Learning and Behavior / Edition 4

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third Good [ No Hassle 30 Day Returns ][ Underlining/Highlighting: SOME ] [ Edition: third ] Publisher: Thomson Brooks/Cole Pub Date: 9/1/1993 Binding: Hardcover Pages: 288.

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LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR looks at evolutionary and environmental influences on learning. Chance's book is stimulating, interactive, and peppered with high-interest queries and examples yet it still provides the kind of thorough conceptual knowledge usually associated with books twice as dense and infinitely less interesting. Chance's engaging work has become a favorite of students, as it illuminates how the psychology of learning can offer insight into their own behavior.
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Editorial Reviews

Written in an engaging narrative style, with many examples, this fifth edition of a text for undergraduates offers new discussion of the logic of scientific analysis, new material on learning as an evolutionary mechanism, updated treatment of heredity, and more self- check questions. Boxed readings have been integrated throughout chapters. Learning features continued from previous editions include review questions and practice quizes. Chapters cover the study of learning and behavior, Pavlovian conditioning and applications, operant reinforcement, punishment, and applications, vicarious learning, and forgetting. Chance is affiliated with the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780534173944
  • Publisher: Brooks/Cole
  • Publication date: 9/1/1993
  • Edition description: Book and Study Guide
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 505

Meet the Author

Paul Chance received his Ph.D. in Psychology from Utah State University. He started his career as a school teacher (grades 7-9), and has been an Adjunct Instructor at the California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo and at Salisbury University (Maryland). Formerly, he was Book Review Editor of PSYCHOLOGY TODAY magazine, a senior fellow of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, and a member of the Association for Science in Autism Treatment advisory board.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction: Learning to Change 1
Natural Selection 2
Box: The Face of Change 3
Reflexes 8
Fixed Action Patterns 12
General Behavior Traits 17
The Limits of Natural Selection 22
Learning: Evolved Modifiability 24
Nature and Nature 26
Box: The Superior Animal 27
Chapter 2 The Study of Learning and Behavior 34
Learning Defined 36
Learning Means Change 36
What Changes Is Behavior 37
Box: Defining Operations 38
What Changes Behavior Is Experience 40
Measuring Learning 41
Research Designs 47
Anecdotal Evidence 47
Case Studies 48
Descriptive Studies 49
Experimental Studies 50
Limitations of Experimental Research 54
Animal Research and Human Learning 56
Reasons for Animal Research 56
Objections to Animal Research 56
Questions About Learning 61
Chapter 3 Pavlovian Conditioning 66
Box: Ivan Pavlov: An Experimenter from Head to Foot 69
Basic Procedures 70
Box: What's What in Pavlovian Conditioning? 73
Higher-Order Conditioning 74
Measuring Pavlovian Learning 76
Variables Affecting Pavlovian Conditioning 78
Pairing CS and US 78
Box: Pavlovian Flowchart 81
CS-US Contingency 81
CS-US Contiguity 82
Stimulus Features 83
Prior Experience with CS and US 86
Number of CS-US Pairings 88
Intertrial Interval 89
Other Variables 89
Extinction of Conditional Responses 91
Box: Edwin B. Twitmyer and What Might Have Been 94
Theories of Conditioning 95
Stimulus Substitution Theory 96
Preparatory Response Theory 97
Box: Conditioning and Awareness 98
Chapter 4 Pavlovian Applications 105
Fear 106
Box: Thank You, Albert 108
Box: What Rats Can Teach Us About Fear 111
Prejudice 112
Advertising 114
Box: Bite Your Tongue! 117
The Paraphilias 118
Taste Aversions 122
Box: Changing the Coyote's Menu 125
Immune Function 126
Chapter 5 Operant Reinforcement 133
Box: E. L. Thorndike: What the Occasion Demanded 140
Basic Procedures 141
Box: B. F. Skinner: The Darwin of Behavior Science 144
Discrete Trial and Free Operant Procedures 144
Operant and Pavlovian Learning Compared 147
Primary and Secondary Reinforcers 149
Shaping and Chaining 151
Box: Tips for Shapers 154
Variables Affecting Reinforcement 159
Contingency 159
Contiguity 160
Reinforcer Characteristics 163
Task Characteristics 164
Deprivation Level 165
Box: Octopi Individuality 166
Other Variables 166
