Learning & Behavior / Edition 7

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Overview

A thorough survey of the field of learning.

Learning & Behavior covers topics such as classical and operant conditioning, reinforcement schedules, avoidance and punishment, stimulus control, comparative cognition, observational learning, motor skill learning, and choice.

The book includes thorough coverage of classic studies and the most recent developments and trends, while providing examples of real-world applications of the principles discovered in laboratory research. It also emphasizes the behavioral approach but not exclusively so; many cognitive theories are covered as well, and there is a chapter on comparative cognition.

Learning Goals

Upon completing this book readers will be able to:

  • Understand the field of learning
  • Discuss real-world applications of learning principles

Note: MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab, please visit: www.mysearchlab.com or you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205864813 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205864812.

Early theories about the association of ideas, Ebbinghaus's experiments in memory, form of conditioned response, etc.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Describes some of the most important principles, theories, and experiments<-->including recent research with human subjects<-->that have been produced by this branch of psychology in its first century. Topics include theories about physiological changes that may occur during the learning process; innate behaviors and habituation; classical conditioning; the various facets of operant conditioning; research on concept formation; observational learning and motor-skills learning; and behavioral research on choice behavior. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Booknews
Textbook for undergraduate students assumes no prior knowledge of psychology. Describes principles, theories, controversies, and experiments relative to the applied field of behavior modification. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205246441
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/5/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 448
  • Sales rank: 270,288
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

James E. Mazur obtained his B.A. in Psychology from Dartmouth College in 1973, and his Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from Harvard University in 1977. He taught at Harvard University as an assistant professor and associate professor from 1980 to 1988, and since then he has taught at Southern Connecticut State University, where he is a CSU Professor of Psychology. He has conducted research on operant conditioning and choice for over 35 years. He has published over 60 journal articles and chapters on such topics as reinforcement schedules, conditioned reinforcement, self-control, risk-taking, procrastination, and mathematical models of choice.

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Table of Contents

Found in this Section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents


1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface

Chapter 1 History, Background, and Basic Concepts

Chapter 2 Innate Behavior Patterns and Habituation

Chapter 3 Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning

Chapter 4 Theories and Research on Classical Conditioning

Chapter 5 Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning

Chapter 6 Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and Applications

Chapter 7 Avoidance and Punishment

Chapter 8 Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning

Chapter 9 Stimulus Control and Concept Learning

Chapter 10 Comparative Cognition

Chapter 11 Learning by Observation

Chapter 12 Learning Motor Skills

Chapter 13 Choice

Glossary

References

Acknowledgments

Author Index

Subject Index


2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface

Chapter 1: History, Background, and Basic Concepts

The Search for General Principles of Learning

The Associationists

Aristotle

The British Associationists: Simple and Complex Ideas

Ebbinghaus’s Experiments on Memory

The Effects of Repetition

The Effects of Time

The Role of Contiguity

The Influence of the Associationists and Ebbinghaus

Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning

The Use of Animal Subjects

The Emphasis on External Events

The Physiological Approach: Brain and Behavior

The Basic Characteristics of Neurons

Physiological Research on Simple Sensations

Physiological Research on Feature Detectors

Physiological Research on Learning

Summary

Review Questions

Chapter 2: Innate Behavior Patterns and Habituation

Characteristics of Goal-Directed Systems

Reflexes

Tropisms and Orientation

Kineses

Taxes

Sequences of Behavior

Fixed Action Patterns

Reaction Chains

Innate Human Abilities and Predispositions

Habituation

General Principles of Habituation

Physiological Mechanisms of Habituation

Habituation in Emotional Responses: The Opponent-Process Theory

Summary

Review Questions

Chapter 3: Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning

Pavlov’s Discovery and Its Impact

The Standard Paradigm of Classical Conditioning

The Variety of Conditioned Responses

Pavlov’s Stimulus Substitution Theory

S-S or S-R Connections?

