Lens Design Fundamentals

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Overview

Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the substantial changes in the field since the first edition's publication in 1978

Strong emphasis on how to effectively use software design packages, indispensable to today's lens designer

Many new lens design examples, ranging from simple lenses to complex zoom lenses and mirror systems, give insight for both newcomers and specialists in the field

Rudolf Kingslake is regarded as the American father of lens design; his book, not revised since the 1978 publication, is viewed as a classic in the field. Naturally, the area has developed considerably since then, the most obvious changes being the availability of powerful lens design software packages, theoretical advances, and new surface fabrication technologies.

This book provides information on the skills and knowledge necessary to move into the exciting world of contemporary lens design and to develop the practical lenses needed for a great variety 21st-century applications. R. Barry Johnson's revision of a classic continues to focus on fundamental methods and procedures of lens design, modernizes symbology and nomenclature, improves conceptual clarity, broadens the study of lens design, modernizes symbology and nomenclature, improves conceptual clarity, broadens the study of aberrations, enhances discussion of multi mirror systems, adds tilted and decentered systems with eccentric pupils, explores use of aberrations in the optimization process, enlarges field flattener concepts, and expands discussion of image analysis. It also includes many hew examplary examples to illustrate concepts, and much more.

Optical engineers working in lens design will find this revised edition aninvaluable guide to lens design in traditional and emerging areas of application. In addition, it is suitable for an advanced undergraduate or graduate course in lens design principles and can be used as a self-learning tutorial and reference for practitioners.

Audience: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying optics.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
'I already use this book as a reference. With the added changes and more modern nomenclature, I would use it as the required text. It covers all the topics of optical design that need to be considered.’
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780124086500
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 4/28/1978
  • Pages: 366
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition ix

Preface to the First Edition xiii

A Special Tribute to Rudolf Kingslake xv

Chapter 1 The Work of the Lens Designer 1

1.1 Relations Between Designer and Factory 2

1.2 The Design Procedure 8

1.3 Optical Materials 11

1.4 Interpolation of Refractive Indices 16

1.5 Lens Types to be Considered 20

Chapter 2 Meridional Ray Tracing 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Graphical Ray Tracing 30

2.3 Trigonometrical Ray Tracing at a Spherical Surface 32

2.4 Some Useful Relations 37

2.5 Cemented Doublet Objective 41

2.6 Ray Tracing at a Tilted Surface 42

2.7 Ray Tracing at an Aspheric Surface 45

Chapter 3 Paraxial Rays and First-Order Optics 51

3.1 Tracing a Paraxial Ray 52

3.2 Magnification and the Lagrange Theorem 63

3.3 The Gaussian Optics of a Lens System 67

3.4 First-Order Layout of an Optical System 78

3.5 Thin-Lens Layout of Zoom Systems 87

Chapter 4 Aberration Theory 101

4.1 Introduction 101

4.2 Symmetrical Optical Systems 101

4.3 Aberration Determination Using Ray Trace Data 114

4.4 Calculation of Seidel Aberration Coefficients 128

Chapter 5 Chromatic Aberration 137

5.1 Introduction 137

5.2 Spherochromatism of a Cemented Doublet 139

5.3 Contribution of a Single Surface to the Primary Chromatic Aberration 143

5.4 Contribution of a Thin Element in a System to the Paraxial Chromatic Aberration 145

5.5 Paraxial Secondary Spectrum 149

5.6 Predesign of a Thin Three-Lens Apochromat 152

5.7 The Separated Thin-Lens Achromatic (Dialyte) 156

5.8 Chromatic Aberration Tolerances 162

5.9 Chromatic Aberration at Finite Aperture 163

Chapter 6 Spherical Aberration 173

6.1 Surface Contribution Formulas 176

6.2Zonal Spherical Aberration 194

6.3 Primary Spherical Aberration 197

6.4 The Image Displacement Caused by a Plano parallel Plate 204

6.5 Spherical Aberration Tolerances 206

Chapter 7 Design of a Spherically Corrected Achromat 209

7.1 The Four-Ray Method 209

7.2 A Thin-Lens Predesign 211

7.3 Correction of Zonal Spherical Aberration 216

7.4 Design of an Apochromatic Objective 220

Chapter 8 Oblique Beams 227

8.1 Passage of an Oblique Beam through a Spherical Surface 227

8.2 Tracing Oblique Meridional Rays 234

8.3 Tracing a Skew Ray 238

8.4 Graphical Representation of Skew-Ray Aberrations 243

8.5 Ray Distribution from a Single Zone of a Lens 252

Chapter 9 Coma and the Sine Condition 255

9.1 The Optical Sine Theorem 255

9.2 The Abbe Sine Condition 256

9.3 Offense Against the Sine Condition 258

9.4 Illustration of Comatic Error 266

Chapter 10 Design of Aplanatic Objectives 269

10.1 Broken-Contact Type 269

10.2 Parallel Air-Space Type 272

10.3 An Aplanatic Cemented Doublet 275

10.4 A Triple Cemented Aplanat 277

10.5 An Aplanat with a Buried Achromatizing Surface 280

10.6 The Matching Principle 283

Chapter 11 The Oblique Aberrations 289

11.1 Astigmatism and the Coddington Equations 289

11.2 The Petzval Theorem 297

11.3 Illustration of Astigmatic Error 306

11.4 Distortion 306

11.5 Lateral Color 313

11.6 The Symmetrical Principle 316

11.7 Computation of the Seidel Aberrations 318

Chapter 12 Lenses in Which Stop Position Is a Degree of Freedom 323

12.1 The H′ - L Plot 323

12.2 Simple Landscape Lenses 325

12.3 A Periscopic Lens 331

12.4 Achromatic Landscape Lenses 334

12.5 Achromatic Double Lenses 339

Chapter 13 Symmetrical Double Anastigmats with Fixed Stop 351

13.1 The Design of a Dagor Lens 351

13.2 The Design of an Air-Spaced Dialyte Lens 355

13.3 A Double-Gauss-Type Lens 363

13.4 Double-Gauss Lens with Cemented Triplets 369

3.5 Double-Gauss Lens with Air-spaced Negative Doublets 373

Chapter 14 Unsymmetrical Photographic Objectives 379

14.1 The Petzval Portrait Lens 379

14.2 The Design of a Telephoto Lens 388

14.3 Lenses to Change Magnification 397

14.4 The Protar Lens 400

14.5 Design of a Tessar Lens 409

14.6 The Cooke Triplet Lens 419

Chapter 15 Mirror and Catadioptric Systems 439

15.1 Comparison of Mirrors and Lenses 439

15.2 Ray Tracing a Mirror System 440

15.3 Single-Mirror Systems 442

15.4 Single-Mirror Catadioptric Systems 447

15.5 Two-Mirror Systems 471

15.6 Multiple-Mirror Zoom Systems 482

15.7 Summary 497

Chapter 16 Eyepiece Design 501

16.1 Design of a Military-Type Eyepiece 502

16.2 Design of an Erfle Eyepiece 506

16.3 Design of a Galilean Viewfinder 510

Chapter 17 Automatic Lens Improvement Programs 513

17.1 Finding a Lens Design Solution 514

17.2 Optimization Principles 518

17.3 Weights and Balancing Aberrations 522

17.4 Control of Boundary Conditions 523

17.5 Tolerances 524

17.6 Program Limitations 525

17.7 Lens Design Computing Development 525

17.8 Programs and Books Useful for Automatic Lens Design 529

Appendix: A Selected Bibliography of Writings Rudolf Kingslake 535

Index 537

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