Law Enforcement in the 21st Century / Edition 2

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Law Enforcement in the 21st Century is the first book to examine the “linkage blindness” in the criminal justice system (the lack of connection between theories of policing and what actually happens in police departments), making linkages between theory and police practice through problem-solving and crime mapping applications.

It offers a fresh, new approach to presenting introductory law enforcement material that is both practical for the future law enforcement officer and intellectually rewarding for readers who may be entering a whole new field of study. The authors have organized the material in a developmental framework beginning with a discussion of law enforcement's place within the criminal justice system and a discussion of the origins of policing; the reader is then introduced to the traditional model of policing and the core aspects of the work—organizational structure and units, field operations, and investigations. The authors provide information important to law enforcement in the 21st century, including topics such as terrorism and the latest technology.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205542970
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 11/9/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 464
  • Product dimensions: 8.72 (w) x 11.19 (h) x 0.86 (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter One
Law Enforcement in a Democratic Society

Chapter outline


Themes of the Book

The Police Function: Social Control and the Use of Force

Policing within the Rule of Law: The Challenges of Discretion

The Delicate Balance: Crime Control v. Due Process

The Levels of Law Enforcement

Municipal Agencies

County Agencies

State Agencies

Federal agencies

Department of Justice

US Marshal Service

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Drug Enforcement Administration

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

Department of Homeland Security

Immigration and Customs Enforcement

U.S. Customs and Border Patrol

Transportation Security Administration

U.S. Secret Service

Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

Department of the Treasury

Internal Revenue Service

US Postal Service

Tribal Agencies

LINKAGES AND LAW ENFORCEMENT: An Introduction to the Linkage Blindness Phenomenon

LINKAGES AND LAW ENFORCEMENT Coordination and Information Sharing Between Law Enforcement and the Rest of the Criminal Justice System

From Suspect to Charge: The Role of the Police

Determining Guilt: The Role of the Court

Administering Punishment and Reforming the Offender: The Role of Corrections

Chapter Summary

Chapter 2 Origins and Development of Law Enforcement

Chapter outline


Early Origins of Social Control

Development of Formal Policing in England

From Tithings to Posse Comitatus

The Formal System of Policing


Development of Formal Policing in the United States

Early watch systems

Slave Patrols and the Jim Crow laws

The Eras of American Policing

The Political Era (1840-1930)

The Pendleton Act of 1883

Wickersham Commission

Women and Minorities in Early Policing

Origins of the Reform Era

Faces of Reform: Early Leaders in Law Enforcement Reform

August Vollmer

O.W. Wilson: The Protégé

J. Edgar Hoover: The F.B.I.

Chapter Summary

Chapter Three

Traditional Policing and Police Professionalization

INTRODUCTION: The Baby and the Bath Water

The Rise of the Professional Model of Policing

Policing as a Profession

Advanced Study

Code of Ethics


Standards of Admission

A Professional Association

A service ideal

LINKAGES AND LAW ENFORCEMENT: What Would a “Professional” Law Enforcement Agency Look Like?

Crime Control as a Focal Concern: Implication for Resource Deployment

Counting Crime: The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)

Response Rate

Structure of the UCR

Calculating Crime Indices

Limitations of the UCR

The Dark Figure of Crime

LINKAGES AND LAW ENFORCEMENT: Incident Based Reporting and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)

Measuring the Effectiveness of the Traditional Model of Policing

Rising Crime Rates

Traditional Strategies

Police-Community Relations

Back to Basics — Origins of the Community Era

Chapter Summary

Chapter Four
Law Enforcement and the Law
Chapter outline


Order of Authority

Constitutional Law

First Amendment

Freedom of Religion

Freedom of Peaceable Assembly

Freedom of Petition

Freedom of Speech

LINKAGES AND LAW ENFORCEMENT: Freedom of Speech, Assembly, Religion, and the War on Terror

