1. The Psychology of Learning and Memory
1.1. Philosophy of Mind
Box 1-1: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Top Ten Tips for a Better Memory A. Aristotle and Associationism B. Descartes and Dualism C. John Locke and Empiricism D. William James and Models of Association
1.2. Evolution and Natural Selection
A. Erasmus Darwin and Early Proponents of Evolution B. Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection C. Francis Galton: Variability of Nature Box 1-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Can Learning Influence Evolution
1.3. The Birth of Experimental Psychology
A. Hermann Ebbinghaus and Human Memory Experiments B. Ivan Pavlov and Animal Learning Experiments C. Edward Thorndike: Law of Effect
1.4. The Reign of Behaviorism
A. John Watson and Behaviorism B. Clark Hull and Mathematical Models of Learning C. B. F. Skinner: Radical Behaviorism D. Edward Tolman: Cognitive Maps
1.5. The Cognitive Approach
A. W. K. Estes and Mathematical Psychology B. Gordon Bower: Learning by Insight C. George Miller and Information Theory D. Herbert Simon and Symbol-Manipulation Models E. David Rumelhart and Connectionist Models
2. The Neuroscience of Learning and Memory
2.1. A Quick Tour of the Brain
A. The Brain and Nervous System B. Observing Brain Structure and Function
2.2 From Brain to Behavior
A. Information Pathways in the Central Nervous System B. Observing Brain Systems in Action Box 2-1: Unsolved Mysteries: What Do Functional Imaging Methods Really Measure?
2.3 Learning and Synaptic Plasticity
A. The Neuron B. Measuring and Manipulating Neural Activity Box 2-2: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Can a Pill Improve Your Memory?
C. Synaptic Plasticity
3. Episodic and Semantic Memory: Memory for Facts and Events
3.1. Behavioral Processes
A. Episodic (event) and Semantic (fact) Memories B. How Humans Acquire and Use Episodic Memories Box 3-1: Learning and Memory In Everyday Life: Total Recall! The Truth About Extraordinary Memories C. When Memory Fails D. Models of Semantic Memory
3.2. Brain Substrates
A. The Cerebral Cortex and Semantic Memory B. The Medial Temporal Lobes and Memory Storage C. Hippocampal-Cortical Interaction In Memory Consolidation D. The Role of the Frontal Cortex in Memory Storage and Retrieval Box 3-2:Unsolved Mysteries: Are There Different Brain Substrates For Episodic and Semantic Memories E. Subcortical Structures Involved in Episodic and Semantic Memory
3.3. Clinical Perspectives
A. Transient Global Amnesia B. Functional Amnesia C. Infantile Amnesia
4. Skill Memory: Learning by Doing
4.1. Behavioral Processes
A. Qualities of Skill Memories B. Expertise and Talent C. Practice Box 4-1: Unsolved Mysteries: Why Can’t Experts Verbalize What They Do?
D. Transfer of Training E. Models of Skill Memory
4.2 Brain Substrates
A. The Basal Ganglia and Skill Learning Box 4-2: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Are Video Games Good for the Brain?
B. Cortical Representations of Skills C. The Cerebellum and Timing
4.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Apraxia B. Huntington’s Disease C. Parkinson’s Disease
5. Working Memory and Executive Control
5.1 Behavioral Processes
A. Transient Memories B. Working Memory C. The Central Executive Box 5-1: Unsolved Mystery: Is Working Memory The Key to Intelligence?
5.2 Brain Substrates
A. Behavioral Consequences of Frontal Lobe Damage B. Frontal Brain Activity During Working Memory Tasks C. Mapping Baddeley’s Model onto PFC Anatomy D. Prefrontal Control of Long-Term Declarative Memory
5.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Schizophrenia B. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Box 5-2: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Can We Reduce Memory Overload?
6. Non-associative Learning: Learning about Repeated Events
6.1. Behavioral Processes
A. Learning about Repeated Stimuli Box 6-1: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Sex on the Beach B. Perceptual Learning C. Models of Non-associative Learning D. Comparator Models
6.2 Brain Substrates
A. Invertebrate Model Systems B. Perceptual Learning and Cortical Plasticity Box 6-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Why Did Cerebral Cortex Evolve?
