Let's Review Chemistry: The Physical Setting

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Overview


Barron's Let's Review Series titles are classroom textbook supplements that help prepare high school students who are studying for New York State Regents exams. This book reviews all high school-level chemistry topics and includes:
  • A topic review covering atomic structure, chemical formulas and equations, the mathematics of chemistry, thermochemistry and thermodynamics, the phases of matter, chemical ...
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Overview


Barron's Let's Review Series titles are classroom textbook supplements that help prepare high school students who are studying for New York State Regents exams. This book reviews all high school-level chemistry topics and includes:
  • A topic review covering atomic structure, chemical formulas and equations, the mathematics of chemistry, thermochemistry and thermodynamics, the phases of matter, chemical periodicity, chemical bonding, and much more
  • Practice and review questions with answers
  • Two recent New York State Regents exams with answers
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780764147197
  • Publisher: Barron's Educational Series, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 2/1/2012
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 592
  • Sales rank: 64,759
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Fifth Edition xi

To the Student xi

To the Teacher xii

1 Introduction to Chemistry 1

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 2

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 2

1.1 Chemistry is ... ? 4

1.2 Matter and Energy 4

1.3 Measurement and the Metric System 13

1.4 Metric Prefixes 14

1.5 Scientific Notation 15

1.6 Volume and Density 16

1.7 Reporting Measured Quantities 17

1.8 Solving Problems 23

End-of-Chapter Questions 31

2 Atoms, Molecules, and ions 39

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 39

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 39

2.1 Introduction to the Atomic Model of Matter 41

2.2 Development of the Early Models of the Atom 42

2.3 The Current View of Atomic Structure P44

2.4 Identifying Elements: Names, Symbols, and Atomic Numbers 45

2.5 Neutrons, Isotopes, and Mass Numbers 46

2.6 Molecules 48

2.7 Ions 49

End-of-Chapter Questions 50

3 Formulas, Equations, and Chemical Reactions 55

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 55

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 55

3.1 Chemical Formulas 56

3.2 Writing and Naming Chemical Formulas 59

3.3 Chemical Equations 65

3.4 Balancing a Chemical Equation 65

3.5 Classifying Chemical Reactions 68

Section II Additional Material 72

3.1A Other Ways of Naming Ionic Compounds 72

End-of-Chapter Questions 72

4 Chemical Calculations 79

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 80

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 80

4.1 Introduction 81

4.2 Atomic Mass 81

4.3 The Formula Mass of a Substance 83

4.4 The Mole Concept and Molar Mass 84

4.5 Problems Involving a Single Substance 84

4.6 Problems Involving Chemical Equations 88

Section II Additional Material 89

4.1A Converting Between Moles and Numbers of Particles 89

4.2A Empirical Formula from Percent Composition 90

4.3A Mole-Mass Problems 91

4.4A Mass-Mass Problems 92

4.5A Percent Yield 93

4.6A Limiting Reactants 94

End-of Chapter Questions 96

5 Energy and Chemical Reactions 105

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 105

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 105

5.1 Energy and its Measurement 107

5.2 Heat of Reaction 109

5.3 Potential Energy Diagrams 110

5.4 Spontaneous Reactions 112

Section II Additional Material 114

5.1A Additional Calorimetry Problems 114

5.2A Transfer of Energy and Equilibrium Temperature 115

5.3A The Role of Energy in Chemical Reactions 117

5.4A Additional Aspects of Heats of Reaction 118

5.5A The Second Law of Thermodynamics 123

End-of-Chapter Questions 125

6 The Phases of Matter 135

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 136

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 136

6.1 Introduction 137

6.2 Gases 137

6.3 The Gas Laws 139

6.4 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory (KMT) of Gas Behavior 150

