Learning to Teach / Edition 4

Learning to Teach / Edition 4

by Richard I. Arends
     
 

ISBN-10: 007006282X

ISBN-13: 9780070062825

Pub. Date: 11/28/1997

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

This best-selling text provides comprehensive coverage of general teaching methods and models. The most balanced text in its field,it covers all major teaching models plus the executive skills of teaching,namely,planning,classroom management,assessment,motivation,and use/management of time and space. This is also the most research-oriented text in its field. Each

Overview

This best-selling text provides comprehensive coverage of general teaching methods and models. The most balanced text in its field,it covers all major teaching models plus the executive skills of teaching,namely,planning,classroom management,assessment,motivation,and use/management of time and space. This is also the most research-oriented text in its field. Each chapter opens with a discussion of the research base plus how to do action research in the classroom. The text is ideal for field-oriented courses and has over 100 pages of end-of-chapter interview,reflection,and observation activities— plus four end-of-text resource handbooks on reading and using research; action research; observation,reflection,and microteaching; and Internet resources for teachers. The fourth edition has been thoroughly updated. The former chapter 3 on time and space is now part of chapter 2 on planning. Chapter 3,Classroom Motivation and Learning Communities,has been heavily revised. Chapter 6,Assessment and Evaluation,adds new material on performance and authentic assessment. A new chapter 12 covers problem-based instruction and a new chapter 13 discusses Learning Strategies. A new end-of-chapter feature,"Portfolio," provides step-by-step directions for creating and collecting a set,or portfolio,of particular artifacts and products,useful for displaying a candidate's strengths when interviewing for a teaching position. A new Resource Handbook appendix on the Internet provides valuable sites for teaching resources. New guideline notes in the text margin help student understanding.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780070062825
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date:
11/28/1997
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
576
Product dimensions:
8.27(w) x 10.24(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

