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Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective / Edition 6

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Overview

Written to inform students of the main principles, concepts, and research findings of key theories of learning–especially as they relate to education–and to provide applications of principles and concepts in settings where teaching and learning occur, this revised text blends theory, research, and applications throughout, providing its readers with a coherent and unified perspective on learning in educational settings. The primary emphasis is placed on cognitive theories that stress learners’ constructions of beliefs, skills, strategies, and knowledge, but behavioral theories are also discussed in detail. Chapters have numerous applications of learning principles to applied settings including vignettes at the start of each chapter illustrating some of the principles discussed in the chapter, examples and applications throughout the chapters, and separate sections on instructional applications at the end of each chapter.

Key features of this revised text include: a new chapter on Self-Regulation (Chapter 9); core chapters on the neuroscience of learning (Chapter 2), constructivism (Chapter 6), cognitive learning processes (Chapter 7), motivation (Chapter 8), and development (Chapter 10) all related to teaching and learning; updated sections on learning from technology and electronic media and how these advancements effectively promote learning in students (Chapters 7 & 10); detailed information on content-area learning and models of instruction to form coherence and connection between teaching and learning in different content areas, learning principles, and processes (Chapters 2-10); and over 140 new references on the latest theoretical ideas, research findings, and applications in the field. An essential resource for understanding key learning theoretical principles, concepts, and research findings–especially as they relate to education–this proven text blends theory, research, and applications throughout, providing its readers with a coherent and unified perspective on learning in educational settings.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780137071951
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 1/19/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 576
  • Sales rank: 156,388
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Dale H. Schunk is Dean of the School of Education and Professor of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. He holds a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology from Stanford University, a M.Ed. from Boston University, and a B.S. from the University of Illinois at Urbana. He has held faculty positions at Purdue University (where he served as Head of the Department of Educational Studies), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (where he also was Chair of the Academic Affairs Institutional Review Board), and the University of Houston.

Dale has edited six books, is co-author of Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications (Prentice Hall, 2008) and has authored over 80 articles and book chapters. He has served as President of Division 15-Educational Psychology for the American Psychological Association and as Secretary of Division C-Learning and Instruction for the American Educational Research Association. He is presently a member of the editorial boards of three professional journals.

Dale's teaching and research interests include learning, motivation, and self-regulation. He has received the Early Career Contributions Award in Educational Psychology from the American Psychological Association, the Albert J. Harris Research Award from the International Reading Association, and the Outstanding Service Award from the Purdue University School of Education

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 — Introduction to the Study of Learning

Learning Defined

Precursors of Modern Learning Theories

Learning theory and philosophy

Beginnings of the psychological study of learning

Structuralism and functionalism

Learning Theory and Research

Functions of theory

Conducting research

Assessment of Learning

Direct observations

Written responses

Oral responses

Ratings by others

Self-reports

Relation of Learning and Instruction

Historical perspective

Instructional commonalities

Integration of theory and practice

Critical Issues for Learning Theories

How does learning occur?

What is the role of memory?

What is the role of motivation?

How does transfer occur?

Which processes are involved in self-regulation?

What are the implications for instruction?

Three Learning Scenarios

Kathy Stone’s third-grade class

Jim Marshall’s U. S. History class

Gina Brown’s educational psychology class

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 2 — Neuroscience of Learning

Organization and Structures

Neural organization

Brain structures

Localization and interconnections

Brain research methods

Neurophysiology of Learning

Information processing system

Memory networks

Language learning

Brain Development

Influential factors

Phases of development

Critical periods

Language development

Motivation and Emotions

Motivation

Emotions

Instructional Applications

Relevance of brain research

Educational issues

Brain-based educational practices

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 3 — Behaviorism

Connectionism

Trial-and-error learning

Laws of exercise and effect

Other principles

Revisions to Thorndike’s theory

Instructional applications

Classical Conditioning

Basic processes

Informational variables

Biological influences

Conditioned emotional reactions

Contiguous Conditioning

Acts and movements

Associative strength

Rewards and punishments

Habit formation and change

Operant Conditioning

Conceptual framework

Basic processes

Behavioral change

Behavior modification

Self-regulation

Instructional Applications

Behavioral objectives

Learning time

Mastery learning

Programmed instruction

Contingency contracts

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 4 — Social Cognitive Theory

