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“This is a great book.”
The leaders you are called upon to lead may be other ...
The leaders you are called upon to lead may be other executives, highly educated experts, investors, board members, government officials, doctors, lawyers, or other professionals. The potential contributions of these elites to any organization are vital, but the likelihood of friction is also high if you don't manage relationships carefully. In any case, they are people with significant resources -- and strong opinions. How do you leverage the assets of the talented and powerful while making sure that egos remain unbruised?
Leading Leaders breaks the challenge down into the Seven Daily Tasks of Leadership, and shows you how to carry out each task when you have to manage other leaders. The seven tasks and the special challenges they entail in leading leaders are:
1. Direction How do you negotiate a vision for the organization that other leaders will buy into?
2. Integration How do you make stars a team?
3. Mediation How do you resolve conflicts over turf and power among other leaders so the organization can move forward?
4. Education How do you educate people who think they are already educated?
5. Motivation How do you move other leaders who already seem "to have everything" to do the right thing for the organization?
6. Representation How do you lead your organization's outside constituents while still leading leaders inside?
7. Trust Creation How do you gain and keep other leaders' trust, the vital capital that your own leadership depends on?
Drawing on the author's own leadership experience as well as his research in the corporate, political, academic, and professional worlds, Leading Leaders answers these questions with a clear set of effective rules for all managers to follow in successfully leading other leaders.
“This is a great book.”
“This is a great book.”
Leadership is action, not position. -DONALD H. MCGANNON
THE WORK OF LEADERS rarely includes actually performing the tasks that their organizations are designed to accomplish. CEOs don't actually make the products their corporations sell. University presidents rarely teach students. Hospital administrators never treat patients. And generals hardly ever "fight" the enemy, at least in the sense that the ordinary soldier understands that word. So what is it that leaders really do?
Most discussions of leadership look at the subject from the leader's perspective, from the viewpoint of persons who are supposed to provide this elusive but supposedly essential quality to organizations and institutions. So scholars of leadership tell us what leaders do and how they do it, and leaders themselves in their memoirs recount their triumphs and failures. While an understanding of leadership from the leader's perspective is undoubtedly illuminating, it is equally important to examine leadership from the follower's point of view. Indeed, the follower's perspective may even be more important since the whole purpose of leadership is to serve the organization, not the leader.
What Followers Expect and Need
It is oftensaid that people in organizations want and need to be led. But what exactly do organizations and institutions, employees and associates expect, want, and need from their leaders? When a corporate vice president says that his company needs "better leadership," what exactly does he mean? When a professor complains of her university's "poor leadership," what precisely is she concerned about? When a museum trustee calls for more "effective museum leadership," what is it that she is seeking? As consumers of leadership, what is it that all of these people feel they need but are not getting?
One way to try to answer this question is to look at the tasks and functions that followers expect of their leaders. In making a functional analysis of leadership, we can identify seven tasks that followers in all organizations expect their leaders to deliver. A review of what leaders do and are expected to do by their followers reveals that there are seven basic tasks that leaders must accomplish every day.
The first task is direction. Every organization, large and small, looks to its leader to articulate and establish the goals of the organization. The process of goal setting with elite followers is usually complicated, lengthy, and elaborate. Goldman Sachs needed more than a decade of discussions among it partners to decide to sell its shares to the public. Mere articulation of the vision is not enough. Leaders must also convince their followers to accept it.
Organizations not only demand that the leaders point the way but, like shepherds directing their flock, also oversee the organization's movement in that direction. Many failures of corporate governance, such as the collapse of Enron, which led to financial loss, civil suits, and even criminal charges, have been the result of failed oversight by corporate leaders. Effective performance of the task of direction includes oversight to assure that the organization avoids the legal, ethical, and financial traps that lie in wait for an organization that is moving forward, especially when it is moving onto terrain it has never ventured on before.
Mere articulation of your vision is not enough. You must convince your followers to accept it.
The second everyday leadership skill is integration. All organizations require their leaders to bring together diverse persons, each with individual wills, differing interests, and varied backgrounds, to work for the common interests of the organization. All leaders seek in varying degrees to integrate the persons they lead into a single organization, unit, or team. That task is particularly difficult in organizations composed of smart, talented, rich, and powerful people. Many elites by nature resist efforts at integration, a fact that requires innovative approaches to the process.