6.5 Liquids 152

6.6 Solids 154

6.7 Change of Phase 154

Section II Additional Material 157

6.1A Measuring Gas Pressure in the Laboratory 157

6.2A The Ideal (Universal) Gas Law 159

6.3A The Density of an Ideal Gas at STP 161

6.4A Gases and Chemical Reactions 163

6.5 A Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures 164

6.6A Graham's Law of Effusion (Diffusion) 166

6.7A Gases Collected over Water 167

6.8A Additional Fusion and Vaporization Problems 169

6.9A Phase Diagrams 170

End-of-Chapter Questions 172

7 Nuclear Chemistry 183

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 184

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 184

7.1 Nuclear Particles 186

7.2 Nuclear Equations 186

7.3 Natural Radioactivity and Radioactive Decay 187

7.4 Half-Life 189

7.5 Uses of Radioisotopes 190

7.6 Induced Nuclear Reactions 191

Section II Additional Material 193

7.1A The Uranium-238 Decay Series 193

7.2A Isomeric Transition 194

7.3A Detection and Measurement of Radioactivity 195

7.4A Solving Radioactive Decay Problems 195

7.5A Particle Accelerators 197

7.6A Fission Reactors 197

End-of-Chapter Questions 200

8 The Electronic Structure of Atoms 209

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 209

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 209

8.1 Introduction 211

8.2 The Bohr Model of the Atom 211

8.3 The Modern (Wave-Mechanical) Model 214

8.4 Valence Electrons 214

8.5 Lewis Structures (Electron-Dot Diagrams) 215

Section II Additional Material 216

8.1A Atomic Orbitals and Sublevels 216

8.2A Electron Configurations of Atoms 218

8.3A Lewis Structures and Atomic Orbitals 223

End-of-Chapter Questions 225

9 Chemical Periodicity 231

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 231

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 231

9.1 Introduction 233

9.2 The Periodic Table in History 234

9.3 The Modern Periodic Table 234

9.4 Properties Associated with Periodicity 235

9.5 Variation of Periodic Properties Among the Elements 238

9.6 The Chemistry of the Representative Groups 246

9.7 The Chemistry of a Period 248

Section II Additional Material 248

9.1A Sublevels and the Periodic Table 248

9.2A Successive Ionization Energies 249

9.3A Electron Affinity 249

9.4A Additional Aspects of First Ionization Energy 249

9.5A Variation of Successive Ionization Energies 250

9.6A Synthetic Elements 251

End-of-Chapter Questions 253

10 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Shape 259

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 260

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 260

10.1 Bonding and Stability 262

10.2 Ionic Bonding 263

10.3 Covalent Bonding 265

10.4 Electronegativity and Bonding 266

10.5 Drawing the Lewis Structures of Covalent Molecules and Polyatomic Ions 267

10.6 Network Solids 270

10.7 Metallic Substances 270

10.8 Dipoles and Polar Molecules 271

10.9 Polarity and Molecular Symmetry 272

10.10 Intermolecular Forces 273

10.11 Physical and Chemical Properties of Bonded Substances: A Summary 277

Section II Additional Material 278

10.1A Resonance Structures 278

10.2A Additional Topics in Bonding 280

End-of-Chapter Questions 290

11 Organic Chemistry 297

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 298

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 298

1.1 Organic Chemistry Is ... ? 299

1.2 Comparison of Organic and Inorganic Compounds 300

1.3 Hydrocarbons and Homologous Series 301

14 Functional Groups 308

15 Organic Reactions 314

Section II Additional Material 317

11.1A Stereoisomerism 317

11.2A The Benzene Series 318

11.3A Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Alcohols 319

11.4A Dihydroxy and Trihodroxy Alcohols 320

11.5 A Types of Polymerization 320

End-of-Chapter Questions 322

12 Solutions and Their Properties 329

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 330

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 330

12.1 A Solution Is ... ? 331

12.2 Saturated and Unsaturated Solutions 332

12.3 Solubility 332

12.4 Concentrations of Solutions 335

12.5 Effect of the Solute on the Solvent 340

12.6 Behavior of Electrolytes in Solution 340

Section II Additional Material 341

12.1 A Mole Fraction 341