Conceptual Framework for Learning

Reciprocal interactions

Enactive and vicarious learning

Learning and performance

Self-regulation

Modeling Processes

Theories of imitation

Functions of modeling

Cognitive skill learning

Motor skill learning

Influences on Learning and Performance

Developmental status of learners

Model prestige and competence

Vicarious consequences to models

Motivational Processes

Goals

Outcome expectations

Values

Self-Efficacy

Conceptual overview

Self-efficacy in achievement situations

Models and self-efficacy

Motor skills

Instructional self-efficacy

Health and therapeutic activities

Instructional Applications

Models

Self-efficacy

Worked examples

Tutoring and mentoring

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 5 — Information Processing Theory

Information Processing System

Assumptions

Two-store dual-memory model

Alternatives to the two-store model

Attention

Theories of attention

Attention and learning

Attention and reading

Perception

Gestalt theory

Sensory registers

LTM comparisons

Two-Store Memory Model

Verbal learning

Short-term working memory

Long-term memory

Influences on encoding

Long-Term Memory: Storage

Propositions

Storage of knowledge

Production systems and connectionist models

Long-Term Memory: Retrieval and Forgetting

Retrieval

Language comprehension

Forgetting

Mental Imagery

Representation of spatial information

Imagery in LTM

Individual differences

Instructional Applications

Advance organizers

Conditions of learning

Cognitive load

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 6 — Constructivism

Constructivism: Assumptions and Perspectives

Overview

Perspectives

Situated cognition

Contributions and applications

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Developmental processes

Implications for instruction

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Background

Basic principles

Zone of Proximal Development

Applications

Critique

Private Speech and Socially-Mediated Learning

Private speech

Verbalization and achievement

Socially mediated learning

Self-regulation

Motivation

Contextual factors

Implicit theories

Teachers’ expectations

Constructivist Learning Environments

Key features

APA Learner-Centered Principles

Instructional Applications

Discovery learning

Inquiry teaching

Peer-assisted learning

Discussions and debates

Reflective teaching

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 7 — Cognitive Learning Processes