PREFACE iii
CHAPTER 1 THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR THE ART OF TEACHING
1(36)
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON TEACHING
2(9)
Role Expectations in Earlier Times
2(1)
Twentieth-Century Role Expectations
3(1)
Twenty-First-Century Role Expectations
4(7)
A PERSPECTIVE ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING
11(9)
The Ultimate Goal of Teaching
12(1)
A View of the Effective Teacher
12(1)
Personal Qualities for Developing Authentic Relationships
13(1)
Knowledge Base to Guide the Art Practice
13(3)
Repertoire of Effective Practice
16(4)
Reflection, Problem Solving, and Lifelong Learning
20(1)
LEARNING TO TEACH
20(9)
Models of Teacher Development
21(1)
Early Influences on Teaching
22(7)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING, OBSERVATION, AND PORTFOLIO
29(8)
PART ONE THE LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS OF TEACHING 37(186)
CHAPTER 2 TEACHER PLANNING
39(34)
PERSPECTIVE ON PLANNING
40(2)
Planning--The Traditional View
41(1)
Planning--An Alternative Perspective
41(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
42(3)
Consequences of Planning
42(1)
Planning and the Experienced Teacher
43(1)
Planning and the Beginning Teacher
44(1)
PLANNING DOMAINS
45(3)
The Three Phases of Teaching
45(2)
Planning Cycles
47(1)
THE SPECIFICS OF PLANNING
48(13)
Instructional Objectives
48(4)
Taxonomies for Helping Choose Instructional Objectives
52(1)
Lesson Plans
53(3)
Choosing Curriculum Content
56(3)
Choosing Activity Structures
59(2)
PLANNING FOR TIME AND SPACE
61(5)
Time
61(1)
Space
62(4)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING, OBSERVATION, AND PORTFOLIO
66(7)
CHAPTER 3 CLASSROOM MOTIVATION AND LEARNING COMMUNITIES
73(34)
OVERVIEW OF CLASSROOM MOTIVATION AND LEARNING COMMUNITIES
75(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
76(14)
Human Motivation
76(1)
Theories of Human Motivation
76(4)
Features of Learning Communities
80(6)
Research on Motivation and Learning Communities
86(4)
STRATEGIES FOR MOTIVATING STUDENTS AND BUILDING PRODUCTIVE LEARNING COMMUNITIES
90(10)
Attend to Alterable Factors
90(1)
Avoid Overemphasizing Extrinsic Motivation
90(1)
Create Learning Situations with Positive Feeling Tones
90(1)
Build on Students' Interests and Intrinsic Value
91(1)
Structure Learning to Accomplish Flow
92(1)
Use Knowledge of Results and Don't Excuse Failure
92(1)
Attend to Student Needs, Including Need for Self-Determination
93(1)
Attend to the Structure of Learning Goals and Difficulty of Instructional Tasks
94(1)
Facilitate Group Development and Cohesion
94(6)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING, OBSERVATION, AND PORTFOLIO
100(7)
CHAPTER 4 MULTICULTURAL AND MAINSTREAMED CLASSROOMS
107(42)
PERSPECTIVE ON MULTICULTURAL CLASSROOMS
108(3)
Examining the Problem
108(2)
Why Teach Multiculturally?
110(1)
Philosophical Roots
110(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
111(10)
Race and Ethnicity
111(1)
Language
112(2)
Gender
114(1)
Social Class
115(3)
Exceptionality
118(3)
CREATING CLASSROOMS THAT ARE MULTICULTURAL
121(19)
Personal and Professional Development
121(3)
Teacher Expectations
124(4)
Curriculum Development
128(2)
Instructional Development
130(4)
Classroom Organization and Management
134(2)
School Organization
136(4)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING, OBSERVATION, AND PORTFOLIO
140(9)
CHAPTER 5 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
149(38)
PERSPECTIVE ON CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
150(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
151(4)
Focus on the Individual
151(1)
Classroom Ecology and Group Processes
151(3)
Effective Teaching Research
154(1)
PREPARING FOR EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
155(15)
Preventive Classroom Management
155(7)
Managing Inappropriate and Disruptive Behavior
162(2)
Exhibiting Confidence and Exerting Influence
164(4)
Assertive Discipline
168(2)
WORKING TOWARD SELF-MANAGEMENT
170(6)
Dreikurs' Logical Consequences
170(1)
Glasser's Classroom Meeting
171(5)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING, OBSERVATION, AND PORTFOLIO
176(11)
CHAPTER 6 ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
187(36)
PERSPECTIVE ON ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
188(3)
Importance of Assessment and Evaluation
