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Without sacrificing intellectual rigor, this clear and beautifully written text shows how learning principles revealed in animal research can be applied to human behavior. Rather than leaving students with only classical conditioning, reinforcement, and formation of associations, Lieberman also reveals the relationship of learning to cognitive processes, such as memory and thinking. His coverage of the Rescorla-Wagner model-cited as an especially lucid overview" in the Journal of Comparative Psychology-enables students to understand the importance of neural network models in learning research (a topic either ignored or not made clear in other texts) and to perceive the links between associative learning and higher cognitive processes.
PART 1: INTRODUCTION. 1. SOME BASIC ASSUMPTIONS. Is Behavior Lawful? How Should We Discover Any Laws? Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches. The Experimental Method. The Use of Animals. An Overview of Associative Learning. Summary. PART 2: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING. 2. FOUNDATIONS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING. The Associative Tradition. Pavlov's Conditioned Reflexes. The Need for Control Groups. What Behaviors Can Be Conditioned? A Universal Process? Summary. 3. PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS. The Laws of Association. Contingency. Preparedness. Blocking. Applications of Conditioning. Summary. 4. THEORIES OF CONDITIONING. The Rescorla-Wagner Model. The Rescorla-Wagner Model: Deriving Predictions. Evaluating the Rescorla-Wagner Model. What is Learned During Conditioning? The Determinants of Performance. Conditioning in Humans. Summary. PART 3: OPERANT CONDITIONING. 5. REINFORCEMENT. Thorndike's Law of Effect. Basic Procedures. The Reinforcer. Delay of Reinforcement. Schedules of Reinforcement. Motivation. Stimulus Control. Shaping. Summary. 6. APPLICATIONS OF REINFORCEMENT. Reinforcement in the Classroom. The Problem of Maintaining Behavior. Harmful Effects of Reinforcement. Alternatives to Reinforcement: Modeling. Alternatives to Reinforcement: Self-Control. Summary. 7. PUNISHMENT AND EXTINCTION. Punishment. Side Effects of Punishment. Application: Children's Misbehavior. Extinction. Summary. PART 4: THEORETICAL PROCESSES IN ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING. 8. WHAT IS LEARNED? Early Views. Hull's S-R Theory. Tolman's Expectations. Habits and Expectations. Complex Learning. Summary. 9. THE ROLE OF MEMORY AND ATTENTION. A Model of Human Memory. Working Memory. The Role of Attention in Coding. Coding Relationships. Retrieval. The Associative Stage. Summary. 10. THE ROLE OF THE REINFORCER. Is Reinforcement Automatic? Is Reinforcement Necessary for Learning? The Avoidance Paradox. Reinforcement and Conditioning. Choosing a Response. Summary. 11. LEARNING IN AN EVOLUTIONARY CONTEXT. The General Process View. An Evolutionary Perspective. Are Classical Conditioning and Reinforcement Uniform Processes? Variations on an Associative Theme. Summary. 12. CONCEPT LEARNING: ASSOCIATIVE AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES. Concept Learning in Humans. Concept Learning in Animals. Abstract Concepts in Animals. The Neural Network Solution (To Association, Abstraction, and Everything...). Associative Learning and Cognition. Summary. REFERENCES. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. AUTHOR INDEX. SUBJECT INDEX. A FINAL WORD.