Freedom of the Press

Second Amendment

Fourth Amendment

Fifth Amendment

Double Jeopardy


Sixth Amendment

Eighth Amendment


Cruel and Unusual Punishment

Tenth Amendment

Fourteenth Amendment

Criminal Law

Classification of Criminal Laws




The Components of Crime

Civil Law

Mechanisms for Civil Liability and Law Enforcement

Civil Liability and Law Enforcement: Intentional versus Negligent Wrongs

Damages Awarded for Torts and Individual Officer Responsibility

Chapter Summary

Chapter Five

Search and Seizure, Arrest and Interrogation

Chapter Outline


Search and Seizure

Stop and frisk

Exclusionary rule

Search of persons and premises

Search of motor vehicles

Pretextual stops

Systemic stops and searches

Search of public places


Search incident to arrest

The arrest warrant


Miranda v. Arizona

When Miranda warnings must be read

Terrorism and the U.S. Constitution

The USA Patriot Act of 2001

The Posse Comitatus Act

Privacy and the Internet

Cyber offenses

Child pornography investigations

Legal implications of cyber crime

Chapter Six Policing Functions and Units

Chapter Outline


Goals of Policing — Order Maintenance vs. Law Enforcement

Translating Goals into Mission Statements and Policy

Organizational Structure and Accountability

Hierarchical Structures — Centralized Policing

Flat Organizations — Decentralized Policing

LINKAGES AND LAW ENFORCEMENT: Implications of Cross-Agency Cooperation for Organizational Structure

Divisions and Units

Administrative Services

Personnel Division


Research and Planning

Public Information

Internal Affairs — Office of Professional Standards

Special Units and Divisions


The Fine Line between Entrapment and Encouragement

Unique Stressors and Dangers

Special Weapons and Tactics (S.W.A.T.) Units

The Origins of Police S.W.A.T. Teams

New Trends and Controversies

Juvenile Units

Canine (K9) Units

Chapter Summary

Chapter Seven

Patrol and Traffic


The Realities of Patrol

Patrol officer use of time

Productivity measures

The Patrol Function

Types of Patrol

Random or Routine Patrol

Directed Patrol

Freeing Up Resources for Directed Patrol — Differential Response

Aggressive Patrol

Saturation Patrol

The Effectiveness of Patrol

The Kansas City Patrol Experiment

Methods of Patrol






Water and Helicopter Patrols

Patrol Deployment

Rotating vs. assigned shifts

Time of day and Shift Hours

Fatigue is a problem in shift work

Allocating personnel

Foot patrol vs. Automobile patrol assignments

Balancing the patrol and reactive models — integrated patrol

Traffic Goals and Enforcement

Dangers of traffic stops

LINKAGES IN LAW ENFORCEMENT: Role of Patrol in Detecting Terrorist Activities

Automated traffic enforcement

Community Policing and Patrol Deployment

Deployment and Shift Assignments

Balancing the proactive and reactive models — integrated patrol

Chapter Summary

Chapter Eight

Investigation and Evidence Collection


The Development of the Investigative Function

The Realities of Investigation

Clearance rates

Solvability factors

Discovery vs. involvement crimes

Preliminary Investigation

Patrol as first officer on the scene

The Follow-up Investigation

The Locard Exchange Principle

Primary crime scenes

Secondary crime scenes

Physical Evidence

Bodily fluids

Latent fingerprints


Behavioral Evidence: Signature vs. MO

Criminal profiling: induction vs. deduction

Modus operandi


Behavioral evidence — organized vs disorganized crime scenes

Technology and Investigation: reducing linkage blindness

CAD systems




Investigating Terror: models of counterterrorism

Challenges of Police-Prosecutor Collaboration

Chapter Summary

Chapter Nine

Policing Discretion and Behavior


The Role of Discretion in Policing

Defining Police Discretion

Factors Affecting the Exercise of Officer Discretion

Offense Seriousness

Attitude of the Suspect

Characteristics, Position, and Preference of the Victim

Relationship between the Suspect and the Victim

Evidence of the Offence

The Race and Gender of the Parties to the Offence

The Importance of Police Behavior

Psychological Explanations: Pre-disposition and Police Behavior — Police Personality or Culture

Educational Explanations: Police Recruits and the effects of Police Training

Sociological Explanations: Skolnick’s “Working Personality”

Organizational Explanations: Wilson’s Three Styles of Policing

The Watchman Style

The Legalistic Style

The Service Style

Reconciling the Theories

Police Stress

Sources of Police Stress

Internal and External Organizational Stressors

Work-Related Stressors

LINKAGES AND LAW EMFORCEMENT: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Following Response to Stress — Law Enforcement and Other Emergency Workers