The third leadership challenge is mediation. All organizations consist of persons with different interests, a factor that invariably results in conflict among its members. Individuals in the same organization may struggle over turf, resources, responsibilities, and policies. In many organizations, leaders settle such conflicts by fiat or by imposing a decision. That approach will not often work with other leaders over whom a leader may have little authority. In disputes among elite followers, leaders must often mediate a solution almost as if they were settling a conflict among sovereign states.
Education is the fourth everyday leadership task. Leaders educate, coach, guide, and advise the people they lead. Through that process, leaders give the necessary knowledge and skills that empower the people they lead to carry out the jobs of the organization. The traditional view is that leaders give orders to get things done in organizations. In fact, many modern leaders achieve their goals through advice and counsel. Generally speaking, the more decentralized the organization and the more educated its members, the more important advice and education become as a tool of leadership. This is especially true when leading other leaders. Because of their sense of independence and position, elite followers are often loath to seek help and quick to reject attempts to educate them.
Persons will look to you to motivate them, encourage them, and strengthen them to do the right thing for the organization.
The fifth daily skill of leadership is motivation. Just as the city of New York looked to Mayor Rudolph Giuliani for emotional support in the aftermath of the attack on 9/11, persons in organizations look to their leaders to motivate them, encourage them, and strengthen them to do the right thing for the organization. Elites, however, are often less inclined to seek such emotional support since they fear to do so would reduce their power, influence, and elite status within the organization. Moreover, they may not respond to the traditional incentives and motivators that corporations often employ.
Representation is the sixth daily leadership task. Leaders are constantly representing the organizations they lead, whether they are negotiating a labor contract or attending a reception given by a customer, whether they are persuading their superiors to increase a departmental budget or advocating the promotion of a valued associate. Representing smart, talented, rich, and powerful people raises special challenges since they are often reluctant to grant full authority of representation to their leader and demand to ratify any and all of actions taken by that leader on their behalf with external parties. Thus, a corporate CEO negotiating the acquisition of another firm can usually operate with full authority and not be too concerned about retaining internal support throughout the negotiations. On the other hand, managing directors of organizations composed of elites, such as a law firms or consulting companies, who negotiate acquisitions of other firms must constantly assure themselves that their mandate continues and that they maintain the support of their partners through every step in the negotiation.
Without creating trust you will find it difficult, if not impossible, to direct, integrate, mediate, educate, motivate, or represent the persons you lead.
And finally, the seventh daily skill of leadership is trust creation or, more specifically, earning the trust of the persons. Creating trust is a vital skill, for without it leaders will find it difficult, if not impossible, to direct, integrate, mediate, educate, motivate, or represent the persons in their organizations. In short, without trust, a leader cannot lead effectively. Creating and maintaining the trust of an organization's elites, who are often skeptical and critical by nature because of their training, raises special challenges for its leader.
The Multitasking Leader
These seven tasks, while conceptually separate, are interrelated in practice. Helping an organization find an agreed-upon direction may also facilitate its integration, since a common goal gives a sense of unity to its members. Similarly, arriving at a common sense of direction may first require a leader to engage in extensive education about the threats and opportunities that face the organization. All good leaders perform each of these tasks every day. No leader has the luxury of focusing on one to the exclusion of all others. Leaders must multitask constantly. If they don't, they may not stay leaders for long.
Few leaders do all seven tasks equally well. Some leaders perform certain of these tasks more effectively than others because of differences in natural abilities or personal preferences. An outgoing, gregarious managing partner of a consulting or law firm may spend more time on and be more effective in representing the firm to various outside constituencies than in mediating the internal conflicts among partners that are paralyzing the firm and keeping it from adopting a new strategic direction. While resolving internal conflicts should be a matter of priority at this particular moment in the history of the firm, the managing partner without the ability or the desire to engage in conflict resolution may find more satisfying, not to say easier, ways to exercise leadership by spending time out of the office working on what he considers "essential matters" of representation.