C. The Hippocampus and Spatial Learning
6.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Landmark Agnosia B. Rehabilitation After Stroke C. Man–Machine Interfaces
7. Classical Conditioning: Learning to Predict Important Events
7.1 Behavioral Processes
A. Basic Concepts of Classical Conditioning B. Error Correction and the Modulation of US Processing C. From Conditioning to Category Learning D. Modulation of CS Processing E. Further Facets of Conditioning
7.2 Brain Substrates
A. Mammalian Conditioning of Motor-Reflexes Box 7-1: Unsolved Mysteries: Riding the Brain's Waves Into Memory B. Invertebrates and the Cellular Basis of Learning Box 7-2: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Kicking the Habit
8. Instrumental Conditioning: Learning the Consequences of Behavior
8.1. Behavioral Processes
A. The "Discovery" of Instrumental Conditioning B. Components of the Learned Association Box 8-1: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: The Problem with Punishment C. Putting It All Together: Building the S-R-C Association Box 8-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Instinctive Drift D. Choice Behavior
8.2 Brain Substrates
A.The Basal Ganglia and Instrumental Conditioning B. Mechanisms of Reinforcement in the Brain
8.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Drug Addiction B. Behavioral Addiction C. Treatments
9. Generalization, Discrimination, and the Representation of Similarity
9.1 Behavioral Processes
A. When Similar Stimuli Predict Similar Consequences Box 9-1: Learning And Memory in Everyday Life: Discrimination and Stereotypes in Generalizing about Other People B. When Similar Stimuli Predict Different Consequences Box 9-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Are Some Feature Pairs Easier to Discriminate Between than Others?
C. When Dissimlar Stimuli Predict the Same Consequences
9.2 Brain Substrates
A. Cortical Representations and Generalization B. Generalization and Hippocampal Region
9.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Generalization Transfer and Hippocampal Atrophy in the Elderly B. Rehabilitation of Language: Learning-Impaired Children
10. Emotional Learning and Memory
10.1. Behavioral Processes
A. What is Motion?
B. Emotions Influence How Memories are Stored and Retrieved Box 10-1: Unsolved Mysteries: Can People Forget, Then Spontaneously Recover, Traumatic Memories?
C. Learning Emotional Responses: Focus on Fear
10.2 Brain Substrates
A. The Amygdala: A Central Processing Station for Emotions B. Encoding Emotional Contexts with the Hippocampus Box 10-2: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: A Little Stress is a Good Thing C. Feelings and the Frontal Lobes
10.3 Clinical Perspectives A. Phobias B. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
11. Observational Learning: Watching, Listening and Remembering
11.1. Behavioral Processes
A. Learning by Copying Box 11-1: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: What Can a Child Learn from a Teletubby?
B. Alternatives to Imitation C. Social Transmission of Information
11.2 Brain Substrates
A. Mirror Neurons in the Cortex B. Song Learning in Bird Brains: Replicating Observed Events Box 11-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Why Can’t Most Mammals Imitate Sounds?
C. Hippocampal Encoding of Socially Transmitted Food Preferences
11.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Imitation in Autistic Individuals B. Effects of Frontal-lobe Lesions on Imitation
12. Learning and Memory Across the Lifespan
12.1. Behavioral Processes
A. The Developing Memory: From Infancy to Adulthood Box 12-1: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Can Listening to Classical Music Make Babies Smarter?
B. Sensitive Periods for Learning C. The Aging Memory: From Adulthood to Old Age
12.2 Brain Substrates
A. The Genetic Basis of Learning and Memory B. Neurons and Synapses in the Developing Brain C. Gender Differences in Brain and Behavior D. The Brain From Adulthood to Old Age
12.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Down Syndrome B. Alzheimer’s Disease Box 12-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Diagnosing and Preventing AD C. A Connection between Down Syndrome and Alzheimer’s Disease?
13. Language Learning: Communication and Cognition
13.1. Behavioral Processes
A. What Is Language?
Box 13-1: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Teaching Babies Signs Before Speech B. Second Language Learning C. Artificial Language Learning
13.2 Brain Substrates
A. Is There a Language Organ?
Box 13-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Can Computers Master Human Language?
B. Cortical Coding of a Second Language C. A Contemporary Model of Language Processing in the Brain
13.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Sign Language B. Language Learning in Isolation