.2 Vaporization 274

7.10.3 Melting and vaporization: 274

7.10.4 Melting and gas injection 276

7.10.5 Process parameters 279

7.11 Characterization of laser surface texturing 285

7.11.1 Geometry 285

7.11.2 Density 286

7.12 Bibliography 286

List of Authors 293

Index 297

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