188(1)
Key Assessment and Evaluation Concepts
189(2)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
191(3)
Effects of Grades on Students
191(1)
Teacher Bias in Assessment and Grading
192(2)
Importance of Grades to Parents
194(1)
SCHOOLWIDE ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS
194(3)
Schoolwide Use of Standardized Tests
194(1)
Standardized Tests
194(1)
Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
195(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Approaches
197(1)
Communication of Standardized Test Results
197(1)
A TEACHER'S ASSESSMENT PROGRAM
197(1)
Diagnosing Prior Knowledge
197(1)
Providing Corrective Feedback
198(1)
Testing for Summative Evaluation and Reporting
198(1)
SPECIFICS OF TESTING AND GRADING
198(9)
General Principles
199(1)
Test Construction and Use
200(5)
Grading
205(1)
Summary Guidelines for Testing and Grading
206(1)
A LOOK TO THE FUTURE OF TESTING AND GRADING
207(9)
Performance Assessment
207(1)
Authentic Assessment
208(1)
Designing and Scoring Performance and Authentic Assessments
208(2)
Student Portfolios and Narrative Descriptions
210(1)
Assessing Group Effort and Individually Contracted Work
211(1)
Experimenting with New Approaches
211(2)
Assessment Bill of Rights
213(3)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING, OBSERVATION, AND PORTFOLIO
216(7)
PART TWO THE INTERACTIVE FUNCTIONS OF TEACHING 223(220)
CHAPTER 7 PRESENTATION
225(30)
OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION TEACHING
226(1)
Instructional Goals and Learner Outcomes
226(1)
Syntax of the Model
227(1)
Learning Environment and Management System
227(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
227(7)
Structure and Organization of Knowledge
228(1)
Meaningful Verbal Learning
229(1)
Cognitive Psychology of Learning
229(2)
Empirical Support
231(3)
CONDUCTING PRESENTATION LESSONS
234(11)
Planning Tasks
234(5)
Interactive Tasks
239(6)
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT TASKS
245(1)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
245(3)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION, AND PORTFOLIO
248(7)
CHAPTER 8 DIRECT INSTRUCTION
255(28)
OVERVIEW OF DIRECT INSTRUCTION
256(1)
Instructional Goals and Learner Outcomes
256(1)
Syntax
257(1)
Learning Environment and Management System
257(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
257(3)
Systems Analysis
258(1)
Behavioral Modeling Theory
258(2)
Teacher Effectiveness Research
260(1)
CONDUCTING DIRECT INSTRUCTION LESSONS
260(10)
Planning Tasks
260(4)
Interactive Tasks
264(6)
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT TASKS
270(1)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
270(1)
A FINAL THOUGHT: CONSIDERING THE USE OF DIRECT INSTRUCTION
271(3)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING, OBSERVATION, AND PORTFOLIO
274(9)
CHAPTER 9 CONCEPT TEACHING
283(28)
OVERVIEW OF CONCEPT TEACHING
284(1)
Instructional Goals and Learner Outcomes
284(1)
Syntax
284(1)
Learning Environment and Management System
284(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
285(8)
Concepts and Higher-Level Thinking
285(1)
The Nature of Concepts
286(2)
Human Development and Concept Learning
288(1)
Use of Examples in Concept Teaching
289(3)
Use of Visual Images in Concept Teaching
292(1)
Guidelines for Concept Teaching
292(1)
CONDUCTING CONCEPT LESSONS
293(7)
Planning Tasks
293(5)
Interactive Tasks
298(2)
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT TASKS
300(1)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
300(4)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING, OBSERVATION, AND PORTFOLIO
304(7)
CHAPTER 10 COOPERATIVE LEARNING
311(36)
OVERVIEW OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING
312(2)
Instructional Goals and Learner Outcomes
313(1)
Syntax
313(1)
Learning Environment and Management System
314(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
314(3)
Democratic Classrooms
314(1)
Intergroup Relations
315(1)
Experiential Learning
315(1)
Effects on Cooperative Behavior
316(1)
Effects on Interactions with Handicapped Children
316(1)
Effects on Academic Achievement
316(1)
CONDUCTING COOPERATIVE LEARNING LESSONS
317(11)
Planning Tasks
317(10)
Interactive Tasks
327(1)
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT TASKS
328(4)
Help with Transitions
329(1)