Basic Conditioning Phenomena

Acquisition

Extinction

Spontaneous Recovery, Disinhibition, and Rapid Reacquisition

Conditioned Inhibition

Generalization and Discrimination

The Importance of Timing in Classical Conditioning

CS-US Correlations

Higher Order Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Outside the Laboratory

Classical Conditioning and Emotional Responses

Classical Conditioning and the Immune System

Applications in Behavior Therapy

Summary

Review Questions

Chapter 4: Theories and Research on Classical Conditioning

Theories of Associative Learning

The Blocking Effect

The Rescorla-Wagner Model

Other Theories

Summary

Types of Associations

Associations in First-Order Conditioning

Associations in Second-Order Conditioning

Associations with Contextual Stimuli

CS-CS Associations

Occasion Setting

Summary

Biological Constraints on Classical Conditioning

The Contiguity Principle and Taste-Aversion Learning

Biological Preparedness in Taste-Aversion Learning

Biological Preparedness in Human Learning

Biological Constraints and the General-Principle Approach

The Form of the Conditioned Response

Drug Tolerance and Drug Cravings as Conditioned Responses

Conditioned Opponent Theories

Physiological Research on Classical Conditioning

Summary

Review Questions

Chapter 5: Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning

The Law of Effect

Thorndike’s Experiments

Guthrie and Horton: Evidence for a Mechanical Strengthening Process

Superstitious Behaviors

The Procedure of Shaping, or Successive Approximations

Shaping Lever Pressing in a Rat

Shaping Behaviors in the Classroom

Shaping as a Tool in Behavior Modification

Making Shaping More Precise: Percentile Schedules

Versatility of the Shaping Process

The Research of B. F. Skinner

The Free Operant

The Three-Term Contingency

Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning

Resurgence

Conditioned Reinforcement

Response Chains

Biological Constraints on Operant Conditioning

Instinctive Drift

Autoshaping

Reconciling Reinforcement Theory and Biological Constraints

Summary

Review Questions

Chapter 6: Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and Applications

Plotting Moment-to-Moment Behavior: The Cumulative Recorder

The Four Simple Reinforcement Schedules

Fixed Ratio

Variable Ratio

Fixed Interval

Variable Interval

Extinction and the Four Simple Schedules

Other Reinforcement Schedules

Factors Affecting Performance on Reinforcement Schedules

Behavioral Momentum

Contingency-Shaped versus Rule-Governed Behaviors

Reinforcement History

Summary

The Experimental Analysis of Reinforcement Schedules

Cause of the FR Postreinforcement Pause

Comparisons of VR and VI Response Rates

Applications of Operant Conditioning

Teaching Language to Children with Autism

Token Reinforcement

Organizational Behavior Management

Behavior Therapy for Marital Problems

Conclusions

Summary

Review Questions

Chapter 7: Avoidance and Punishment

Avoidance

A Representative Experiment

Two-Factor Theory

Evidence Supporting Two-Factor Theory

Problems with Two-Factor Theory

One-Factor Theory

Cognitive Theory

Biological Constraints in Avoidance Learning

Conclusions about the Theories of Avoidance

Flooding as Behavior Therapy

Learned Helplessness

Punishment

Is Punishment the Opposite of Reinforcement?

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment

Disadvantages of Using Punishment

Negative Punishment

Behavior Decelerators in Behavior Therapy

Positive Punishment

Negative Punishment: Response Cost and Time-Out

Other Techniques for Behavior Deceleration

Summary

Review Questions

Chapter 8: Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning

The Role of the Response

The Role of the Reinforcer

Is Reinforcement Necessary for Operant Conditioning?

Expectations about the Reinforcer

Can Reinforcement Control Visceral Responses?

Biofeedback

How Can We Predict What Will Be a Reinforcer?

Need Reduction

Drive Reduction

Trans-situationality

Premack’s Principle

Response Deprivation Theory

The Functional Analysis of Behaviors and Reinforcers

Behavioral Economics

Optimization: Theory and Research

Elasticity and Inelasticity of Demand

Behavioral Economics and Drug Abuse

Other Applications

Summary

Review Questions

Chapter 9: Stimulus Control and Concept Learning

Generalization Gradients

Measuring Generalization Gradients

What Causes Generalization Gradients?

Is Stimulus Control Absolute or Relational?

