Lewis and Clark and the Indian Country: The Native American Perspective


Lewis and Clark and the Indian Country broadens the scope of conventional study of the Lewis and Clark expedition to include Native American perspectives. Frederick E. Hoxie and Jay T. Nelson present the expedition’s long-term impact on the “Indian Country” and its residents through compelling interviews conducted with Native Americans over the past two centuries, secondary literature, Lewis and Clark travel journals, and other primary sources from the Newberry Library’s exhibit Lewis and Clark and the Indian ...

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Lewis and Clark and the Indian Country broadens the scope of conventional study of the Lewis and Clark expedition to include Native American perspectives. Frederick E. Hoxie and Jay T. Nelson present the expedition’s long-term impact on the “Indian Country” and its residents through compelling interviews conducted with Native Americans over the past two centuries, secondary literature, Lewis and Clark travel journals, and other primary sources from the Newberry Library’s exhibit Lewis and Clark and the Indian Country. Rich stories of Native Americans, travelers, ranchers, Columbia River fur traders, teachers, and missionaries—often in conflict with each other—illustrate complex interactions between settlers and tribal people. Environmental protection issues and the preservation of Native language, education, and culture dominate late twentieth-century discussions, while early accounts document important Native American alliances with Lewis and Clark. In widening the reader’s interpretive lens to include many perspectives, this collection reaches beyond individual achievement to appreciate America’s plural past.

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Editorial Reviews

Library Journal

The 200th anniversary of the Lewis and Clark expedition in 2004 spawned the publication of so many monographs and articles that it would be easy now to overlook a true gem, such as this, that makes a unique contribution to the subject. Edited by Hoxie (history, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) and Nelson (program asst., D'Arcy McNickle Ctr. for American Indian History, Newberry Lib.), this work, based on the Newberry's exhibit of the same name, presents a plethora of views drawn from sources such as personal interviews, travel journals, and diaries over the last two centuries that provide insights into the manner in which the Corps of Discovery impacted the long-term development of the West. This approach results in a nuanced collection of essays that highlights both the positive and the negative impacts of the expedition and how the perception of those very repercussions has evolved. This collection should be read alongside Lewis and Clark Through Indian Eyes, edited by Alvin M. Josephy Jr. with Marc Jaffe. Both volumes are recommended for public and academic libraries.
—John Burch

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780252074851
  • Publisher: University of Illinois Press
  • Publication date: 12/28/2007
  • Pages: 376
  • Sales rank: 632,471
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Frederick E. Hoxie is Swanlund Professor of History at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and the author of several books, including The People: A History of Native America. Jay T. Nelson is a program assistant at the D'Arcy McNickle Center for American Indian History, the Newberry Library.

