Latin America and Its People, Volume 1 / Edition 3

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Overview

A thematic approach to detailing Latin America.

For courses in Latin-American history.

Written by two of the leading scholars in the field, Latin America and Its People presents a fresh interpretative survey of Latin-American history from pre-Columbian times to the present. It examines the many institutions that Latin-Americans have built and rebuilt - families, governments, churches, political parties, labor unions, schools and armies - through the everyday lives of the diverse people who forged these institutions and later altered them to meet changing circumstances.

Teaching and Learning Experience

Personalize Learning- MySearchLab provides engaging experiences that personalize learning and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals.

I mprove Critical Thinking- Learning More About Latin-Americans sections at the end of each chapter offer suggestions for further reading for students interested in pursuing research projects on the lives of Latin-Americans.

Engage Students- Latin-American Lives biographical essays and discussion questions focus on individuals whose lives illustrate key points within the chapter. Highlighting the famous, as well as the less well-known, these essays help students understand the individual’s effect on greater society.

Support Instructors- MySearchLab and ClassPrep.

Note: MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab at no extra charge, please visit www.MySearchLab.com or use the following (VP ISBN-10: 0205006965 , VP ISBN-13: 9780205006960)

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

This in an extremely thorough and well organized text … It also integrates the latest scholarship in the field. I like the fact that it focuses on the lives of ordinary people in Latin America and that it is attuned to issues of race, class, gender and human diversity while at the same time bringing together the peoples’ different stories under a common history.

-Christina Bueno, Northeastern Illinois University

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205054695
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 3/3/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 288
  • Sales rank: 1,072,540
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Cheryl E. Martin

Cheryl E. Martin has taught Latin-American history at the University of Texas at El Paso since 1978. A native of Buffalo, New York, she received her bachelor’s degree from the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service and her M.A. and Ph.D. from Tulane University. She studied at the Universidad de Cuenca, Ecuador, on a Fulbright Fellowship and was a visiting instructor at the Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Mexico. Her publications include Rural Society in Colonial Morelos (1985) and Governance and Society in Colonial Mexico: Chihuahua in the Eighteenth Century (1996). She also co-edited, with William Beezley and William E. French, Rituals of Rule, Rituals of Resistance: Public Celebrations and Popular Culture in Mexico (1994). Martin has served on the Council of the American Historical Association and on the editorial boards of the Hispanic American Historical Review, The Americas, the Latin American Research Review and H. Borderlands. She has received two fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and Awards for Distinguished Achievement in both teaching and research at the University of Texas at El Paso. She enjoys reading and travel and is the proud grandmother of Mackenzie and Zachary.

Mark Wasserman

Mark Wasserman is a professor of history at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, where he has taught since 1978. Brought up in Marblehead, Massachusetts, he earned his B.A. at Duke University and his M.A. and Ph.D. at the University of Chicago. He is the author of three books on Mexico: Capitalists, Caciques, and Revolution: The Native Elite and Foreign Enterprise in Chihuahua, Mexico, 1854—1911(1984), Persistent Oligarchs: Elites and Politics in Chihuahua, Mexico, 1910—1940 (1993) and Everyday Life and Politics in Nineteenth Century Mexico: Men, Women, and War (2000). He also coauthored the early editions of the best-selling History of Latin America (1980—88) with Benjamin Keen. Wasserman has twice won the Arthur P. Whitaker Prize for his books and has received research fellowships from the Tinker Foundation, the American Council of Learned Societies/Social Science Research Council, the American Philosophical Society and the National Endowment of the Humanities. He has been vice-chair for undergraduate education of the Rutgers department of history and chair of the department’s Teaching Effectiveness Committee.Wasserman was an elected member of the Highland Park, New Jersey Board of Education for nearly a decade and served as its president for two years. He is an avid fan of Duke basketball and enjoys hiking and travel.

