Learning and Memory: From Brain to Behavior / Edition 1

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Gluck, Mercado and Myers’s Learning and Memory is the first textbook developed from its inception to reflect the convergence of brain studies and behavioral approaches in modern learning and memory research incorporating findings both in animals and humans. Each chapter integrates coverage of both human memory and animal learning, with separate sections specifically devoted to behavioral processes, brain systems, and clinical perspectives.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

The authors do an excellent job presenting the emerging trends. The real-life examples will be helpful for students. I would certainly refer to many of these in my lectures.
John Byrnes, Ph.D., Tufts University of Medicine, UMASS Boston

The greatest strength of this text is the constant use of relatable real world examples. Many other texts talk mainly about rats and do not relate topics to everyday life. Another strength is the blending of basic learning with brain substrates and clinical applications. Few texts do this.
Professor Todd Allen, University of Northern Colorado

Finally, someone writes a chapter on memory that isn’t boring! Finally, someone writes a chapter on a cognitive topic that does not confuse or hide the importance of memory behind a plethora of boring human studies! Hurray and bravo!
Lorna Joachim, University of New Mexico

Students Say
I really understood each topic. I like how the author discusses the concept with detailed descriptions about real life events. It helps me understand how this research related to the world around us and how it affects our everyday lives.
Kimberly Skotarczak, SUNY Buffalo

The discussions were very interesting because they were told in ways that were easily relatable. This book did not have the boring, dry material that you find in most textbooks.
Jessie Newman, University of Northern Colorado

I really thought the text was exciting and interesting, the use of pop culture brought the science to a new level, and the information became more interesting because we could see how it could be applied.
Kimberly Seeherman, Princeton University

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780716786542
  • Publisher: Worth Publishers
  • Publication date: 12/7/2007
  • Edition description: First Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 554
  • Product dimensions: 8.15 (w) x 10.14 (h) x 1.15 (d)

Meet the Author

Mark A. Gluck is a Professor of Neuroscience at Rutgers University–Newark, co-director of the Memory Disorders Project at Rutgers–Newark, and publisher of the project’s public health newsletter, Memory Loss and the Brain. His research focuses on the neural bases of learning and memory, and the consequences of memory loss due to aging, trauma, and disease. He is co-author of Gateway to Memory: An Introduction to Neural Network Modeling of the Hippocampus and Learning (MIT Press, 2001). In 1996, he was awarded an NSF Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers by President Bill Clinton. That same year, he received the American Psychological Association (APA) Distinguish Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution to Psychology.

Eduardo Mercado is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at University at Buffalo, The State University of New York. His research focuses on how different brain systems interact to develop representations of experienced events, and how these representations change over time. Dr. Mercado currently uses techniques from experimental psychology, computational neuroscience, electrical engineering, and behavioral neuroscience to explore questions about auditory learning and memory in rodents, cetaceans, and humans.

Catherine E. Myers is a Research Professor of Psychology at Rutgers University–Newark, co-director of the Memory Disorders Project at Rutgers–Newark, and Editor-in-Chief of the project’s public health newsletter, Memory Loss and the Brain. Her research includes both computational neuroscience and experimental psychology, and focuses on human memory, specifically on memory impairments following damage to the hippocampus and associated brain structures. She is co-author of Gateway to Memory: An Introduction to Neural Network Modeling of the Hippocampus and Learning (MIT Press, 2001) and author of Delay Learning in Artificial Neural Networks (Chapman and Hall, 1992).

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Table of Contents

1. The Psychology of Learning and Memory
1.1. Philosophy of Mind

Box 1-1: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Top Ten Tips for a Better Memory
A. Aristotle and Associationism
B. Descartes and Dualism
C. John Locke and Empiricism
D. William James and Models of Association

1.2. Evolution and Natural Selection
A. Erasmus Darwin and Early Proponents of Evolution
B. Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection
C. Francis Galton: Variability of Nature
Box 1-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Can Learning Influence Evolution

1.3. The Birth of Experimental Psychology
A. Hermann Ebbinghaus and Human Memory Experiments
B. Ivan Pavlov and Animal Learning Experiments
C. Edward Thorndike: Law of Effect