Transposition and Peak Shift

Spence’s Theory of Excitatory and Inhibitory Gradients

The Intermediate-Size Problem

Other Data, and Some Conclusions

Behavioral Contrast

"Errorless" Discrimination Learning

Transfer of Learning and Learning Sets

Concept Learning

The Structure of Natural Categories

Animal Studies on Natural Concept Learning

Developing Stimulus Equivalence

Stimulus Control in Behavior Modification

Stimulus Equivalence Training

Study Habits and Health Habits

Insomnia

Summary

Review Questions

Chapter 10: Comparative Cognition

Memory and Rehearsal

Short-Term Memory, or Working Memory

Rehearsal

Long-Term Memory, Retrieval, and Forgetting

Time, Number, and Serial Patterns

Experiments on an "Internal Clock"

Counting

Serial Pattern Learning

Chunking

Language and Reasoning

Teaching Language to Animals

Reasoning by Animals

Summary

Review Questions

Chapter 11: Learning by Observation

Theories of Imitation

Imitation as an Instinct

Imitation as an Operant Response

Imitation as a Generalized Operant Response

Bandura’s Theory of Imitation

Which Theory of Imitation Is Best?

Mirror Neurons and Imitation

Interactions Between Observational Learning and Operant Conditioning

Achievement Motivation

Aggression

Effects of the Mass Media

Television Violence and Aggressive Behavior

Video Games and Popular Music

What Can Be Learned Through Observation?

Phobias

Drug Use and Addictions

Cognitive Development

Moral Standards and Behavior

Modeling in Behavior Therapy

Facilitation of Low-Probability Behaviors

Acquisition of New Behaviors

Elimination of Fears and Unwanted Behaviors

Video Self-Modeling

Conclusions: The Sophisticated Skill of Learning by Observation

Summary

Review Questions

Chapter 12: Learning Motor Skills

The Variety of Motor Skills

Variables Affecting Motor Learning and Performance

Reinforcement and Knowledge of Results

Knowledge of Performance

Distribution of Practice

Observational Learning of Motor Skills

Transfer from Previous Training

Ironic Errors in Movement

Theories of Motor-Skill Learning

Adams ’s Two-Stage Theory

Schmidt’s Schema Theory

What is the Best Way to Practice?

Learning Movement Sequences

The Response Chain Approach

Motor Programs

Dynamic Pattern Theory

Summary

Review Questions

Chapter 13: Choice

The Matching Law

Herrnstein’s Experiment

Other Experiments on Matching

Deviations from Matching

Varying the Quality and Amount of Reinforcement

An Application to Single Schedules

Theories of Choice Behavior

Matching Theory and Melioration Theory

Optimization Theory

Momentary Maximization Theory

Other Theories of Choice

Self-Control Choices

Delay Discounting

The Ainslie-Rachlin Theory

Animal Studies on Self-Control

Factors Affecting Self-Control in Children

Techniques for Improving Self-Control

Other Choice Situations

Risk Taking

The Tragedy of the Commons

Summary

Review Questions

Glossary

References

Acknowledgments

Author Index

Subject Index

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Preface

The purpose of this book is to introduce the reader to the branch of psychology that deals with how people and animals learn and how their behaviors are later changed as a result of this learning. This is a broad topic, for nearly all of our behaviors are influenced by prior learning experiences in some way. Because examples of learning and learned behaviors are so numerous, the goal of most psychologists in this field has been to discover general principles that are applicable to many different species and many different learning situations. What continues to impress and inspire me after many years in this field is that it is indeed possible to make such general statements about learning and behavior. This book describes some of the most important principles, theories, controversies, and experiments that have been produced by this branch of psychology in its first century.

This text is designed to be suitable for introductory or intermediate level courses in learning, conditioning, or the experimental analysis of behavior. No prior knowledge of psychology is assumed, but the reading may be a bit easier for those who have had a course in introductory psychology. Many of the concepts and theories in this field are fairly abstract, and to make them more concrete (and more relevant), I have included many real-world examples and analogies. In addition, most of the chapters include sections that describe how the theories and principles have been used in the applied field of behavior modification.

