Lee and His Army in Confederate History / Edition 1

Hardcover (Print)
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $3.91
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 91%)
Other sellers (Hardcover)
  • All (17) from $3.91   
  • New (3) from $53.16   
  • Used (14) from $3.91   
Close
Sort by
Page 1 of 1
Showing All
Note: Marketplace items are not eligible for any BN.com coupons and promotions
$53.16
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(299)

Condition:

New — never opened or used in original packaging.

Like New — packaging may have been opened. A "Like New" item is suitable to give as a gift.

Very Good — may have minor signs of wear on packaging but item works perfectly and has no damage.

Good — item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Acceptable — item is in working order but may show signs of wear such as scratches or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Used — An item that has been opened and may show signs of wear. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Refurbished — A used item that has been renewed or updated and verified to be in proper working condition. Not necessarily completed by the original manufacturer.

New
Brand New Item.

Ships from: Chatham, NJ

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$60.00
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(187)

Condition: New
Brand new.

Ships from: acton, MA

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
$78.00
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(26)

Condition: New
New BEST BUY...............................OFX/DD

Ships from: Bay, AR

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
Page 1 of 1
Showing All
Close
Sort by

Overview

"Was Robert E. Lee a gifted soldier whose only weaknesses lay in the depth of his loyalty to his troops, affection for his lieutenants, and dedication to the cause of the Confederacy? Or was he an ineffective leader and poor tactician whose reputation was drastically inflated by early biographers and Lost Cause apologists? These divergent characterizations represent the poles between which scholarly opinion on Lee has swung over time. Here, renowned Civil War historian Gary Gallagher proffers his own refined thinking on the figure who has loomed so large in our understanding of America's great national crisis. In eight essays, Gallagher explores the relationship between Lee's operations and Confederate morale, the quality and nature of Lee's generalship, and the question of how best to handle Lee's legacy in light of the many distortions that grew out of Lost Cause historiography." Relying on contemporary evidence, rather than on hindsight, Gallagher draws on letters, diaries, newspapers, and other wartime sources to capture a fuller sense of how Lee was viewed during and immediately after the war and underscore the remarkable faith that soldiers and citizens maintained in Lee's leadership even after his army's fortunes had begun to erode. He also engages various dimensions of the Lee myth - not just from the perspective of revisionist historians who have attacked what they consider a hagiographic literature, but also with an eye toward admirers who have insisted that their hero's faults as a general represented exaggerations of his personal virtues.
Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Joseph T. Glatthaar
A wonderful blend of traditional and the 'new' military history, a balance from the perspective of high command, the soldiers, the home front, and their collective memory. By anyone's standards, this is a terrific book.
Robert K. Krick
Drawing on massive primary evidence, Gallagher has limned attitudes toward Lee and his army from a wide spectrum of Confederate society. The result is a formidable, definitive delineation of the subject.
James M. McPherson
In these essays Gary Gallagher once again demonstrates the mastery of sources, elegance of style, and lucidity of explanation and interpretation that have made him the foremost historian of the Army of Northern Virginia.
New York Review of Books
Better than any other historian of the Confederacy,Gallagher understands the importance of . . . contingent turning points that eventually made it possible for superior numbers and resources to prevail. He understands as well that the Confederate story cannot be written except in counterpoint with the Union story.
From the Publisher
"This paperback reprint of one of his collections of essays provides another welcome look at Gallagher's perspectives on compelling aspects of Confederate historiography."
Military History of the West

"A very valuable work."
Nymas Review

Gallagher demonstrates in his latest book that he is . . . the foremost historian of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia today.

Journal of Military History

"Gallagher's work, both in Lee and His Army and elsewhere. . . sets a high standard for the history profession.

Civil War Book Review"

Gallagher and the University of North Carolina Press have performed a valuable service for current and future students of Lee and the Lost Cause.

Civil War News

A stimulating and thought-provoking book.

Journal of Southern History

Gallagher has reinforced his position as one of the nation's leading Civil War historians.

Florida Historical Quarterly

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780807826317
  • Publisher: The University of North Carolina Press
  • Publication date: 9/24/2001
  • Series: Civil War America
  • Edition description: 1
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 320
  • Product dimensions: 5.81 (w) x 9.55 (h) x 0.99 (d)

Meet the Author

Gary W. Gallagher is John L. Nau III Professor of History at the University of Virginia. He has written or edited two dozen books in the field of Civil War history, including The Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864 and Stephen Dodson Ramseur: Lee's Gallant General (both from the University of North Carolina Press).

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

Lee and His Army in Confederate History


By Gary W. Gallagher

The University of North Carolina Press

Copyright © 2001 University of North Carolina Press
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-8078-2631-7


Preface

Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia have engaged my interest for nearly forty years. As a young person drawn to the Civil War, I read Douglas Southall Freeman's R. E. Lee: A Biography and Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command. Freeman's works, together with many of the participants' accounts to which his footnotes led me, created a sense that Lee and his army held center stage in the Confederate drama. Indeed, the military conflict in Virginia seemed synonymous with the Civil War as a whole, and Lee emerged as a fabulously gifted soldier whose only weaknesses-including excessive amiability with lieutenants-represented outgrowths of his personal virtues. Subsequent exposure to studies by Thomas L. Connelly and other revisionist historians tested my early reading of Confederate military affairs. These scholars emphasized the importance of the Western Theater and averred that Lost Cause writers such as Jubal A. Early had distorted the record by vastly inflating Lee's abilities and wartime stature.