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Table of Contents

List of Features
List of Maps and Color Plates
Map of National Capitals
Preface
About the Authors

CHAPTER 1 THE FIRST PEOPLES OF THE AMERICAS
The First Americans
Coming to America
Subsistence Strategies and the Development of Agriculture
Sedentary Communities and Ceremonial Centers
Ceremonial Centers in Mexico and Peru
The Olmec: “Mother Culture” of Mexico?
Chavín de Huantar in Peru
The Cities of Classic Mesoamerica
Monte Albán
Teotihuacan
Maya Civilization in the Classic Era
Peru After Chavín
The Moche
The Nazca
Tiwanaku
The Wari Empire
Mesoamerica and Peru, 900—1400 C.E.
The Toltecs
The Mixtecs of Oaxaca
The Post-Classic Maya
Peru after Tiwanaku and Wari
The World of Early Americans
People and Their Environment
Early Americans and Their Beliefs
Communities, States, and War
Conclusion
LEARNING MORE ABOUT LATIN AMERICANS
HOW HISTORIANS UNDERSTAND Archaeology, Literacy, and the Study of History
LATIN AMERICAN LIVES Pacal the Great, King of Palenque, 603—683 C.E.
SLICE OF LIFE The Craft Workers of Chan Chan, 1400 C.E.

CHAPTER 2 AMERICANS AND IBERIANS ON THE EVE OF CONTACT
Mesoamerica in the Fifteenth Century
The Rise of the Mexica
Mexica Statecraft
Mexica Religion
Everyday Life in the Time of the Mexica
Mesoamerica on the Eve of the Spanish Invasion
The Andes in the Fifteenth Century
The Rise of the Incas
Inca Statecraft
Andean Religion in the Time of the Incas
Everyday Life in the Time of the Incas
The Aztecs and Incas Compared
The Diversity of American Peoples
The Tainos and Caribs
The Tupi of Coastal Brazil
The “Pueblo” Peoples of New Mexico
The Spanish and the Portuguese
Centuries of Conquest
Medieval Iberia and the Reconquista
Iberian Monarchies in the Fifteenth Century
The Breakdown of Iberian “Convivencia”
Iberian Society in the Fifteenth Century
Iberia and the Beginnings of Overseas Expansion
Conclusion
LEARNING MORE ABOUT LATIN AMERICANS
HOW HISTORIANS UNDERSTAND Counting People in Past Societies
LATIN AMERICAN LIVES Tanta Carhua, Bride of the Sun
SLICE OF LIFE The Marketplace at Tlatelolco

CHAPTER 3 THE EUROPEAN CONQUEST OF AMERICA
The Europeans Arrive
Columbus and the First Encounters
The Caribbean Colonies
The Portuguese in Brazil
The Spanish in Mesoamerica and the Andes
Cortés and the Aztecs
The Search for “Otro México”
The Pizarros and the Incas
Military Conquest or Strategic Alliance?
Building a Colonial Society
The Ecological Conquest
Conquistadors, Encomenderos, and Native Peoples
A Multiracial Society in Formation
The “Spiritual Conquest” of Latin America
Early Evangelization
The Impact of Evangelization
Resistance to Christianity
The Consolidation of Colonial Empires
The Viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru
The Spanish Colonial Bureaucracy
Royal Government in Brazil
The Church in Spanish America and Brazil
The Spanish and Portuguese Empires
Conclusion
LEARNING MORE ABOUT LATIN AMERICANS
HOW HISTORIANS UNDERSTAND Malinche and the Uses of Historical Memory
SLICE OF LIFE The Cuzco Cabildo Founds a Convent, 1551
LATIN AMERICAN LIVES Domingos Fernandes Nobre, Mameluco of Brazil

CHAPTER 4 THE IBERIANS’ NEW WORLD
The Lure of Precious Metals
The Silver Boom
Labor and Technology in Silver Mining
Procuring a Labor Supply
Gold Mining in Brazil
Agriculture
Sugar Plantations
Haciendas and Ranches
Landownership
Landed Elites
Rural Society
Trade and Transportation
International Commerce
Overland Transport
Merchants
Mercantile Restrictions
Cities and Towns in the Iberians’ New World
Capital Cities
Provincial Capitals and Other Towns
Urban Amenities
Urban Working Classes
Conclusion
LEARNING MORE ABOUT LATIN AMERICANS
HOW HISTORIANS UNDERSTAND Documenting Colonial Enterprise
LATIN AMERICAN LIVES Antonio López De Quiroga, Bolivian Entrepreneur
SLICE OF LIFE The Safra in Colonial Brazil

