Learning and Behavior / Edition 5

Learning and Behavior / Edition 5

by James E. Mazur
     
 

ISBN-10: 0130337153

ISBN-13: 9780130337153

Pub. Date: 05/30/2001

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

This contemporary survey of the field of learning offers comprehensive coverage of both classic studies and the most recent developments and trends—with an emphasis on the importance of learning principles in everyday life. Many real-world examples and analogies make the often abstract concepts and theories of the field more concrete and relevant, and most…  See more details below

Overview

This contemporary survey of the field of learning offers comprehensive coverage of both classic studies and the most recent developments and trends—with an emphasis on the importance of learning principles in everyday life. Many real-world examples and analogies make the often abstract concepts and theories of the field more concrete and relevant, and most chapters include sections that describe how the theories and principles have been used in the applied field of behavior modification. Simple Ideas, Simple Associations, and Simple Cells. Innate Behavior Patterns and Habituation. Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning. Theories and Research on Classical Conditioning. Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning. Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and Applications. Avoidance and Punishment. Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning. Stimulus Control and Concept Formation. Comparative Cognition. Learning by Observation. Learning Motor Skills. Choice. For educators, social workers, and anyone interested in human learning behavior.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780130337153
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Publication date:
05/30/2001
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
446
Product dimensions:
7.10(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.10(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Preface
1The Psychology of Learning and Behavior1
The Search for General Principles of Learning2
The Nature of Scientific Theories4
Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning11
On Free Will, Determinism, and Chaos Theory16
2Simple Ideas, Simple Associations, and Simple Cells19
Early Theories about the Association of Ideas19
Ebbinghaus's Experiments on Memory23
Physiological Facts and Theories Related to Associationism27
3Innate Behavior Patterns and Habituation37
Characteristics of Goal-Directed Systems38
Reflexes39
Tropisms and Orientation40
Sequences of Behavior42
Habituation45
4Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning58
Pavlov's Discovery and Its Impact58
Basic Conditioning Phenomena67
Temporal Relationships between CS and US73
Other Conditioning Arrangements76
Classical Conditioning Outside the Laboratory78
5Theories and Research on Classical Conditioning87
Theories of Associative Learning88
Types of Associations99
Biological Constraints on Classical Conditioning103
The Form of the Conditioned Response110
Physiological Research on Classical Conditioning114
6Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning121
The Law of Effect121
The Procedure of Shaping, or Successive Approximations129
The Research of B. F. Skinner134
Biological Constraints on Operant Conditioning139
7Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and Applications148
Plotting Moment-to-Moment Behavior: The Cumulative Recorder148
The Four Simple Reinforcement Schedules149
Factors Affecting Performance on Reinforcement Schedules156
The Experimental Analysis of Reinforcement Schedules160
Applications of Operant Conditioning165
8Avoidance and Punishment173
Avoidance174
Learned Helplessness184
Punishment186
Behavior Decelerators in Behavior Therapy192
9Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning202
The Role of the Response202
The Role of the Reinforcer203
How Can We Predict What Will Be a Reinforcer?212
Behavioral Economics221
10Stimulus Control and Concept Formation227
Generalization Gradients227
Is Stimulus Control Absolute or Relational?232
Behavioral Contrast238
"Errorless" Discrimination Learning240
Transfer of Learning After Discrimination Training242
Concept Formation244
Stimulus Control in Behavior Modification249
11Comparative Cognition253
Memory253
Time, Number, and Serial Patterns265
Language and Reasoning273
12Learning by Observation282
Theories of Imitation283
Factors That Affect the Likelihood of Imitation290
Interactions Between Observational Learning and Operant Conditioning291
The Influence of Television293
What Can Be Learned through Observation?295
Modeling in Behavior Therapy297
Conclusions: The Sophisticated Skill of Learning by Observation307
13Learning Motor Skills304
The Variety of Motor Skills304
Variables Affecting Motor Learning and Performance306
Theories of Motor-Skill Learning314
Learning Movement Sequences320
14Choice327
The Matching Law328
Theories of Choice Behavior335
Self-Control Choices344
Other Choice Situations351
Glossary358
References373
Acknowledgments419
Author Index423
Subject Index435

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