The Leadership Challenge: How to Make Extraordinary Things Happen in Organizationsby James M. Kouzes, Barry Z. Posner
The most trusted source of leadership wisdom, updated to address today's realities
The Leadership Challenge is the gold-standard manual for effective leadership, grounded in research and written by the premier authorities in the field. With deep insight into the complex interpersonal dynamics of the workplace, this book positions leadership both as/i>/b>
The most trusted source of leadership wisdom, updated to address today's realities
The Leadership Challenge is the gold-standard manual for effective leadership, grounded in research and written by the premier authorities in the field. With deep insight into the complex interpersonal dynamics of the workplace, this book positions leadership both as a skill to be learned, and as a relationship that must be nurtured to reach its full potential. This new sixth edition has been revised to address current challenges, and includes more international examples and a laser focus on business issues; you'll learn how extraordinary leaders accomplish extraordinary things, and how to develop your leadership skills and style to deliver quality results every time. Engaging stories delve into the fundamental roles that great leaders fulfill, and simple frameworks provide a primer for those who seek continuous improvement; by internalizing key insights and putting concepts into action, you'll become a more effective, more impactful leader.
A good leader gets things done; a great leader aspires, inspires, and achieves more. This book highlights the differences between good and great, and shows you how to bridge the chasm between getting things done and making things happen.
- Gain deep insight into leadership's critical role in organizational health
- Navigate the shift toward team-oriented work relationships
- Motivate and inspire to break through the pervasive new cynicism
- Leverage the electronic global village to deliver better results
Business is evolving at an increasingly rapid rate, and leaders must keep pace with the changes or risk stagnation. People work differently, are motivated differently, and have different expectations today—business as usual is quickly losing its effectiveness. The Leadership Challenge helps you stay current, relevant, and effective in the modern workplace.
Read an Excerpt
Chapter 8: Sharing Power And InformationShare information so your employees can see how to help- and they'll improve the business.
Coordinator of the Guiding Team
If citizens are to take responsibility for governing, says Sunne McPeak, they must first be empowered. As president and CEO of the Bay Area Economic Forum and a former member of the Contra Costa County (California) Board of Supervisors, McPeak takes great pride in the large number of her constituents who continue their participation in local government activities long after their direct involvement with her. McPeak knows that when coalitions of highly diverse interests (such as growers and environmentalists in the Coalition to Stop the Peripheral Canal, which she co-chaired) come together, it's impossible for them to reach consensus and forge commitment unless they're provided with the skills and knowledge needed to make good judgments. For McPeak, keeping people informed, developing personal relationships among the participants, involving people in important decisions, and acknowledging and giving credit for people's contributions are essential to any process for reinventing government.
We find that, like McPeak, exemplary leaders make other people feel strong. They enable others to take ownership of and responsibility for their group's success. Long before empowerment was written into the popular vocabulary, credible leaders knew that only when their constituents felt strong, capable, and efficacious could they ever hope to get extraordinary things done. Constituents who feel weak, incompetent, and insignificant consistently underperform, they want to flee the organization, and they're ripe for disenchantment, even revolution.
People who feel powerless, be they managers or individual contributors, tend to hoard whatever shreds of power they have. Powerless managers, for example, tend to adopt petty and dictatorial styles. Powerlessness creates organizational systems in which political skills are essential and "covering yourself " and "passing the buck" are the preferred modes of handling interdepartmental differences.
When constituents have very little power, those in positions of authority can easily get people to follow orders. Under such circumstances, authority figures often attribute other people's behavior, no matter how good it is, to their own orders rather than to constituents' abilities and motivations. Stanford University researcher Jeffrey Pfeffer has found that "if behavior occurs in the presence of a great deal of external pressureeither positive in the form of monetary inducements or negative in the form of threats and sanctions-people are likely to conclude that the external forces both caused the behavior and were, in fact, necessary to produce it."
The most insidious thing about external control is that it actually erodes the intrinsic motivation that a person might have for a task. In other words, even the constituents begin to assume that only outside forces will compel them to do anything. And yet intrinsic motivation is esential to getting extraordinary things done. When people do things because they're told to, not because they want to, they don't perform at their best. Thus reliance on external power and control-whether by the authorities or the members-over time diminishes the capacity of individuals and organizations to excel.
This phenomenon was cleverly documented in one experiment involving small workgroups. Employees in some workgroups were allowed to influence decisions about their work (were made powerful, in other words), while those in other workgroups were not (were made powerless). The managers of the powerless groups routinely complained that their employees weren't motivated to work hard. These managers saw their workers as unsuitable for promotion and downplayed their skills and talents, and they evaluated the work output of their employees less favorably than did the managers of powerful workgroups. In fact, the actual output of both groups was roughly equivalent; it was the lack of employee opportunity to exercise influence that caused the managers to see their groups as poor performers.
The opportunity to create a climate where people are involved and important is at the heart of strengthening others. To create this climate, leaders use power in service of others, not in service of their own private interests.
Power in Service of OthersTo get a better sense of how it feels to be powerless as well as enabled, try this exercise to clarify your own experiences: Take out a piece of paper and divide it into two columns. Label the left-hand column "Powerless Times" and the right-hand column "Powerful Times." Now think about work- related times when you felt powerless-weak, insignificant, like a pawn in someone else's chess game. Record the actions or situational conditions that contributed to your feelings of powerlessness. Once you've recorded a few examples of powerless times, turn your attention to those times you felt powerful-strong, efficacious, like the creator of your own experience.
Record the actions or conditions that contributed to your feelings of powerfulness.
Representative statements that we've received in response to this task in our workshops are shown in the list that follows. See how these compare to your own experiences:
Powerless Times Powerful Times
- I had no input into a hiring decision of someone who was to report directly to me. I didn't even get to speak to the candidate.
- I was able to make a large financial decision on my, own. I got to write a check for $200,000 without being questioned.
- I was asked to take on a project for which I didn't have the experience. I was told, "I know you'll be successful."
- People picked me apart while I was making a presentation, and the champion of the project didn't support me.
- I was told I couldn't ask questions because I lacked the appropriate educational level.
- After having received a memo that said, "Cut travel," I made my case about why it was necessary to travel for business reasons; and I was told to go ahead.
- They treated us like mushrooms. They fed us and kept us in the dark.
- I interviewed job candidates and then got no feedback on the results.
- I was five years old, and my dad said, "You'll make a great mechanic one day" He planted the seed. Now I'm an engineer.
- I worked extremely hard-long hours and late nights-on an urgent project, and then my manager took full credit for it.
- I wanted to put a new program into effect, but we'd reached the
- My suggestions, whether good or bad, were either not solicited or-worse-ignored.
- The project was reassigned without my knowledge or input.
- I couldn't get answers to my questions.
Meet the Author
James M. Kouzes is chairman of the Tom Peters Group/Learning Systems, which makes leadership work through practical, performance-oriented learning programs, including the Leadership Challenge Workshop and Leadership Is Everyone's Business. In 1993 the Wall Street Journal cited him as one of the twelve most requested "nonuniversity executive-education providers" to U.S. companies.
Barry Z. Posner, Ph.D, is dean of the Leavey School of Business, Santa Clara University, and professor of organizational behavior. He has received several outstanding teaching and leadership awards, has published more than eighty research and practitioner-oriented articles, and currently is on the editorial review boards for the Journal of Management Education, the Journal of Management Inquiry, and the Journal of Business Ethics. He also serves on the board of directors for Public Allies-Silicon Valley and for the Center for Excellence in Nonprofits.