Teach Cooperation
329(3)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
332(3)
Test Cooperative Learning
333(1)
Assess Cooperation
333(1)
Grade Cooperative Learning
333(1)
Recognize Cooperative Effort
334(1)
COOPERATIVE LEARNING: A FINAL THOUGHT
335(5)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING, OBSERVATION, AND PORTFOLIO
340(7)
CHAPTER 11 PROBLEM-BASED INSTRUCTION
347(30)
OVERVIEW OF PROBLEM-BASED INSTRUCTION
348(3)
Special Features of Problem-Based Instruction
348(1)
Instructional Goals and Learner Outcomes
349(2)
Syntax
351(1)
Learning Environment and Management System
351(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
351(3)
Dewey and the Problem-Oriented Classroom
352(1)
Piaget, Vygotsky, and Constructivism
352(1)
Bruner and Discovery Learning
353(1)
CONDUCTING PROBLEM-BASED LESSONS
354(8)
Planning Tasks
355(4)
Interactive Tasks
359(3)
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT TASKS
362(2)
Deal with Multitask Situations
362(1)
Adjust to Differing Finishing Rates
363(1)
Monitor and Manage Student Work
363(1)
Manage Materials and Equipment
363(1)
Regulate Movement and Behavior outside the Classroom
364(1)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
364(3)
Assess Understanding
364(1)
Use Checklists and Rating Scales
364(1)
Assess Adult Roles and Situations
364(2)
Assess Learning Potential
366(1)
Assess Group Effort
366(1)
PROBLEM-BASED INSTRUCTION: A FINAL THOUGHT
367(3)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING, OBSERVATION, AND PORTFOLIO
370(7)
CHAPTER 12 CLASSROOM DISCUSSION
377(36)
OVERVIEW OF CLASSROOM DISCUSSION
378(1)
Classroom Discourse, Discussion, and Recitation
378(1)
Instructional Goals and Learner Outcomes
378(1)
Syntax
379(1)
Learning Environment and Management System
379(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
379(3)
Discourse and Cognition
380(1)
Social Aspect of Discourse
380(1)
Teacher Talk
381(1)
Teacher Questioning
381(1)
Wait-Time
382(1)
CONDUCTING A DISCUSSION LESSON
382(9)
Planning Tasks
382(6)
Interactive Tasks
388(3)
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT TASKS
391(3)
Slow the Pace and Broaden Participation
392(1)
Increase Interpersonal Regard and Understanding
392(2)
Use Tools that Highlight Discourse and Thinking Skills
394(1)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
394(3)
Follow Up Discussions
395(1)
Grade Classroom Discussions
395(2)
CLASSROOM DISCOURSE PATTERNS: A FINAL THOUGHT
397(4)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING, OBSERVATION, AND PORTFOLIO
401(12)
CHAPTER 13 LEARNING AND STUDY STRATEGIES
413(30)
OVERVIEW OF LEARNING STRATEGIES
414(2)
Importance and Purposes of Strategy Instruction
415(1)
Defining Learning Strategies
415(1)
Self-Regulated Learners
415(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
416(5)
Importance of Prior Knowledge
416(1)
Kinds of Knowledge
417(1)
The Memory System
418(3)
TYPES OF LEARNING STRATEGIES
421(5)
Rehearsal Strategies
421(1)
Elaboration Strategies
422(2)
Organization Strategies
424(1)
Metacognitive Strategies
425(1)
TEACHING LEARNING STRATEGIES
426(4)
Select Appropriate STategies to TEach
427(1)
Choose an Instructional Approach
428(2)
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT TASKS
430(3)
Create Rich Learning Environments
430(1)
Emphasize the Importance of Self Regulated Learning
430(1)
Use Attention Getting Devices
431(1)
Manage Seatwork Homework and Assignments
431(2)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
433(1)
LEARNING STRATEGIES: A FINAL THOUGHT
434(4)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION AND PORTFOLIO
438(5)
PART THREE THE ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF TEACHING 443(87)
CHAPTER 14 THE SCHOOL AS WORKPLACE
445(28)
PERSPECTIVE OF SCHOOLS AS WORKPLACES
446(5)
Schools Are Social Systems
446(1)
Schools Have Histories and Cultures
447(1)
Schools Have Common Features with Other Organizations
447(1)
Schools Have Unique Features
448(1)
Norms Roles and the Culture of Teaching
449(2)
THEORTICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
451(7)
Nature of Teachers Work
452(2)
Research on Schools
454(1)
Features of Effective Schools
455(3)
ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS FOR TEACHERS
458(7)
Working with Colleagues
458(1)
Working with Administrators and Leadership Personal
459(1)