My own research over the years indicated that Freeman might have been closer to the mark than many of those who insisted Lee and his army had been overrated. Various kinds of Confederate testimony bespoke a national focus on Lee and his operations. Considerable evidence also supported the Lost Cause idea that superior northern numbers and resources played a fundamental role in the Confederate defeat. That Lost Cause warriors sometimes argued from positions of strength not only helps explain why their writings have been tenaciously influential but also raises an important concern. Can we accept part of what Lost Cause authors said about Lee and his army without also lending a measure of authority to their denial of slavery's centrality to secession and the Confederacy, their romantic portrayal of a united white South battling to the end, and their blatant distortions regarding other aspects of the war?

The essays in this collection explore the relationship between Lee's operations and Confederate national morale, the quality and nature of his generalship, and the thorny problem of how best to handle Lost Cause writings about the Army of Northern Virginia and its commander. The four essays in Part I grew out of a belief that most historians of the Civil War, whether pursuing military or nonmilitary topics, have accorded surprisingly little attention to the ways in which Confederates in uniform and behind the lines reacted to Lee's famous campaigns. Hindsight tells us one thing, but the contemporary record often reveals something very different. I offer four case studies to gauge the impact, at the time, of Lee's activities. I selected three battles that seem uncomplicated in this respect: Antietam and Gettysburg, a pair of defeats that ended Lee's two invasions of the North, and Fredericksburg, an apparently unequivocal victory. For my fourth topic, I canvassed sentiment in the winter and spring of 1864, a period typically portrayed as a time of waning will in the Confederacy.

I based my findings almost entirely on letters, diaries, newspapers, and other wartime sources-as distinct from postwar accounts informed by full knowledge of how the war unfolded. I drew on the writings of more than 300 witnesses, among them soldiers and male and female civilians. Although I tried to find evidence from a broad spectrum of society representing various geographical regions, my sample was not scientifically constructed. My conclusions thus should be considered suggestive rather than definitive.

Having offered that caveat, I will say that Confederates often responded differently to news from the battlefront than we have come to assume. They relied on fragmentary accounts from relatives and friends in the army, often inaccurate reporting in newspapers, and rumors spread behind the lines. Most did not see either Antietam or Gettysburg as a military disaster; a number expressed some unhappiness with the outcome of Fredericksburg; and many exhibited a tenacious belief in ultimate victory during the winter and spring of 1864. The essays in Part I collectively accentuate the importance of relying on evidence from the time, rather than reading backward with all we know about the war's outcome, to fathom the complexity of attitudes and morale at specific times. They also underscore a remarkable faith among soldiers and the citizenry in Lee and the prowess of his army. Well before he and his troops marched toward Pennsylvania in June 1863, the Confederate people looked to them as the nation's best hope for winning independence. That conception of Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia in turn cushioned reaction to Gettysburg and fed optimism in early 1864.

Other historians have reached conclusions quite different from mine. Knowing eventual defeat awaited the Confederacy, many scholars have taken their cue from Union opinions about military operations. Northern soldiers and civilians in September 1862 and July 1863 typically considered Antietam and Gettysburg successes (although some demurred from the prevailing views), which lends credence to the argument that these battles marked major mileposts along the road to Appomattox. Similarly, northerners manifested a strong expectation that Ulysses S. Grant would achieve success against Lee as the spring campaigning season approached in 1864.

How can we account for strikingly divergent Confederate and Union reactions to the same events? Were white southerners engaged in self-delusion? Did they proclaim false optimism in a desperate effort to maintain national resolve in the face of an obviously failing struggle for independence? Some newspapers friendly to the Davis administration undoubtedly tailored their editorials and coverage of events to boost morale. Just as surely, some Confederates wrote letters to relatives designed to buck up spirits. But I believe it is a mistake not to accept roughly at face value a good part of the written record. The notions that participants often failed to record their true opinions and that we, at a distance of more than a century and a third, can detect what they really thought strike me as highly problematical. Northerners and Confederates simply perceived some events differently and responded accordingly.

When assessed within the context of the time, Confederate reactions to Antietam and Gettysburg and optimism in the spring of 1864 seem plausible. After all, military events in the Eastern Theater during the nine months following Antietam included important Confederate victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville followed by Lee's second invasion of the North. Would anyone appraising the situation in late June 1863, when the Army of Northern Virginia roamed across the Pennsylvania countryside seemingly at will, insist that Antietam had delivered a fatal blow to southern hopes for success? Similarly, the Army of the Potomac mounted no serious threat in Virginia for almost ten months after Gettysburg; and when the combatants renewed their struggle during the Overland campaign, Lee and his army amply justified the confidence their countrymen and countrywomen had voiced that spring. By the late summer of 1864, Abraham Lincoln and countless others in the North despaired over their prospects for victory, and Gettysburg represented scarcely more than a receding memory of triumph.