Police Suicide

The Causes of Police Suicide

Combating the Problem

Chapter Summary

Chapter Ten
Policing Multicultural Communities


Key Problems and Sources of Tension

Police Racism and Racial Profiling



Aggressive Patrol Tactics and Minority Communities

Policing Diversity: Cultural and Linguistic Barriers to Communication

Policing the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Community

Policing the Mentally Ill

Policing the Gay Lesbian Bisexual Transgendered Community (GLBT)

Under-Reporting of Crime

Under-Representation of Racial Minorities in the Police

Finding Solutions: Cultural Diversity and Policing

Cultural Diversity Training and Education

Improving the Representation of Minorities in the Police


Chapter Summary

Chapter Eleven

Policing the Police

Chapter Outline


Use of force

The force continuum

Excessive force

Excessive force v. brutality: The case of Abner Louima

Objective reasonableness: Graham v. Connor

Deadly force

The fleeing felon rule

Tennessee v. Garner

High speed pursuits as deadly force


Grass eaters vs. meat eaters

Socialization process

Investigative Commissions: From Wickersham to Christopher

The Wickersham Commission (1931)

The Kerner Commission (1965)

The Knapp Commission (1972)

The Mollen Commission (1994)

The Christopher Commission (1992)

Recommendations from the Commissions

Models of Civilian Oversight

History of civilian oversight

Walker’s Typologies

Probelms with the complaint process: Is there a “best practice”?

Chapter Summary

Chapter Twelve

New Community Policing and Problem Solving


What is Community?

Theoretical Underpinnings of Community Policing

Broken Windows Theory

Skogan’s Disorder and Decline

Public Health Model

Community Partnership and Problem solving

Networking: Coordination — Collaboration

Community-oriented vs. Problem-oriented Policing — why differentiate?

The SARA Model

The crime triangle

From prevalence to target area to hot spots

Management Implications of Community Policing

Philosophical dimension

Strategic dimension

Programmatic dimension

Barriers to Implementing Community Policing

The realities of community mobilization

Facing organizational resistance

LINKAGES AND LAW ENFORCEMENT: The Relationship Between Causes of Crime and Strategy

Situational Crime Prevention

Chapter Summary

Chapter Thirteen

Advances in Policing - New Technologies for Crime Analysis

Chapter Outline


The Stages of Technological Advancement in Policing

The First Stage (1881-1945)

The Second Stage (1946-1959)

The Third Stage (1960-1979)

The Fourth Stage (1980 — present)

Crime Analysis

Strategic Crime Analysis

Tactical Crime Analysis

Geo-mapping Crime Patterns: Moving Beyond Push Pins

What Crime Maps Do: GIS as a Technical Aid to POP

LINKAGES IN LAW ENFORCEMENT: GIS Applications to sex offender management

Types of Data with Mapping Applications

Mapping and Accountability: GIS in Action

The NYPD CompStat Model

GIS and the Patrol Officer

LINKAGES IN LAW ENFORCEMENT: GIS Applications to Community Policing

Other Applications: Geographic Profiling

Twenty-first Century Technologies in Policing

Surveillance Technologies

Closed-Circuit Television

Global Positioning Systems


Facial Recognition Software

Fingerprint Identification Systems

Interjurisdictional Communication Technology

Offender Databases

Cross-Jurisdictional Radio Communications

Electronic Warrant Processes

Information Security Through Encryption

The World Wide Web and Community Policing

Improving Accountability: Mobile Communications with Patrol

Mobile Digital Communications

Automatic Vehicle Monitoring

Chapter Summary

Chapter Fourteen New Standards for Police Recruitment


Bonafide Job Requirements



Legal knowledge




Background checks

The written test

The interview process

Psychological tests

Physical agility

Research finding on the job performance of female officers

Affirmative Action

Effectiveness of affirmative action

Legal Issues

Barriers for women and minorities in the department


Variations in academy training across the country

What should be taught: A comparative analysis

Length of academy

Integration of the new officer onto the force

Developing community interaction skills

Preventing the “Us versus Them” socialization process

Standards for Promotion

Chapter Summary

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