Working with Parents
460(5)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION AND PORTFOLIO
465(8)
CHAPTER 15 THE FIRST OF TEACHING AND SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT
473(27)
THE FIRST YEAR OF TEACHING
474(6)
Socialization of Teachers
474(1)
Nature of the First-Year Experiance
475(2)
Making the First Year Productive
477(3)
SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT AND CHANGE
480(7)
The Focus of Educational Reform
480(2)
Why Educational Reforms Fail
482(1)
School Improvement Understandings and Skills
483(4)
STAYING ALIVE AND FLOURISHING
487(6)
Keeping Things in Perspective
487(1)
Finding Time
487(1)
Exhibiting Leadership and Establishing Professional Networks
488(5)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION AND PORTFOLIO
493(7)
RESOURCE HANDBOOK
500(30)
UNIT 1 Reading and Using Research
501(11)
UNIT 2 Action Research for Classroom Teachers
512(9)
UNIT 3 Observation Reflection and Microteaching
521(9)
GLOSSARY 530(9)
REFERENCES 539(12)
CREDITS 551(4)
NAME INDEX 555(4)
SUBJECT INDEXE 559(4)
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 563
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION AND PORTFOLIO
248(7)
CHAPTER 8 DIRECT INSTRUCTION
255(28)
OVERVIEW OF DIRECT INSTRUCTION
256(1)
Instructional Goals and Learner Outcomes
256(1)
Syntax
257(1)
Learning Environment and Management System
257(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
257(3)
Systems Analysis
258(1)
Behavioral Modeling Theory
258(2)
Teacher Effectiveness Research
260(1)
CONDUCTING DIRECT INSTRUCTION LESSONS
260(10)
Planning Tasks
260(4)
Interactive Tasks
264(6)
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT TASKS
270(1)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
270(1)
A FINAL THOUGHT: CONSIDERING THE USE OF DIRECT INSTRUCTION
271(3)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION AND PORTFOLIO
274(9)
CHAPTER 9 CONCEPT TEACHING
283(28)
OVERVIEW OF CONCEPT TEACHING
284(1)
Instructional Goals and Learner Outcomes
284(1)
Syntax
284(1)
Learning Environment and Management System
284(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
285(8)
Concepts and Higher-Level Thinking
285(1)
The Nature of Concepts
286(2)
Human Development and Concept Learning
288(1)
Use of Examples in Concept Teaching
289(3)
Use of Visual Images in Concept Teaching
292(1)
Guidelines for Concept Teaching
292(1)
CONDUCTING CONCEPT LESSONS
293(7)
Planning Tasks
293(5)
Interactive Tasks
298(2)
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT TASKS
300(1)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
300(4)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION AND PORFTOLIO
304(7)
CHAPTER 10 COOPERATIVE LEARNING
311(36)
OVERVIEW OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING
312(2)
Instructional Goals and Learner Outcomes
313(1)
Syntax
313(1)
Learning Environment and Management system
314(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
314(3)
Democratic Classrooms
314(1)
Intergroup Relations
315(1)
Experiential Learning
315(1)
Effects on Cooperative Behavior
316(1)
Effects on Interactions with Handicapped Children
316(1)
Effects on Academic Achievement
316(1)
CONDUCTING COOPERATIVE LEARNING LESSONS
317(11)
Help with Transitions
329(1)
Teach Cooperation
329(3)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
332(3)
Test Cooperative learning
333(1)
Assess Cooperation
333(1)
Grade Cooperative Learning
333(1)
Recognize Cooperative Effort
334(1)
COOPERATIVE LEARNING: A FINAL THOUGHT
335(5)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION AND PORTFOLIO
340(7)
CHAPTER 11 PROBLEM-BASED INSTRUCTION
347(30)
OVERVIEW OF PROBLEM-BASED INSTRUCTION
348(3)
Special Features of Problem-Based Instruction
348(1)
Instructional Goals and Learner Outcomes
349(2)
Syntax
351(1)
Learning Environment and Management System
351(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
351(3)
Dewey and the Problem-Oriented Classroom
352(1)
Piaget Vygotsky and Constructivism
352(1)
Bruner and Discovery Learning
353(1)
CONDUCTING PROBLEM-BASED LESSONS
354(8)
Planning Tasks
355(4)
Interactive Tasks
359(3)
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT TASKS
362(2)
Deal with Multitask Situations
362(1)
Adjust to Differing Finishing Rates
363(1)
Monitor and Manage Student Work
363(1)
Manage Materials and Equipment
363(1)