Roughly speaking, the book proceeds from the simple to the complex, both with respect to the difficulty of the material and the types of learning that are discussed.Chapter 1 discusses the nature of scientific theories and experiments, and it outlines the behavioral approach to learning and contrasts it with the cognitive approach. Chapter 2 first describes some of the earliest theories about the learning process, and then presents some basic findings about the physiological mechanisms of learning. Chapter 3 discusses innate behaviors and the simplest type of learning, habituation. Many of the terms and ideas introduced here reappear in later chapters on classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and motor skills learning.

The next two chapters deal with classical conditioning. Chapter 4 begins with basic principles and ends with some therapeutic applications. Chapter 5 describes more recent theoretical developments and experimental findings in this area. The next three chapters discuss the various facets of operant conditioning: Chapter 6 covers the basic principles and terminology of positive reinforcement, Chapter 7 covers schedules of reinforcement and applications, and Chapter 8 covers negative reinforcement and punishment. Chapters 9 and 10 have a more theoretical orientation (although many empirical findings are described here as well). Chapter 9 presents differing views on such fundamental questions as what constitutes a reinforcer and what conditions are necessary for learning to occur. Chapter 10 takes a more thorough look at generalization and discrimination than was possible in earlier chapters, and it also examines research on concept formation.

Chapter 11 surveys a wide range of findings in the rapidly growing area of comparative cognition. Chapters 12 and 13 discuss two types of learning that are given little or no emphasis in many texts on learning—observational learning and motor-skills learning. These chapters were included because a substantial portion of human learning involves either observation or the development of new motor skills. Readers might well be puzzled or disappointed (with some justification) with a text on learning that included no mention of these topics. Finally, Chapter 14 presents an overview of behavioral research on choice.

This fifth edition includes a number of changes, both to help students learn the material and to keep the information up to date. A glossary has been added so that readers can quickly find the definitions of key terms. Each chapter now includes references to a few Internet sites that provide further information or demonstrations of the concepts presented in the chapter. Each chapter has also been updated with new studies that reflect recent developments in the field. One trend in the field of learning seems to be the increasing use of human subjects in research on basic behavioral processes. This edition reflects this trend by including recent research with human subjects in several different areas, including classical conditioning, physiological mechanisms, rule-governed behavior, biological preparedness, stimulus control, and others.

I owe thanks to many people for their help in different aspects of the preparation of this book. Many of my thoughts about learning and about psychology in general were shaped by my discussions with the late Richard Herrnstein, my teacher, advisor, and friend. I am also grateful to several others who read portions of the book and gave me valuable feedback: Mark Branch, University of Florida; Gary Brosvic, Rider University; Valerie Farmer-Dougan, Illinois State University; Adam Goodie, University of Georgia; Kenneth P. Hillner, South Dakota State University; Peter Holland, Duke University; Ann Kelley, Harvard University; Kathleen McCartney, University of New Hampshire; David Mostofsky, Boston University; Thomas Moye, Coe College; Jack Nation, Texas A & M University; David Schaal, West Virginia University; James R. Sutterer, Syracuse University; E. A. Wasserman, University of Iowa; and Joseph Wister, Chatham College. In addition, I thank Marge Averill, Stan Averill, John Bailey, Chris Berry, Paul Carroll, David Coe, David Cook, Susan Herrnstein, Margaret Makepeace, Margaret Nygren, Steven Pratt, and James Roach for their competent and cheerful help on different editions of this book. I am also grateful for the assistance and advice provided by Jayme Heffler of Prentice Hall. Finally, I thank my wife, Laurie Averill, for her help on this edition.

J. E. M.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

The purpose of this book is to introduce the reader to the branch of psychology that deals with how people and animals learn and how their behaviors are later changed as a result of this learning. This is a broad topic, for nearly all of our behaviors are influenced by prior learning experiences in some way. Because examples of learning and learned behaviors are so numerous, the goal of most psychologists in this field has been to discover general principles that are applicable to many different species and many different learning situations. What continues to impress and inspire me after many years in this field is that it is indeed possible to make such general statements about learning and behavior. This book describes some of the most important principles, theories, controversies, and experiments that have been produced by this branch of psychology in its first century.

