Leading with Cultural Intelligence: The New Secret to Success [NOOK Book]


Why are some leaders able to create trust and negotiate contracts with Chinese, Latin Americans, and Germans all in the same day, while others are barely able to manage the diversity in their own offices? The answer lies in their cultural intelligence, or CQ. Packed with practical tools, research, and case studies, Leading with Cultural Intelligence breaks new ground, offering today’s global workforce a ...
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Leading with Cultural Intelligence: The New Secret to Success

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Why are some leaders able to create trust and negotiate contracts with Chinese, Latin Americans, and Germans all in the same day, while others are barely able to manage the diversity in their own offices? The answer lies in their cultural intelligence, or CQ. Packed with practical tools, research, and case studies, Leading with Cultural Intelligence breaks new ground, offering today’s global workforce a specific, four-step model to becoming more adept at managing across cultures:

Drive—show the interest and confidence to adapt cross-culturally
Knowledge—understand how differences such as religion, family, education, legal, and economic influences affect the way people think and behave
Strategy—monitor, analyze, and adjust plans in unfamiliar cultural setting
Action—choose the right verbal and nonverbal behaviors, depending on context

Practical and insightful, this indispensable guide shows leaders how to connect across any cultural divide, including national, ethnic, and organizational cultures.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"... an instructive, illuminating, accessible primer for all who might have commercial and organizational involvements in the multicultural times of the 21st century."— New York Journal of Books

“…essential and must read book to anyone seeking a deeper understanding of working, managing, and leadership in a multicultural world.”—Blog Business World

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780814415047
  • Publisher: AMACOM
  • Publication date: 10/1/2009
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 240
  • Sales rank: 478,427
  • File size: 796 KB

Meet the Author

DAVID LIVERMORE, PH.D., is president and partner at the Cultural Intelligence Center and a visiting research fellow at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. He has done consulting and training with leaders in 100 countries.
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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1

You Lead Across a Multicultural Terrain: Why CQ?

Leadership today is a multicultural challenge. Few of us need to be convinced of that fact. We’re competing in a global marketplace a managing a diverse workforce, and trying to keep up with rapidly shifting trends. However, many approaches to this leadership challenge seem either far too simplistic (e.g., “Smile, avoid these three taboos, and you’ll be fine”) or far too extreme (e.g., “Don’t go anywhere until you’re a cross-cultural guru”). Cultural intelligence offers a better way. The four-step cycle of cultural intelligence presented in this book is one you can run through every time you jump into a new cross-cultural situation.

What are the biggest hindrances to reaching your goals personally and professionally? How do you effectively lead people who come from different cultural backgrounds? What kinds of cultural situations bring you the greatest level of fatigue? How do you give instructions for an assignment to a Pakistani employee versus one from Bosnia? What kind of training should you design for a management team coming from multiple cultural backgrounds? How do you get feedback from a colleague who comes from a culture that values saving face above direct, straightforward feedback?

And how can you possibly keep up with all the different cultural scenarios that surface in our rapidly globalizing world? These are the kinds of questions answered by running through the four-step cycle of CQ presented in this book.

All my life I’ve been fascinated by cultures. From as far back in my childhood as a Canadian-American kid growing up in New

York, I was intrigued by the differences we’d encounter on our trips across the border to visit our relatives in Canada. The multicolored money, the different ways of saying things, and the varied cuisine we found after passing through customs drew me in.

I’ve learned far more about leadership, global issues, and my faith from cross-cultural experiences and work than from any graduate course I’ve ever taken or taught. I’ve made people laugh when I’ve stumbled through a different language or inadvertently ate something the “wrong” way. I’ve winced upon later discovering I offended a group of ethnically different colleagues because I spent too much time complimenting them. I’m a better leader, teacher a father, friend, and citizen because of the cross-cultural friendships

I’ve forged through my work. And through the fascinating domain of cultural intelligence, I’ve discovered an enriched way to understand and prepare for my cross-cultural work.

Cultural intelligence is the “capability to function effectively across national, ethnic, and organizational cultures.”1 It can be learned by almost anyone. Cultural intelligence offers leaders an overall repertoire and perspective that can be applied to a myriad of cultural situations.

It is a capability that includes four different dimensions enabling us to meet the fast-paced demands of leadership. This book describes how to gain the competitive edge and finesse that comes from running through the four-step cycle of cultural intelligence. Think about a cross-cultural assignment or situation facing you. Take a minute and walk through the four-step cycle of CQ right now:

1. CQ Drive: What is your motivation for this assignment?

2. CQ Knowledge: What cultural information is needed to fulfill this task?

3. CQ Strategy: What is your plan for this initiative?

4. CQ Action: What behaviors do you need to adapt to do this effectively?

If you don’t have a clue how to answer one or more of those questions right now, the book will explain how to do all that. But before more fully describing what cultural intelligence is and how to develop it, it is important to see its direct relevance to leadership in a rapidly globalizing world. This chapter reviews some of the most compelling reasons for becoming more culturally intelligent. We

begin with a story and then we look at an overview of the relevance of cultural intelligence to our most pressing leadership demands.