Regulate Movement and Behavior outside the Classroom
364(1)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
364(3)
Assess Understanding
364(1)
Use Checklists and Rating Scales
364(1)
Assess Adult Roles and Situations
364(2)
Assess Learning Potential
366(1)
Assess Group Effort
366(1)
PROBLEM-BASED INSTRUCTION: A FINAL THOUGHT
367(3)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION AND PORTFOLIO
370(7)
CHAPTER 12 CLASSROOM DISCUSSION
377(36)
OVERVIEW OF CLASSROOM DISCUSSION
378(1)
Classroom Discourse Discussion and Recitation
378(1)
Instructional Goals and Learner Outcomes
378(1)
Syntax
379(1)
Learning Environment and Management System
379(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
379(3)
Discourse and Cognition
380(1)
Social Aspect of Discourse
380(1)
Teacher Talk
381(1)
Teacher Questioning
381(1)
Wait-Time
382(1)
CONDUCTING A DISCUSSION LESSON
382(9)
Planning Tasks
382(6)
Interactive Tasks
388(3)
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT TASKS
391(3)
Slow the Pace and Broaden Participation
392(1)
Increase Interpersonal Regard and Understanding
392(2)
Use Tools that Highlight Discourse and Thinking Skills
394(1)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
394(3)
Follow Up Discussions
395(2)
CLASSROOM DISCOURSE PATTERNS: A FINAL THOUGHT
397(4)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION AND PORTFOLIO
401(12)
CHAPTER 13 LEARNING AND STUDY STRATEGIES
413(30)
OVERVIEW OF LEARNING STRATEGIES
414(2)
Importance and Purposes of Strategy Instruction
415(1)
Defining Learning Strategies
415(1)
Self-Regulated Learners
415(1)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
416(5)
Importance of Prior Knowledge
416(1)
Kinds of Knowledge
417(1)
The Memory System
418(3)
TYPES OF LEARNING STRATEGIES
421(5)
Rehearsal Strategies
421(1)
Elaboration Strategies
422(2)
Organization Strategies
424(1)
Metacognitive Strategies
425(1)
TEACHING LEARNING STRATEGIES
426(4)
Select Appropriate Strategies to Teach
427(1)
Choose an Instructional Approach
428(2)
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT TASKS
430(3)
Create Rich Learning Environments
430(1)
Emphasize the Importance of Self-Regulated Learning
430(1)
Use Attention-Getting Devices
431(1)
Manage Seatwork Homework and Assignments
431(2)
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
433(1)
LEARNING STRATEGIES: A FINAL THOUGHT
434(4)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION AND PORTFOLIO
438(5)
PART THREE THE ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF TEACHING 443(87)
CHAPTER 14 THE SCHOOL AS WORKPLACE
445(28)
PERSPECTIVE OF SCHOOLS AS WORKPLACES
446(5)
Schools Are Social Systems
446(1)
Schools Have Histories and Cultures
447(1)
Schools Have Common Features with Other Organizations
447(1)
Schools Have Unique Features
448(1)
Norms Roles and the Culture of Teaching
449(2)
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL SUPPORT
451(7)
Nature of Teachers' Work
452(2)
Research on Schools
454(1)
Features of Effective Schools
455(3)
ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS FOR TEACHERS
458(7)
Working with Colleagues
458(1)
Working with Administrators and Leadership Personnel
459(1)
Working with Parents
460(5)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION AND PORTFOLIO
465(8)
CHAPTER 15 THE FIRST YEAR OF TEACHING AND SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT
473(27)
THE FIRST YEAR OF TEACHING
474(6)
Socialization of Teachers
474(1)
Nature of the First-Year Experience
475(2)
Making the First Year Productive
477(3)
SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT AND CHANGE
480(7)
The Focus of Educational Reform
480(2)
Why Educational Reforms Fail
482(1)
School Improvement Understandings and Skills
483(4)
STAYING ALIVE AND FLOURISHING
487(6)
Keeping Things in Perspective
487(1)
Finding Time
487(1)
Exhibiting Leadership and Establishing Professional Networks
488(5)
LEARNING AIDS FOR PLANNING OBSERVATION AND PORTFOLIO
493(7)
RESOURCE HANDBOOK
500(30)
UNIT 1 Reading and Using Research
501(11)
UNIT 2 Action Research for Classroom Teachers
512(9)
UNIT 3 Observation Reflection and Microteaching
521(9)
GLOSSARY 530(9)
REFERENCES 539(12)
CREDITS 551(4)
NAME INDEX 555(4)
SUBJECT INDEX 559(4)
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 563

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