1.4. The Reign of Behaviorism
A. John Watson and Behaviorism
B. Clark Hull and Mathematical Models of Learning
C. B. F. Skinner: Radical Behaviorism
D. Edward Tolman: Cognitive Maps

1.5. The Cognitive Approach
A. W. K. Estes and Mathematical Psychology
B. Gordon Bower: Learning by Insight
C. George Miller and Information Theory
D. Herbert Simon and Symbol-Manipulation Models
E. David Rumelhart and Connectionist Models

2. The Neuroscience of Learning and Memory
2.1. A Quick Tour of the Brain
A. The Brain and Nervous System
B. Observing Brain Structure and Function

2.2 From Brain to Behavior
A. Information Pathways in the Central Nervous System
B. Observing Brain Systems in Action
Box 2-1: Unsolved Mysteries: What Do Functional Imaging Methods Really Measure?

2.3 Learning and Synaptic Plasticity
A. The Neuron
B. Measuring and Manipulating Neural Activity
Box 2-2: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Can a Pill Improve Your Memory?
C. Synaptic Plasticity

3. Episodic and Semantic Memory: Memory for Facts and Events
3.1. Behavioral Processes

A. Episodic (event) and Semantic (fact) Memories
B. How Humans Acquire and Use Episodic Memories
Box 3-1: Learning and Memory In Everyday Life: Total Recall! The Truth About Extraordinary Memories
C. When Memory Fails
D. Models of Semantic Memory

3.2. Brain Substrates
A. The Cerebral Cortex and Semantic Memory
B. The Medial Temporal Lobes and Memory Storage
C. Hippocampal-Cortical Interaction In Memory Consolidation
D. The Role of the Frontal Cortex in Memory Storage and Retrieval
Box 3-2:Unsolved Mysteries: Are There Different Brain Substrates For Episodic and Semantic Memories
E. Subcortical Structures Involved in Episodic and Semantic Memory

3.3. Clinical Perspectives
A. Transient Global Amnesia
B. Functional Amnesia
C. Infantile Amnesia

4. Skill Memory: Learning by Doing
4.1. Behavioral Processes

A. Qualities of Skill Memories
B. Expertise and Talent
C. Practice
Box 4-1: Unsolved Mysteries: Why Can’t Experts Verbalize What They Do?
D. Transfer of Training
E. Models of Skill Memory

4.2 Brain Substrates
A. The Basal Ganglia and Skill Learning
Box 4-2: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Are Video Games Good for the Brain?
B. Cortical Representations of Skills
C. The Cerebellum and Timing

4.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Apraxia
B. Huntington’s Disease
C. Parkinson’s Disease

5. Working Memory and Executive Control
5.1 Behavioral Processes

A. Transient Memories
B. Working Memory
C. The Central Executive
Box 5-1: Unsolved Mystery: Is Working Memory The Key to Intelligence?

5.2 Brain Substrates
A. Behavioral Consequences of Frontal Lobe Damage
B. Frontal Brain Activity During Working Memory Tasks
C. Mapping Baddeley’s Model onto PFC Anatomy
D. Prefrontal Control of Long-Term Declarative Memory

5.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Schizophrenia
B. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Box 5-2: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Can We Reduce Memory Overload?

6. Non-associative Learning: Learning about Repeated Events
6.1. Behavioral Processes

A. Learning about Repeated Stimuli
Box 6-1: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Sex on the Beach
B. Perceptual Learning
C. Models of Non-associative Learning
D. Comparator Models

6.2 Brain Substrates
A. Invertebrate Model Systems
B. Perceptual Learning and Cortical Plasticity
Box 6-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Why Did Cerebral Cortex Evolve?
C. The Hippocampus and Spatial Learning

6.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Landmark Agnosia
B. Rehabilitation After Stroke
C. Man–Machine Interfaces

7. Classical Conditioning: Learning to Predict Important Events
7.1 Behavioral Processes

A. Basic Concepts of Classical Conditioning
B. Error Correction and the Modulation of US Processing
C. From Conditioning to Category Learning
D. Modulation of CS Processing
E. Further Facets of Conditioning