CHAPTER 5 THE AMERINDIANS’ CHANGING WORLD
Native Communities in Mesoamerica and the Andes
Shifting Populations in the República de Indios
Local Government in the República de Indios
Subsistence and Survival in the República de Indios
Native Communities and the Cash Economy
Families and Households in the República de Indios
Religion and Community Life in the República de Indios
Natives as Catholics
Belief and Practice in the República de Indios
Religion and Community Identity
Mission Indians
Jesuit and Franciscan Missions
Native Peoples in the Jesuit and Franciscan Missions
Mission Indians and Colonial Society
Native Peoples and the Colonial Order
Indians in the República de Españoles
“Indios Bárbaros”
Regional Revolts
Native Historical Memory and the Colonial Order
Conclusion
LEARNING MORE ABOUT LATIN AMERICANS
HOW HISTORIANS UNDERSTAND Measuring Acculturation Using Indigenous Language Sources
LATIN AMERICAN LIVES Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala
SLICE OF LIFE The Indians of Oaxtepec Defend Their Land and Water

CHAPTER 6 A NEW PEOPLE AND THEIR WORLD
The Making of Multiethnic Societies
Spanish and Portuguese Immigrants
Creoles
Mestizos and Mamelucos
African Slaves
Slave Resistance
Maroon Communities
Free Blacks and Mulattos
Race and Class in Colonial Latin America
Social and Cultural Definitions of Race
Class and Ethnicity
Honor, Gender, and Patriarchy
Honor and the Patriarchal Family
Marriage and the Family
Honor and Sexuality
Honor and Homosexuality
The Limits of Patriarchy
Convents: “Islands of Women”
Convents and Colonial Society
Conformity and Defiance in Colonial Society
The Social Etiquette of Everyday Life
The Administration of Justice
The Inquisition and Deviant Behavior
Rituals of Rule
Scatological Songs and Dances of Defiance
Conclusion
LEARNING MORE ABOUT LATIN AMERICANS
HOW HISTORIANS UNDERSTAND Parish Registers and the Study of Colonial Society
LATIN AMERICAN LIVES Juana De Cobos, Baker in Chihuahua
SLICE OF LIFE Corpus Christi in Cuzco

CHAPTER 7 THE SHIFTING FORTUNES OF COLONIAL EMPIRES
The Spanish and Portuguese Empires in Eighteenth-Century Politics
Great Britain and Latin America
The Seven Years’ War
The American Revolution and Latin America
The French Revolution and Latin America
The Haitian Revolution
The Bourbon and Pombaline Reforms
Defending the Spanish Empire
Administrative Restructuring and New Viceroyalties
The Power of the Church
Economic Development
Latin American Peoples in the Age of Revolution
Social Change in the Late Colonial Period
The Changing Face of Colonial Cities
The Enlightenment in Latin America
Resistance and Rebellion in the Late Colonial Period
Developing Creole Consciousness
Resistance to the Bourbon Reforms
Conspiracies in Brazil
The Great Rebellion in Peru
Conclusion
LEARNING MORE ABOUT LATIN AMERICANS
HOW HISTORIANS UNDERSTAND Latin America and the Atlantic World
SLICE OF LIFE The Royal Tobacco Factory in Mexico City
LATIN AMERICAN LIVES José Antonio Aponte, sculptor of Havana

SLICE OF LIFE The royal tobacco factory in Mexico City

CHAPTER 8 THE NEW NATIONS OF LATIN AMERICA
Spanish America and the Crisis of 1808
Spain and the Napoleonic Invasion
Representative Government in Spain and America, 1808—1814
The “American Question”
Spanish American Grievances and the Crisis of 1808
Mexico
Venezuela
Argentina
Spanish American Independence
The Final Campaigns
Regional Conflicts in the Spanish American Struggle for Independence
The Independence of Brazil
The Portuguese Monarchy in Brazil
Popular Unrest in Brazil
The Culmination of Brazilian Independence
The Meaning of Independence
Conclusion
LEARNING MORE ABOUT LATIN AMERICANS
HOW HISTORIANS UNDERSTAND Were the wars of independence the turning point?
LATIN AMERICAN LIVES Manuela Sáenz, 1797-1856, liberator of South America
SLICE OF LIFE The 16th of September: independence day in Mexico

Glossary
Credits
Index

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