Defeat fundamentally altered Confederate thinking about Gettysburg and other wartime events. Painfully aware that they emerged from the conflict a conquered people, many white southerners looked back to find points at which their fortunes might have taken another direction. Gettysburg proved a natural candidate for such retrospective speculations. It had marked the deepest penetration into the United States by a major Confederate army, claimed more casualties than any of the war's other battles, and ended the remarkable run of victories Lee had crafted during the preceding year. Lost Cause authors especially relished Gettysburg because it allowed them to absolve Lee of responsibility for failure by blaming James Longstreet (very few accounts written in the aftermath of Gettysburg had mentioned Longstreet in this light). If "Old Pete" had attacked as ordered on July 2, they insisted disingenuously, Lee would have won the battle and marched on to national victory in 1863. Thus did former Confederates create a postwar literature that, unlike the bulk of their wartime writings, buttressed the notion of Gettysburg as a clear turning point.

The three essays in Part II focus on Lee's generalship. I am intrigued by various dimensions of the Lee myth-not just from the perspective of revisionists such as Thomas L. Connelly and Alan T. Nolan, who have attacked what they consider a hagiographic literature, but also as one mindful of how admirers have insisted that their hero's faults as a general represented exaggerations of his personal virtues. The first of these essays takes issue with what I see as a flawed interpretive tradition. Nourished by the writings of both critics and admirers, it presents Lee as a throwback to an earlier style of leadership ill suited to a modern mid-nineteenth-century conflict between democratic societies. The second essay in Part II addresses the idea that Lee was too much of a gentleman to make hard decisions about his top lieutenants. It argues that the Overland campaign, and especially the two weeks of fighting and maneuvering around Spotsylvania Court House in mid-May, highlighted Lee's willingness to deal firmly with his corps commanders.

Lee also has been criticized for granting some subordinates too much latitude and failing to exercise a tight rein at critical moments. The third essay in Part II engages this topic obliquely in the course of examining Jubal A. Early's role in the Chancellorsville campaign. Events of May 1-4, 1863, provide an instructive example of Lee's giving Early wide discretion and then stepping forward to take control when Lafayette McLaws, another senior subordinate, failed in a crucial moment at Salem Church. Generally pleased with Early's performance in a difficult, semi-independent role at Chancellorsville, Lee nevertheless exerted a firm hand after the battle when "Old Jube" pursued a controversial exchange with William Barksdale that threatened to taint the Confederate victory.

The single essay in Part III examines Lee, Early, and Douglas Southall Freeman as shapers of how Americans have understood Confederate military history. All three men argued within the Lost Cause tradition. Early and Freeman presented Lee as the most important and talented Confederate general, awarding his campaigns clear primacy among Civil War operations. They highlighted his disadvantage in human and material resources and asserted that northern numbers largely determined Confederate defeat. In doing so, they skirted the fact that it took superb leadership by Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant to ensure decisive use of northern means. Yet despite according too little weight to the difficulty of applying Union power effectively, Early and Freeman grounded many of their claims about numbers, Lee's ability, and the effect of his army's campaigns in solid evidence. This essay asks whether it is useful-or desirable-to separate veracious Lost Cause arguments from the transparently false ones relating to the institution of slavery and other aspects of Civil War-era history.

Six of these pieces first appeared in volumes of the Military Campaigns of the Civil War series published by the University of North Carolina Press. As editor of that series, I planned my contributions with the intention of eventually gathering them in a volume devoted to Lee and his army during the war and in the historical literature. I slightly revised each of the six and added the two on Lee as a modern soldier and on him and his army in public memory to round out the book. As a collection, these essays represent a step in my continuing effort to comprehend how military and civilian affairs intersected during the Civil War, where Lee and his army fit within the larger story of the Confederacy, and how Americans have interpreted their great national crisis.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Lee and His Army in Confederate History by Gary W. Gallagher Copyright © 2001 by University of North Carolina Press. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
Essay Credits

Part I. Lee's Campaigns
The Net Result of the Campaign Was in Our Favor: Confederate Reaction to the 1862 Maryland Campaign
The Yanks Have Had a Terrible Whipping: Confederates Evaluate the Battle of Fredericksburg
Lee's Army Has Not Lost Any of Its Prestige: The Impact of Gettysburg on the Army of Northern Virginia and the Confederate Home Front
Our Hearts Are Full of Hope: The Army of Northern Virginia and the Confederacy in the Spring of 1864

Part II. Lee as a Confederate General
An Old-Fashioned Soldier in a Modern War?: Lee's Confederate Generalship
I Have to Make the Best of What I Have: Lee at Spotsylvania
Fighting the Battles of Second Fredericksburg and Salem Church: Lee and Jubal A. Early at Chancellorsville

Part III. Lee and His Army in the Lost Cause
Shaping Public Memory of the Civil War: Robert E. Lee, Jubal A. Early, and Douglas Southall Freeman

Index

Author Biography: Gary W. Gallagher is John L. Nau III Professor of History at the University of Virginia. His previous books include The Confederate War and Lee and His Generals in War and Memory.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)