When followers complain of poor leadership, they may be referring to a leader's performance on different tasks. A corporate vice president may feel that the CEO is not giving strong leadership because he is not articulating a vision-a direction-that will allow the company to face the challenge of changing technology. On the other hand, a professor, complaining of a university president's poor leadership, may mean that he is not doing enough to motivate and support the faculty in their work. And a museum board member lamenting the ineffective leadership of the museum's executive director may really be criticizing the director's failure to represent the museum powerfully to the community and thus raise the funds necessary for the museum's development.
For both leaders and followers, it is therefore essential to understand the individual tasks of leadership in all their complexity so leaders may deliver this vital commodity more effectively and followers may better evaluate and use what is being delivered.
Conclusion: Leadership's Seven Daily Tasks
Any leader must face these seven tasks every day. For leaders of other leaders, they require a special approach, as the following list reveals:
1. Direction: Negotiating the vision
2. Integration: Making stars a team
3. Mediation: Settling leadership conflicts
4. Education: Teaching the educated
5. Motivation: Moving other leaders
6. Representation: Leading outside of the organization
7. Trust Creation: Capitalizing your leadership
In the next seven chapters we will look at each of these daily tasks of leadership in detail to see in particular how you may accomplish them in leading smart, talented, rich, and powerful people.
Excerpted from Leading Leaders by Jeswald W. Salacuse Copyright © 2006 by Jeswald W. Salacuse. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Chapter 1. Leaders as Followers
Leading Without Authority
Leaders as a Different Breed of Cat
Leading Leaders against Iraq
Lessons for Leading Leaders
Chapter 2. Leading One-on-One
Leadership as Relationship
Communication as the Key to Leadership Relationships
Leadership up Close and Personal
Choosing the Right Leadership Medium
The Building Blocks of Leadership Relationships
Work on the Relationship
Chapter 3. The Art of Strategic Leadership Conversation
The Game of Strategic Conversation
The Case of Hans Brandt
Seven Rules for Strategic Conversations
Define and Stay Focused on Your Goal
Get to Know the Other Person and Especially That Person's Interests
Appeal to and Shape Those Interests
Anticipate the Other Person's Possible Actions and Reactions
Generate Options Together
Evaluate the Options Using a Fair Process
Decide and Gain Commitment for the Decision
Chapter 4. The Seven Daily Tasks of Leadership
A Follower's Guide to Leadership
The Multi-Tasking Leader
Chapter 5. Task No. 1: Direction - Negotiating the Vision
Determining the Direction, the Way, the Vision
Visionary Prophet or Visionary Diplomat?
Securing Commitment to the Direction
Negotiating a Vision for Goldman Sachs
Negotiating a Direction
Conclusion: Rules for Negotiating a Direction
Chapter 6. Task No. 2: Integration - Making Stars a Team
The Follower's Dilemma
Barriers to Integration
No Perceived Common Interests
Lack of Felt Shared History
Too Much Bad History
Poor Internal Communications
Removing the Barriers to Integration
Make Common Interests Apparent Through Meaningful Activity
Bridge the Cultural Divide
Become a Communications Engineer
Co-Opt or Isolate Spoilers
Adopt a Unite-and-Empower Style of Leadership
Conclusion: Rules for Creating Integration
Chapter 7. Task No. 3: Mediation - Settling Leadership Conflicts
The Leader as Mediator
Robyn v. Luis
The First Step: Understand Interests
Your Role as Leader-Mediator
Mediation Power Tools
Coalitions and Networks
Conclusion: Rules for Using Mediation Power Tools
Chapter 8. Task No. 4: Education - Teaching the Educated
Leaders as Managers of the Learning Process
Diagnosing the Learning Problem
Know Your Students, but Don't Treat Them Like Students
Use Existing Frameworks and Terminology
Advise and Consent, Not Command and Control
Framing the Problem
Never Give a Solo Performance
Conclusion: Rules for Educating the Educated
Chapter 9. Task No. 5: Motivation - Moving Other Leaders
The Nature of Motivation
Motivating the Person Who Has Everything
One Size Does Not Fit All
Motivation, Not Manipulation
Looking Ahead and Feeding Back
Conclusion: Rules for Providing Motivation
Chapter 10. Task No. 6: Representation - Leading Outside the Organization
The Demands of Representation
The Functions of Leadership Representation
A Tale of Two Photos
Choosing Your Shots
The Leader's Mandate
A User's Guide to Representation
The Loyal Leader
Conclusion: Rules for Leadership Representation
Chapter 11. Task No. 7: Trust Creation Capitalizing Your Leadership
What is Trust and Why is it Important?