7.2 Brain Substrates
A. Mammalian Conditioning of Motor-Reflexes
Box 7-1: Unsolved Mysteries: Riding the Brain's Waves Into Memory
B. Invertebrates and the Cellular Basis of Learning
Box 7-2: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Kicking the Habit

8. Instrumental Conditioning: Learning the Consequences of Behavior
8.1. Behavioral Processes

A. The "Discovery" of Instrumental Conditioning
B. Components of the Learned Association
Box 8-1: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: The Problem with Punishment
C. Putting It All Together: Building the S-R-C Association
Box 8-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Instinctive Drift
D. Choice Behavior

8.2 Brain Substrates
A.The Basal Ganglia and Instrumental Conditioning
B. Mechanisms of Reinforcement in the Brain

8.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Drug Addiction
B. Behavioral Addiction
C. Treatments

9. Generalization, Discrimination, and the Representation of Similarity
9.1 Behavioral Processes

A. When Similar Stimuli Predict Similar Consequences
Box 9-1: Learning And Memory in Everyday Life: Discrimination and Stereotypes in Generalizing about Other People
B. When Similar Stimuli Predict Different Consequences
Box 9-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Are Some Feature Pairs Easier to Discriminate Between than Others?
C. When Dissimlar Stimuli Predict the Same Consequences

9.2 Brain Substrates
A. Cortical Representations and Generalization
B. Generalization and Hippocampal Region

9.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Generalization Transfer and Hippocampal Atrophy in the Elderly
B. Rehabilitation of Language: Learning-Impaired Children

10. Emotional Learning and Memory
10.1. Behavioral Processes
A. What is Motion?
B. Emotions Influence How Memories are Stored and Retrieved
Box 10-1: Unsolved Mysteries: Can People Forget, Then Spontaneously Recover, Traumatic Memories?
C. Learning Emotional Responses: Focus on Fear

10.2 Brain Substrates
A. The Amygdala: A Central Processing Station for Emotions
B. Encoding Emotional Contexts with the Hippocampus
Box 10-2: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: A Little Stress is a Good Thing
C. Feelings and the Frontal Lobes
10.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Phobias
B. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

11. Observational Learning: Watching, Listening and Remembering
11.1. Behavioral Processes
A. Learning by Copying
Box 11-1: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: What Can a Child Learn from a Teletubby?
B. Alternatives to Imitation
C. Social Transmission of Information

11.2 Brain Substrates
A. Mirror Neurons in the Cortex
B. Song Learning in Bird Brains: Replicating Observed Events
Box 11-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Why Can’t Most Mammals Imitate Sounds?
C. Hippocampal Encoding of Socially Transmitted Food Preferences

11.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Imitation in Autistic Individuals
B. Effects of Frontal-lobe Lesions on Imitation

12. Learning and Memory Across the Lifespan
12.1. Behavioral Processes

A. The Developing Memory: From Infancy to Adulthood
Box 12-1: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Can Listening to Classical Music Make Babies Smarter?
B. Sensitive Periods for Learning
C. The Aging Memory: From Adulthood to Old Age

12.2 Brain Substrates
A. The Genetic Basis of Learning and Memory
B. Neurons and Synapses in the Developing Brain
C. Gender Differences in Brain and Behavior
D. The Brain From Adulthood to Old Age

12.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Down Syndrome
B. Alzheimer’s Disease
Box 12-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Diagnosing and Preventing AD
C. A Connection between Down Syndrome and Alzheimer’s Disease?

13. Language Learning: Communication and Cognition
13.1. Behavioral Processes

A. What Is Language?
Box 13-1: Learning and Memory in Everyday Life: Teaching Babies Signs Before Speech
B. Second Language Learning
C. Artificial Language Learning

13.2 Brain Substrates
A. Is There a Language Organ?
Box 13-2: Unsolved Mysteries: Can Computers Master Human Language?
B. Cortical Coding of a Second Language
C. A Contemporary Model of Language Processing in the Brain

13.3 Clinical Perspectives
A. Sign Language
B. Language Learning in Isolation

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