Skill Acquisition

General and specific skills

Novice-to-expert research methodology

Expert-novice differences in science

Conditional Knowledge and Metacognition

Conditional knowledge

Metacognition and learning

Variables influencing metacognition

Metacognition and behavior

Metacognition and reading

Concept Learning

The nature of concepts

Concept attainment

Teaching of concepts

Motivational processes

Problem Solving

Historical influences

Heuristics

Problem-solving strategies

Problem solving and learning

Experts and novices

Reasoning

Implications for instruction

Transfer

Historical views

Activation of knowledge in memory

Types of transfer

Strategy transfer

Teaching for transfer

Technology and Instruction

Computer-based learning environments

Distance learning

Future directions

Instructional Applications

Worked examples

Writing

Mathematics

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 8 — Motivation

Historical Perspectives

Drive theory

Conditioning theory

Cognitive consistency theory

Humanistic theory

Model of Motivated Learning

Pretask

During task

Posttask

Achievement Motivation

Expectancy-value theory

Familial influences

Contemporary model of achievement motivation

Self-worth theory

Task and ego involvement

Attribution Theory

Locus of control

Naïve analysis of action

Attribution theory of achievement

Social Cognitive Theory

Goals and expectations

Social comparison

Goal Theory

Goal orientations

Conceptions of ability

Perceptions of Control

Control beliefs

Learned helplessness

Students with learning problems

Self-Concept

Dimensions and development

Self-concept and learning

Intrinsic motivation

Theoretical perspectives

Overjustification and reward

Instructional Applications

Achievement motivation training

Attribution change programs

Goal orientations

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 9 — Self-Regulation

Behavioral Theory

Self-monitoring

Self-instruction

Self-reinforcement

Social Cognitive Theory

Conceptual framework

Social cognitive processes

Cyclical nature of self-regulation

Social and self influences

Information Processing Theory

Model of self-regulation

Learning strategies

Constructivist Theory

Socilcultural influences

Implicit theories

Motivation and Self-Regulation

Volition

Values

Self-schemas

Help seeking

Instructional Applications

Academic studying

Writing

Mathematics

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 10 — Development

Beginnings of the Scientific Study of Development

Historical foundations

Philosophical foundations

The Child Study Movement

Perspectives on Human Development

Issues relevant to learning

Types of developmental theories

Structural theories

Bruner’s Theory of Cognitive Growth

Cognitive growth and knowledge representation

Spiral curriculum

Contemporary Developmental Themes

Developmental changes

Developmentally appropriate instruction

Transitions in schooling

Family Influences

Socioeconomic status

Home environment

Parental involvement

Electronic media

Motivation and Development

Developmental changes

Implications

Instructional Applications

Learning styles

Case’s instructional model

Teacher-student interactions

Summary

Further Reading

Glossary

References

Author Index

Subject Index

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Preface

Theory and research on human learning have expanded dramatically in recent years. This point is underscored by considering some of the topics addressed in this text that were not covered in the first edition published in 1991: constructivism, situated cognition, implicit theories, brain development, apprenticeships, peer collaboration, distance education, and E-learning. The relevance of each of these topics to human learning is now firmly established. Better integration with education of such disciplines as psychology, human development, and instructional technology has contributed to the expansion of the field of learning.

Despite all these changes, the primary objectives of this fourth edition remain the same as those of the previous three editions: (a) to inform students of learning theoretical principles, concepts, and research findings, especially as they relate to education, and (b) to provide applications of principles and concepts in settings where, teaching and learning occur. Although different theories of learning are discussed, the text continues to focus on cognitive perspectives. This focus is consistent with the contemporary emphasis on learners as seekers and constructors of knowledge rather than as reactors to events.

STRUCTURE OF THIS TEXT

The text's 10 chapters are organized as follows. In the introductory chapter, I discuss learning theory-, research, and issues, as well as historical foundations of the study of learning and the relation of learning to instruction. The end of this chapter includes three scenarios involving elementary, secondary, and college classes. Throughout the text these scenarios are used todemonstrate applications of principles of learning, motivation, self-regulation, and instruction. Chapter 2 presents behavioral theories of learning. Current cognitive and constructivist views of learning are covered in subsequent chapters: social cognitive theory (Chapter 3); information processing (Chapter 4); cognitive learning processes (Chapter 5); cognition and instruction (Chapter 6); and constructivism (Chapter 7). The final three chapters cover topics relevant to learning: motivation (Chapter 8); content-area learning (Chapter 9); and development and learning (Chapter 10).

NEW TO THIS EDITION

Readers familiar with prior editions will notice several content and organizational changes in this fourth edition, which reflect evolving theoretical and research emphases. Constructivism, which has become a major guiding framework in content learning and human development, is now covered in a separate chapter, although parts of this chapter—such as Vygotsky's theory—were included in prior editions. To provide better integration of self-regulation and instruction with learning theories, these topics now are integrated within each of the theory chapters rather than appearing as stand-alone chapters. This change reflects the increasing tendency of researchers from different theoretical traditions to investigate how learning principles apply to instructional contexts and students' efforts to self-regulate their academic actions. One exception is Chapter 6, cognition and instruction. This chapter stands alone because of the sheer amount of material relevant to the topic. Separate chapters on motivation and development and learning remain for the same reason, although discussions of these topics are intermingled in other chapters. Chapter 10—development and learning—has been substantially revised and now includes sections on familial and sociocultural influences on learning and brain development. These additions, like the other changes in this volume, reflect the increased interest among educators in these topics and an expanding research base on their role in human learning. Rapid developments in technology necessitated further refocusing of the section on technology and instruction (now in Chapter 6), and the continued growth of research relevant to learning resulted in more than 175 new references added to this edition—most of which were published in the last 5 years.

This edition continues to provide many examples of learning concepts and principles applied to settings where learning occurs. Each chapter gives informal examples in text and detailed applications. Many of the latter are set in the scenarios described in Chapter 1. Most of the applications pertain to school-age learners, but applications to younger and older students and to nonschool settings also are included.