Raising Trust Capital
Trust by Increments
Obstacles to Trust
Conclusion: Rules of Trust
Posted April 5, 2006
This refreshing little book on leadership takes an unusual tack by focusing on how to lead leaders. This kind of leadership, says author Jeswald W. Salacuse, is different from all others. However, he explains, leaders occur at every level of an organization, so managers throughout the hierarchy will find his principles applicable. Salacuse¿s core idea is that you must discover the interests of those you wish to lead and then make it clear to them that you are serving their interests. This requires listening, personal attention, framing your objectives in their terms, and respecting their freedom and autonomy. Salacuse illustrates his ideas with examples drawn from history and contemporary politics. We recommend adding Salacuse¿s book to your leadership library.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted November 25, 2005
Jeswald Salacuse is Professor of Law at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. From 1986-1994, Professor Salacuse served as The Fletcher School¿s Dean. He also served as Dean of the School of Law at Southern Methodist University. In addition to his role as a higher education leader, he is a specialist on international negotiation and international law. Dr. Salacuse is an independent director of several mutual funds and a member of the Steering Committee of the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School. Much of today¿s literature on leadership use sports or military analogies. Indeed successful Generals and Coaches often command premium speaker fees to speak to leaders about leadership. The presumption is that there is a technique that can be used to ¿inspire¿ ¿mobilize¿ ¿energize¿ and ¿direct¿ players to work together for the sake of the team. Such programs can indeed be of value in hierarchical work systems. But what about law firms, investment banks, accounting firms, physician practices, Boards of Directors, consulting firms, higher education and research organizations? Do these military-type models of leadership work? Dr. Salacuse argues that leaders in professionals firms must ¿lead leaders¿ and not ¿troops¿ or ¿employees¿ or ¿players.¿ By leaders, he refers to people who have an independent power base outside their organizational roles. That power base might be the marketability of their own talents, their network of contacts, their stature within their professions, their wealth, their ability to access clients/funding sources. This book asks how can a leader lead leaders? Dr. Salacuse employs political metaphors rather than military or sports analogies to make practical points. He reasons that politics is the art of managing other leaders who have their own power base and are not necessarily dependent on the leader. He has a fascinating chapter on ¿the medium sends the message¿ and uses the different managerial approaches of President George H.W. Bush versus President George W. Bush to illustrate the concept. In organizing a coalition to go to war against Iraq, George H.W. Bush spent considerable time on 1:1 discussions with the phone with leaders. He appealed to the unique interests of each leader one at a time and used the phone as the primary communications tool and himself as the primary communicator. In seeking to form an alliance to go to war with Iraq, George W. Bush, on the other hand, delegated much of the communications role to others. He used broad appeals without customizing the message 1:1. Dr. Salacuse argues that the father represents the model for how to engage other leaders while the son represents the model for how not to do it. In my own experience with CEOs who get fired by their Boards of Directors, I often find that these CEOs saw 1:1 conversations with Board members as side-track issues that prevented them from managing their companies. They often did not find the time valuable and it showed in their dealings with Board members. They preferred 1:1 chats with the Chairperson combined with memos and reports to everyone else on the Board. They felt that they could inspire the group at Board meetings rather than to use the Board meeting to ratify what had been worked out quietly in 1:1 conversations. Dr. Salacuse has a fascinating chapter on how to make stars into a team. As a good negotiator he turns the topic upside down and asks leaders to first look at the issue from the perspective of the professions within the organization: how much should I allow integration to happen and how much should I allow this integration to damage my professional goals? This is the followers¿ dilemma. And leaders of professional service firms need to explicitly address making stars into teams by looking at the followers¿ dilemma first. There are practical leadership suggestions for dealing with talented spoilers and how to constantly remind peopWas this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.