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Table of Contents

Introduction: What Can We Learn from a Bicentennial?   Frederick E. Hoxie     1
The Indian Country     17
The Arrival of Horses Accelerates Trade and Cultural Change     19
The Acquisition of the Horse   John C. Ewers     19
A Brilliant Plan for Living: Creators     39
Legend of Poia   Walter McClintock     40
The Creation of the Nez Perces   Archie Phinney     46
First Creator and Lone Man   Martha Beckwith     49
Our Lands and Our History   Armand Minthorn     54
A Brilliant Plan for Living: Gifts     56
Red Stick Ceremony   Alfred W. Bowers     56
Months of Year and Plants or Animals Expected Each Month   Herbert Spinden     65
Finding Spirit Helpers   Philip Minthorn     66
The Seasonal Round   Cecilia Bearchum     68
"I Am So Thankful"   Lee Bourgeau     68
A Brilliant Plan for Living: Men and Women     70
Hidatsa Agriculture   Gilbert L. Wilson     70
The Men and the Women   C. C. Uhlenbeck     77
My Family   Marjorie Waheneka     79
Families and Clansat Fort Berthold   Malcolm Wolf   Tillie Walker     81
A Vast Network of Partners     83
Coyote's Trip to the East   Haruo Aoki   Deward E. Walker     87
Indian Country Diplomacy   Alexander Henry     88
Nez Perce Trade   Otis Half Moon     98
Crossing the Indian Country     101
What Did the Americans Know?     105
Notes on the State of Virginia   Thomas Jefferson     105
Celebrating the New Year and Surviving the Winter with the Mandans, January 1805     111
William Clark Describes New Year's Day 1805     111
John Ordway Describes the New Year's Celebration     112
William Clark Describes the Mandan Buffalo Dance     113
Exploring the Explorers: Great Plains Peoples and the Lewis and Clark Expedition   James P. Ronda     114
Lewis and Clark among the Mandans and Hidatsas   Calvin Grinnell   Tillie Walker     127
Trading for Horses and Finding Their Way, August-September 1805     129
William Clark on the Salish     130
Sergeant John Ordway on the Salish     132
Rescued by the Nez Perces     136
William Clark on His Encounter with the Nez Perces      136
Wotollen Tells of Red Bear   Lucullus McWhorter     138
Aspects of Nez Perce Culture: Language, Territory, and the Annual Cycle   Deward E. Walker     142
New Year's Day 1806 and the Oregon Winter     147
Meriwether Lewis Issues New Orders     148
Meriwether Lewis on the Clatsops     150
John Ordway on Relations with the Clatsops     152
Friends and Trading Partners on the Upper Columbia     154
William Clark Describes Meeting the Walla Wallas and Umatillas     154
Sergeant Ordway Describes the Umatillas     161
The Columbia River Trade Network   Theodore Stern     163
A Confrontation in Montana     168
Meriwether Lewis Describes a Violent Encounter with the Blackfeet     168
A Blackfeet Encounter   Patrick Gass     176
A Blackfeet Version of Their Encounter with the Americans   Olin Wheeler     178
A New Nation Comes to the Indian Country     181
Two Views of Western North America     183
A Cartographic View of the West, 1844     184
The United States, 1884     186
The Fur Trade     188
The State of the Fur Trade, 1831   Joshua Pilcher      189
An Overview of the Western Fur Trade   David J. Wishart     195
New Settlers     207
The Treaty of 1855     207
American Attitudes toward Treaties   Isaac Ingalls Stevens     214
A Modern Indian Leader Reflects on the Treaty of 1855   Marjorie Waheneka     219
Miners     223
Nez Perce Views of the Land   Sue Whalen     226
A Nez Perce Historian on the Impact of Miners on His Tribe   Otis Half Moon     228
Ranchers     231
Cattle for Indians   John M. Thayer     232
Indian Ranchers   Carolyn Gilman     232
Missionaries and Teachers     239
Schools as Places of Discipline and Instruction$dUnited States Office of Indian Affairs     239
The Indian Office and Blackfeet "Progress"   Charles H. Burke     251
A Blackfeet Educator Discusses the Importance of Learning the Blackfeet Language   Darrell Robes Kipp     255
The Indian Country Today     259
Salmon Restoration     261
The Boldt Decision Recognizes a Treaty Right to Fish     261
Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Statement on Salmon Restoration     264
The Role of Salmon in a Family and Tribe   Marjorie Waheneka     267
Environmental Protection     270
Indian Commissioner Collier on the Wheeler-Howard Act, 1934     271
A Modern Tribe Struggles to Protect the Environment     276
Language Preservation     294
Why Teach an Ancient Language?   Darrell Robes Kipp     295
Honoring Native Languages, Defeating the Shame   Marjune Ambler     307
Founding a Blackfeet Immersion School   Darrell Robes Kipp     311
Education and Cultural Preservation     316
A Profile of a Tribally Chartered College   Dorreen Yellow Bird     317
Tribal Museums Join the Task of Preserving Community Traditions   Carolyn Casey     319
Voices of the Next Generation     324
Growing Up   Twyla Baker     324
Chief Coyote   Veronica Serdahl     329
Who Am I?   Roger D. White Owl     329
The Meaning of the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial for Native Americans     331
Five Native American Educators Reflect on the Lewis and Clark Expedition and Its Aftermath     331
Conclusion: Lewis and Clark Reconsidered: Some Sober Second Thoughts   James P. Ronda      343
Index     353
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