12.2A Molality 342

12.3A Dilution of Stock Solutions 343

12.4A Solutions and Chemical Equations 344

12.5A Calculating the Freezing and Boiling Points of Solutions 345

12.6A Suspensions and Colloidal Dispersions 346

End-of-Chapter Questions 348

13 Kinetics and Equalibrium 355

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 355

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 355

13.1 Chemical Kinetics 357

13.2 Reversible Reactions and Dynamic Equilibrium 359

13.3 Phase Equilibrium 360

13.4 Solution Equilibrium 361

13.5 Chemical Equilibrium 361

Section II Additional Material 365

13.1A The Common-Ion Effect 365

13.2A Heterogeneous Equilibrium 366

13.3A The Equilibrium Constant (Keq) 366

13.4A Problems Involving the Equilibrium Constant 369

13.5A Applications of Chemical Equilibrium 372

End-of-Chapter Questions 373

14 Acids and Bases 385

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 385

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 385

14.1 Operational Definitions of Acids and Bases 387

14.2 Arrhenius Definitions of Acids and Bases 389

14 3 Acid-Base Titration 389

14.4 Brönsted-Lowry Definitions of Acids and Bases 392

14.5 The pH Scale of Acidity and Basicity 394

14.6 Acid-Base Indicators 395

Section II Additional Material 396

14.1 A Amphiprotic (Amphoteric) Substances 396

14.2A Acid-Base Equilibria 396

14.3A Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs 398

14.4A Neutralization (Revisited) 399

14.5A Strengths of Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs 400

14.6A Ionization Constants of Acids and Bases (Ka and Kb) 401

14.7 A Ionization Constant of Water (Kw) 403

14.8A A More Detailed Look at pH and pOH 404

14.9A Hydrolysis of Salts in Aqueous Solutions 407

14.10A Acid-Base Properties of Oxides 409

14.11A Lewis Definitions of Acids and Bases 409

End-of-Chapter Questions 410

Reducation-oxidation(Redox) and Electrochemistry 417

Section I Basic (Regents-Level) Material 417

NYS Regents Concepts and Skills 417

15.1 What Are Oxidation and Reduction? 419

15.2 Formal Definitions of Oxidation and Reduction 420

15.3 Redox Equations 421

15.4 Spontaneous Redox Reactions 422

15.5 Electrochemical Cells 425

Section II Additional Material 428

15.1A Balancing Redox Equations by the Half-ReactionMethod 428

15.2A Balancing Redox Equations by the Ion-ElectronMethod 429

15.3A Half-Cell Potentials and Cell Voltage 432

15.4A The Standard Hydrogen Half-Cell 434

15.5A Electrolysis of Water and Aqueous NaCl (Brine) 435

15.6A Electroplating 436

15.7A Additional Applications of Redox and Electrochemistry 436

End-of-Chapter Questions 438

16 The Chemistry Laboratory 447

16.1 Introduction 447

16.2 Safety Procedures 448

16.3 Using Measuring Devices 448

16.4 Basic Laboratory Skills 449

16.5 Identification of Common Laboratory Apparatus 449

16.6 Basic Laboratory Activities 451

16.7 The Role of Color in Identifying Substances 452

16.8 Guidelines for Laboratory Reports 454

End-of-Chapter Questions 454

Glossary 465

Appendix 1 New York State Regents Reference Tables For Chemistry 479

Appended 2 Additional Reference Tables For Chemistry 493

Appendix 3 Answers To End-Of-Chapter Questions 505

Appendix 4 Answering Constructed-Response Questions 523

Appendix 5 The New York State Examination In Chemistry 533

June 2011 Regents Examination 535

Answers To Regents Examination 66

Index 567

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  • Posted May 26, 2014

    Great study and learning tool!

    I am a private tutor and I use this book to help students struggling in Chemistry; it's explanations are extremely well-written and easy to understand and I like the units the book breaks the course into and the order in which they present the material. The questions at the end of each section are very useful for studying for test and checking comprehension! I think this book should be used by more students during their whole year taking Chemistry in high school; it's a wonderful learning supplement not just good for studying for finals, but especially great to integrate understanding any time during the course. I recommend all of my students use it!

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