It’s the day before I fly to Monrovia, the capital city of Liberia.

Liberia, a small country on the coast of West Africa, isn’t a place a ever planned to visit. But given that my organization has recently formed a partnership there, it’s now become a regular destination for me. I’ve spent far more time working in Europe, Asia, and Latin

America, which are much more familiar destinations to me. West

Africa still feels very foreign. Yet, the flattened world of globalization makes even the most foreign places still seem oddly familiar in some strange way. Wireless access in the hotel where I stay, Diet

Coke, and the use of U.S. currency remove some of the faraway feeling of a place like Monrovia yet I still have to make a lot of adaptations to do my job in a place like Liberia.

It’s amazing how life and work in our rapidly globalizing world brings us an unprecedented number of encounters with people a places, and issues from around the world. I guess the world is flat — isn’t it? Economist Thomas Friedman popularized the term flat world to suggest that the competitive playing fields between industrialized and emerging markets are leveling.2

The day before I leave for West Africa is spent tying up loose ends prior to my weeklong absence. I respond to e-mails from colleagues in Dubai, Shanghai, Frankfurt, and Johannesburg and I talk on the phone with clients in Kuala Lumpur and Hong Kong. My wife and a grab a quick lunch at our favorite Indian restaurant, and we talk with a Sudanese refugee who bags the groceries we pick up on the way home. Before my kids return from their Cinco de Mayo celebration at school, I call my credit card company and I reach a customer service representative in Delhi. Even in the small city of Grand Rapids,

Michigan, where I live, cross-cultural encounters abound.

One would think travel across the flattened world would be easier than it is. Getting from Grand Rapids to Monrovia takes some very deliberate planning and it wreaks havoc on the body.

My travel and work have to be planned around the three days a week when Brussels Air, the only Western airline that flies into

Monrovia, goes there. But still, the fact that I can have breakfast with my family one morning and go for a run along the Atlantic

Coast in West Africa less than twenty-four hours later is still pretty amazing. So maybe the world is becoming flat.

On the flight from Brussels to Monrovia, I sit next to Tim, a twenty-two-year-old Liberian guy currently living in Atlanta. We

chat briefly. He describes his enthusiasm about going home to

Liberia for his first visit since his parents helped plan his escape to the United States during the civil war ten years previously.

As we land, I see the U.N. planes parked across the tarmac. A

mere eight hours ago, I was walking the streets of Brussels and grabbing an early morning waffle. And here I am making my way toward passport control in Monrovia. Maybe travel across multiple time zones isn’t so bad after all.

Eventually I end up at the baggage claim next to Tim, my new acquaintance. A porter who looks so old he could pass for age 100 is there to help Tim with his luggage. The porter asks Tim, “How long are you staying here, man?” Tim responds, “Only two weeks. I wish it was longer.” The porter bursts out with a piercing laugh. “Why a my man? You’re from the USA!” Tim responds, “I know, but life is hard there. I wish I could stay here longer. Life is better here.” The porter laughs even harder, slaps Tim on the back, and says, “You’re talking crazy, man. Look at you. You have an American passport!

You don’t know what a hard life is. I’ve been working the last thirtyseven hours straight and they haven’t paid me for six weeks. But a can’t give up this job. Most people don’t have jobs. But look at you.

You’ve been eating well. You look so fat and healthy. And you live in the USA!” Tim just shakes his head and says, “You don’t know. You have no idea, no idea. It’s hard. Never mind. Just get my bag.” I can see the fatigue penetrating Tim’s broad shoulders.

I can understand why the porter found it absolutely laughable that a twenty-two-year-old bloke who can afford a two-week vacation across the ocean could consider life “hard.” Yet I imagine there are some significant hardships for Tim as a young African-

American man living in Atlanta. The statistics are stacked against him. How many people lock their car doors when he walks by?

What extra hoops did he have to go through to get hired at the fitness center where he works? And Tim had told me the enormous expectations placed on him by his family and friends who stayed back in Liberia. After all, they didn’t get to escape the war, so the least he can do is send regular amounts of money to support them.

Observing these kinds of interactions as we travel provides insights into how to negotiate and fulfill our strategic outcomes.

As I walk out of the Monrovia airport, a brightly smiling woman adorned in glowing orange from head to toe sells me a

SIM card for my phone for USD $5. I hand her five U.S. dollars. a send a text message to my family to let them know I arrived safely.

While walking, texting, and looking for my driver, I nearly trip over a woman relieving herself, I see kids selling drinking water a and I pass men my age who by Liberian standards are statistically in their final years. Using my phone to send a text message home makes the foreign seem familiar, but watching my kids’ peers sell water makes the same place seem foreign.

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Table of Contents

Foreword Soon Ang Linn Van Dyne xi

Preface xiii

Why This Book xiii

Research Basis xiv

How to Read This Book xv

Acknowledgments xix

Part I What is CQ and Why do I need it?