This text is designed to be suitable for introductory or intermediate level courses in learning, conditioning, or the experimental analysis of behavior. No prior knowledge of psychology is assumed, but the reading may be a bit easier for those who have had a course in introductory psychology. Many of the concepts and theories in this field are fairly abstract, and to make them more concrete (and more relevant), I have included many real-world examples and analogies. In addition, most of the chapters include sections that describe how the theories and principles have been used in the applied field of behavior modification.

Roughly speaking, the book proceeds from the simple to the complex, both with respect to the difficulty of the material and the types of learning that are discussed. Chapter 1discusses the nature of scientific theories and experiments, and it outlines the behavioral approach to learning and contrasts it with the cognitive approach. Chapter 2 first describes some of the earliest theories about the learning process, and then presents some basic findings about the physiological mechanisms of learning. Chapter 3 discusses innate behaviors and the simplest type of learning, habituation. Many of the terms and ideas introduced here reappear in later chapters on classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and motor skills learning.

The next two chapters deal with classical conditioning. Chapter 4 begins with basic principles and ends with some therapeutic applications. Chapter 5 describes more recent theoretical developments and experimental findings in this area. The next three chapters discuss the various facets of operant conditioning: Chapter 6 covers the basic principles and terminology of positive reinforcement, Chapter 7 covers schedules of reinforcement and applications, and Chapter 8 covers negative reinforcement and punishment. Chapters 9 and 10 have a more theoretical orientation (although many empirical findings are described here as well). Chapter 9 presents differing views on such fundamental questions as what constitutes a reinforcer and what conditions are necessary for learning to occur. Chapter 10 takes a more thorough look at generalization and discrimination than was possible in earlier chapters, and it also examines research on concept formation.

Chapter 11 surveys a wide range of findings in the rapidly growing area of comparative cognition. Chapters 12 and 13 discuss two types of learning that are given little or no emphasis in many texts on learning--observational learning and motor-skills learning. These chapters were included because a substantial portion of human learning involves either observation or the development of new motor skills. Readers might well be puzzled or disappointed (with some justification) with a text on learning that included no mention of these topics. Finally, Chapter 14 presents an overview of behavioral research on choice.

This fifth edition includes a number of changes, both to help students learn the material and to keep the information up to date. A glossary has been added so that readers can quickly find the definitions of key terms. Each chapter now includes references to a few Internet sites that provide further information or demonstrations of the concepts presented in the chapter. Each chapter has also been updated with new studies that reflect recent developments in the field. One trend in the field of learning seems to be the increasing use of human subjects in research on basic behavioral processes. This edition reflects this trend by including recent research with human subjects in several different areas, including classical conditioning, physiological mechanisms, rule-governed behavior, biological preparedness, stimulus control, and others.

I owe thanks to many people for their help in different aspects of the preparation of this book. Many of my thoughts about learning and about psychology in general were shaped by my discussions with the late Richard Herrnstein, my teacher, advisor, and friend. I am also grateful to several others who read portions of the book and gave me valuable feedback: Mark Branch, University of Florida; Gary Brosvic, Rider University; Valerie Farmer-Dougan, Illinois State University; Adam Goodie, University of Georgia; Kenneth P. Hillner, South Dakota State University; Peter Holland, Duke University; Ann Kelley, Harvard University; Kathleen McCartney, University of New Hampshire; David Mostofsky, Boston University; Thomas Moye, Coe College; Jack Nation, Texas A & M University; David Schaal, West Virginia University; James R. Sutterer, Syracuse University; E. A. Wasserman, University of Iowa; and Joseph Wister, Chatham College. In addition, I thank Marge Averill, Stan Averill, John Bailey, Chris Berry, Paul Carroll, David Coe, David Cook, Susan Herrnstein, Margaret Makepeace, Margaret Nygren, Steven Pratt, and James Roach for their competent and cheerful help on different editions of this book. I am also grateful for the assistance and advice provided by Jayme Heffler of Prentice Hall. Finally, I thank my wife, Laurie Averill, for her help on this edition.

J. E. M.

Read More Show Less

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