The text is intended for use by graduate students in education or related disciplines, as well as by upper-level undergraduates interested in education. I assume that most students have taken a prior course in education or psychology and work in an educational capacity or anticipate pursuing an educational career. In addition to courses on learning, the text is appropriate for any course that covers learning in more than a cursory fashion—for example, courses on motivation, educational psychology, human development, and instructional design.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Theory and research on human learning have expanded dramatically in recent years. This point is underscored by considering some of the topics addressed in this text that were not covered in the first edition published in 1991: constructivism, situated cognition, implicit theories, brain development, apprenticeships, peer collaboration, distance education, and E-learning. The relevance of each of these topics to human learning is now firmly established. Better integration with education of such disciplines as psychology, human development, and instructional technology has contributed to the expansion of the field of learning.

Despite all these changes, the primary objectives of this fourth edition remain the same as those of the previous three editions: (a) to inform students of learning theoretical principles, concepts, and research findings, especially as they relate to education, and (b) to provide applications of principles and concepts in settings where, teaching and learning occur. Although different theories of learning are discussed, the text continues to focus on cognitive perspectives. This focus is consistent with the contemporary emphasis on learners as seekers and constructors of knowledge rather than as reactors to events.

STRUCTURE OF THIS TEXT

The text's 10 chapters are organized as follows. In the introductory chapter, I discuss learning theory-, research, and issues, as well as historical foundations of the study of learning and the relation of learning to instruction. The end of this chapter includes three scenarios involving elementary, secondary, and college classes. Throughout the text these scenarios are used to demonstrateapplications of principles of learning, motivation, self-regulation, and instruction. Chapter 2 presents behavioral theories of learning. Current cognitive and constructivist views of learning are covered in subsequent chapters: social cognitive theory (Chapter 3); information processing (Chapter 4); cognitive learning processes (Chapter 5); cognition and instruction (Chapter 6); and constructivism (Chapter 7). The final three chapters cover topics relevant to learning: motivation (Chapter 8); content-area learning (Chapter 9); and development and learning (Chapter 10).

NEW TO THIS EDITION

Readers familiar with prior editions will notice several content and organizational changes in this fourth edition, which reflect evolving theoretical and research emphases. Constructivism, which has become a major guiding framework in content learning and human development, is now covered in a separate chapter, although parts of this chapter--such as Vygotsky's theory--were included in prior editions. To provide better integration of self-regulation and instruction with learning theories, these topics now are integrated within each of the theory chapters rather than appearing as stand-alone chapters. This change reflects the increasing tendency of researchers from different theoretical traditions to investigate how learning principles apply to instructional contexts and students' efforts to self-regulate their academic actions. One exception is Chapter 6, cognition and instruction. This chapter stands alone because of the sheer amount of material relevant to the topic. Separate chapters on motivation and development and learning remain for the same reason, although discussions of these topics are intermingled in other chapters. Chapter 10--development and learning--has been substantially revised and now includes sections on familial and sociocultural influences on learning and brain development. These additions, like the other changes in this volume, reflect the increased interest among educators in these topics and an expanding research base on their role in human learning. Rapid developments in technology necessitated further refocusing of the section on technology and instruction (now in Chapter 6), and the continued growth of research relevant to learning resulted in more than 175 new references added to this edition--most of which were published in the last 5 years.

This edition continues to provide many examples of learning concepts and principles applied to settings where learning occurs. Each chapter gives informal examples in text and detailed applications. Many of the latter are set in the scenarios described in Chapter 1. Most of the applications pertain to school-age learners, but applications to younger and older students and to nonschool settings also are included.

The text is intended for use by graduate students in education or related disciplines, as well as by upper-level undergraduates interested in education. I assume that most students have taken a prior course in education or psychology and work in an educational capacity or anticipate pursuing an educational career. In addition to courses on learning, the text is appropriate for any course that covers learning in more than a cursory fashion--for example, courses on motivation, educational psychology, human development, and instructional design.

Read More Show Less

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