Extinction of Reinforced Behavior 167
Theories of Reinforcement 172
Hull's Drive-Reduction Theory 172
Relative Value Theory and the Premack Principle 174
Response Deprivation Theory 176
Theories of Avoidance 178
Two-Process Theory 179
One-Process Theory 182
Chapter 6 Operant Punishment 188
Basic Procedures 190
Box: Aversive Confusion: Positive Punishment and Negative Reinforcement Compared 192
Variables Affecting Punishment 193
Contingency 193
Contiguity 195
Punisher Intensity 197
Introductory Level of Punishment 198
Reinforcement of the Punished Behavior 199
Alternative Sources of Reinforcement 200
Deprivation Level 200
Other Variables 202
Theories of Punishment 202
Two-Process Theory 203
One-Process Theory 204
Problems with Punishment 205
Escape 206
Aggression 206
Apathy 207
Abuse 208
Imitation of the Punisher 208
Alternatives to Punishment 209
Response Prevention 209
Extinction 210
Differential Reinforcement 211
Noncontingent Reinforcement 213
Chapter 7 Operant Applications 218
Animal Care and Training 219
Box: Reinforcement Goes to the Dogs 221
Self-Awareness 222
Box: The Shaping of Awareness 225
Self-Control 226
Verbal Behavior 229
Box: Rewarding Lies 234
Insightful Problem Solving 235
Creativity 240
Superstition 244
Box: Quick! Get Some Mud! 248
Learned Helplessness 249
Delusions and Hallucinations 252
Self-Injurious Behavior 255
Chapter 8 Vicarious Learning 264
Basic Procedures 266
Vicarious Pavlovian Conditioning 267
Vicarious Operant Learning 271
Vicarious Learning Versus Imitation 279
Generalized Imitation 279
Variables Affecting Vicarious Learning 281
Consequences of the Model's Behavior 282
Consequences of the Observer's Behavior 282
Characteristics of the Model 283
Box: Vicarious Learning and Human Nature 284
Observer's Age 285
Observer's Learning History 285
Box: The Venus Effect or, How Can I Learn Anything When You Look at Me with Those Big Brown Eyes? 286
Other Variables 287
Theories of Vicarious Learning 287
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory 287
Miller-Dollard Reinforcement Theory 289
Applications of Vicarious Learning 292
Foraging 292
Crime and Television 293
Therapy for Phobia 295
Chapter 9 Generalization, Discrimination, and Stimulus Control 302
Generalization 304
Generalization Gradients 306
Semantic Generalization 308
Box: Generalized Therapy 309
Generalization Following Extinction and Punishment 312
Discrimination 313
Discrimination Training 313
Box: Worlds Apart: Punks and Skinheads 315
Box: Lessons from Lepers 317
Successive, Simultaneous, and MTS Procedures 318
Errorless Discrimination Training 319
Differential Outcomes Effect 320
Stimulus Control 322
Box: Stimulus Control and Adaptation 324
Theories of Generalization and Discrimination 326
Pavlov's Theory 326
Spence's Theory 326
The Lashley-Wade Theory 329
Applications of Generalization and Discrimination 332
Concept Formation 332
Mental Rotation 335
Smoking Relapse 337
Experimental Neuroses 339
Chapter 10 Schedules of Reinforcement 346
Simple Schedules 349
Continuous Reinforcement 349
Fixed Ratio Schedules 349
Variable Ratio Schedules 351
Box: VR Harassment 352
Fixed Interval Schedules 353
Variable Interval Schedules 354
Other Simple Schedules 355
Stretching the Ratio 359
Extinction 360
Intermittent Reinforcement and the PRE 361
Discrimination Hypothesis 362
Frustration Hypothesis 363
Sequential Hypothesis 364
Response Unit Hypothesis 365
Complex Schedules 367
Choice and the Matching Law 370
Box: Ghetto Choice 374
Applications of Schedules 375
Compulsive Gambling 375
Experimental Economics 377
Malingering 378
The Importance of Schedules Research 380
Chapter 11 Forgetting 388
Defining Forgetting 390
Measuring Forgetting 392
Box: The Myth of Permanent Memory 394
Variables in Forgetting 396
Degree of Learning 398
Prior Learning 400
Subsequent Learning 403
Context 405
Box: Reminiscence and the State of Learning 406
Applied Research on Forgetting 408
Foraging 408
Eyewitness Testimony 409
Learning to Remember 412
Box: Say All Fast Minute Each Day Shuffle 413
Overlearn 413
Use Mnemonics 414
Try a Mnemonic System 415
Use Context Cues 416
Use Prompts 417
Box: The Man Who Couldn't Forget 419
A Final Word on Forgetting 420
Chapter 12 The Limits of Learning 425
Physical Characteristics 426
Nonheritability of Learned Behavior 428
Heredity and Learning Ability 430
Neurological Damage and Learning 432
Box: Recipe for Genius 433
Critical Periods 434
Preparedness and Learning 436
Box: Learning and Humanity 441
Conclusion 442
Glossary 448
References 457
Author Index 489
Subject Index 498
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