1 You Lead Across a Multicultural Terrain: Why CQ? 3

From West Michigan to West Africa 5

Relevance to Leaders 12

Understand Diverse Customers 15

Manage Diverse Teams 15

Recruit and Develop Cross-Cultural Talent 16

Adapt Leadership Style 17

Demonstrate Respect 18

Cultural Intelligence vs. Other Intercultural Approaches 19

Conclusion 20

2 You Need a Map for the Journey: CQ Overview 23

A Four-Dimensional Model 25

CQ Drive: Showing Interest, Confidence, and Drive to Adapt Cross-Culturally 26

CQ Knowledge: Understanding Cross-Cultural Issues and Differences 26

CQ Strategy: Strategizing and Making Sense of Culturally Diverse Experiences 27

CQ Action: Changing Verbal and Nonverbal Actions Appropriately When Interacting Cross-Culturally 28

CQ Is Different from EQ 32

A Repertoire of Skills 34

An Inside-Out Approach 35

Conclusion 37

Part II How Do I Become more Culturally Intelligent?

3 Whet Your Appetite: CQ Drive (Step 1) 41

Be Honest with Yourself 45

Examine Your Confidence Level 47

Eat and Socialize 49

Count the Perks 53

Work for the Triple Bottom Line 56

Conclusion 59

4 Study the Topography: CQ Knowledge (Step 2a) 63

See Culture's Role in Yourself and Others 67

Universal 70

Cultural 71

Personal 73

Review the Basic Cultural Systems 74

Economic Systems: Capitalist vs. Socialist 75

Marriage and Family Systems: Kinship vs. Nuclear Family 76

Educational Systems: Formal vs. Informal 79

Legal andPolitical Systems: Formal Laws vs. Informal Governance 79

Religious Systems: Rational vs. Mystical 81

Artistic Systems: Solid vs. Fluid 85

Conclusion 87

5 Dig Beneath the Terrain: CQ Knowledge (Step 2b) 89

Learn the Core Cultural Values 90

Event Time vs. Clock Time 92

High Context vs. Low Context 93

Individualism vs. Collectivism 95

Low vs. High Power Distance 98

Low vs. High Uncertainty Avoidance 102

Understand Different Languages 106

Conclusion 109

6 Turn Off the Cruise Control: CQ Strategy (Step 3) 113

Become More Aware 116

Self-Awareness 121

Other Awareness 122

Plan Your Cross-Cultural Interactions 124

Check to See If Your Assumptions and Plans Were Appropriate 126

Conclusion 128

7 Run, Walk, or Jog: CQ Action (Step 4) 133

Adapt Your Communication 137

Words 138

Delivery 145

Nonverbals 146

Negotiate Differently 150

Alter Your Timing 150

Adapt Your Style 151

Remain Flexible 152

Act with Integrity 152

Know When to Flex and When Not to Flex 153

Conclusion 157

Part III How do I Apply CQ?

8 See the Journey Ahead: Proof and Consequences of CQ 163

Results of CQ 164

Enhanced Performance 164

Better Decision Making 165

Flexibility 166

International Expansion 167

Employer of Choice 167

Prevention of Burnout and Creation of Personal Satisfaction 168

Predictors of CQ 168

Personality Traits 169

Experiences 171

Ways to Develop CQ 172

Conclusion 176

9 Recruit Travel Companions: Developing CQ in Your Team 179

Integrate CQ with Your Overall Mission 179

Build Commitment with Senior Leaders 180

Fill the Organization with CQ Team Members 181

Human Resource Personnel 182

International Travelers 183

Screen Candidates for CQ 184

Reward Good CQ Performance 185

Develop CQ Strategies 186

Form CQ Structures 188

Create CQ Decision-Making Systems 190

Facilitate a CQ Learning Plan 191

Show-and-Tell 191

Divisional Training 192

Personal CQ Development Plan 192

Conclusion 194

Appendix: Research Context 199

Notes 201

Index 213

About the Author 220

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Sort by: Showing all of 3 Customer Reviews
  • Posted December 11, 2009

    It is a book that is useful and fun to read!A great book for those who lead internationally and a must read for those who want to be successful in the global business environment!

    David did such a good job on transforming the most advanced academic research to this book: it is fun to read, it is practical, and it is inspirational. He is a great story teller with all these cross cultural experiences, which makes me look at daily interactive differently.
    It has been difficult to find a really good book on how to deal with cross cultural challenges ( besides the old stereotyping ones)!
    The tips on how to deal with cross cultural activities are just brilliant! A must read for business leaders who work internationally, and a must read for those who want to navigate successfully in the global environment!

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  • Posted December 7, 2009

    I read over 100 books a year and have for over 30 years. This book is definitely in the top ten best books I have ever read. It is easy to read, yet very practical. One can read this book and go out immediately and put much into daily practice.

    Dave has done a superb job and given us material that can add much to our life relationships. As I told Dave in an e mail, I found you don't have to ever leave the USA to make real use of his innovative ideas. I highly recommend Dave's book to anyone wanting to have positive experiences and relationships with folks who are extremely diverse. As I told Dave, I am anxious to see his next book. Clearly warants an all 5 rating!

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  • Anonymous

    Posted April 19, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

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