Liberal Modernity and Its Adversaries: Freedom, Liberalism and Anti-Liberalism in the 21st Century

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This is a book about modern liberal society and its adversaries. The book rediscovers and rehabilitates much maligned, especially in America, liberalism as the ideal and system of liberty in relation to anti-liberalism as one of un-freedom. It rediscovers liberal modernity as a free, equal and just social system and time, thus most compatible with and enhancing of human civilization ushering in the 21st century. It exposes anti-liberal adversaries, especially conservatism, as ideologies and systems most inappropriate with and destructive of civilization. The book rediscovers liberal modernity as the master process and destination of Western civilization, and its anti-liberal adversaries, notably conservatism, as the ghosts of a dead past. The anti-liberal rumors of the 'death' of liberalism are 'greatly exaggerated'.

About the Author:
Milan Zafirovski, Ph.D. (1990) in Economics, University of Saint Cyril and Methodius, Macedonia, Ph.D. (1999) in Sociology, Florida International University, is Associate Professor of Sociology at University of North Texas

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Milan Zafirovski, Ph.D. (1990) in Economics, University of Saint Cyril and Methodius, Macedonia, Ph.D. (1999) in Sociology, Florida International University, is Associate Professor of Sociology at University of North Texas. He has published several books, including Market and Society (Praeger, 2003).

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Table of Contents

Introduction     1
Studying Liberal Society and Modernity     1
Liberal Modernity: Realization of the Perennial Quest for Liberty     7
Concept and Reality of Liberal Modernity     14
Dimensions of Liberal Modernity     15
Liberal Modernity and its Adversaries     17
Liberal Society and Contemporary Western Civilization     23
Liberalism: Idealism and Institutionalism of Liberty     24
Ideal and Social System of Liberty     26
The Ideal and Social System of Liberty, Equality and Justice     29
Synthesis of Liberty and Equality: Freedom and Egalitarianism     29
Synthesis of Liberty and Justice: Freedom and Equity     39
Liberal Society and Modernity: Ideals and Institutions of Liberalism     45
General Considerations     45
Integral Liberty     46
Integration of Economic and Social Liberty     48
Integration of Negative and Positive Freedom     50
Integration of Formal and Substantive Freedom     54
Integration of Individual and Public Liberty     55
Social Foundations of Liberty     57
Liberal Egalitarianism: Comprehensive Social Equality and Inclusion     61
Liberal Sociological-Economic EgalitarianArguments     62
Liberal and Other Egalitarianism     65
Integral Egalitarianism     73
Liberal Justice: Universal Social Equity     76
Liberal Sociological-Economic Justice Arguments     80
Liberal Democracy     81
The Liberal System of Political Liberty, Equality and Justice     81
Modern Democracy, Liberalism and Anti-Liberalism     83
Societal Pluralism     89
Political Pluralism     91
Political Neutrality and Tolerance     92
Cultural Pluralism and Tolerance     104
Social Universalism     110
Universalism, Particularism and Pluralism     111
Individualism     116
Social vs. Atomistic Individualism     120
Individual Liberty, Universal Rights and Dignity     121
Other Principles and Institutions of Liberalism     126
Rationalism, Modernism, Progressivism and Optimism     126
Liberal Humanism and Secularism     130
Liberal Pacifism     136
Social Factors and Effects of Liberalism     147
The Sociological Constitution of Liberalism     147
The Class Structure of Liberalism     149
The Historical Conjuncture of Liberalism      156
Liberal Society's Genesis and Evolution - Social Origins and Development of Liberalism     166
The Enlightenment: The True Genesis of Liberalism and the Project of Liberal Society     171
Modern Enlightenment versus Medieval Darkness     172
Elements of Liberal Modernity in the Enlightenment     180
Enlightenment and the Conservative-Authoritarian Reaction     183
The Enlightenment-Conservative Antinomies     188
The Enlightenment and Rationalism     192
The Enlightenment and Integral Liberty     198
The Enlightenment and Societal Modernism     205
The Enlightenment and Egalitarianism     211
The Enlightenment and Liberal Democracy     215
The "Neo-Enlightenment"     223
Strands and Instances of the Enlightenment     231
The Enlightenment, the French/American Revolution and Modern Liberalism     237
Types of Liberalism     249
Classical Liberalism     249
British and Continental-European Original Liberalism     250
Liberty in Society     253
A System of Liberty, Equality and Justice     258
Classical Sociological Liberalism     261
Critiques and Revisions of Classical Liberalism      264
Contemporary Liberalism     268
Modern American Liberalism     269
Economic Liberalism     284
Classical Economic Liberalism     289
Contemporary Economic Liberalism     297
Economic Liberalism and Historical Stages of Capitalism     301
Economic Liberalism and Sociological Types of Capitalism     304
Economic Liberalism and Comparative Capitalist Systems     305
Social Liberalism     312
Political and Cultural Liberalism     312
Classical and Contemporary Social Liberalism     322
Neo-Liberalism: "New" Liberalism or Neo-Conservatism?     324
Liberalism and Libertarianism     332
Partial and Extreme Economic "Liberalism"     333
Economic Non-Liberalism     340
Social Non-Liberalism     344
Libertarianism versus Modernized Liberalism     349
Other Classifications of Liberalism     352
Liberal Democracy: Political Liberalism     357
Liberalism and Democracy     357
Liberal Democracy and its Adversaries     358
The Liberal-Democratic Link and Its Detractors     359
Liberalization and Democratization     367
Liberal Democracy and Political Liberty      368
Formal and Substantive Political Liberty     369
Constitutional and Liberal Democracy     374
Positive and Negative Political Liberty     379
Individual and Collective Political Liberty     382
Liberal Democracy and Political Pluralism     384
Political Pluralism and Freedom     384
Formal and Substantive Political Pluralism     385
Liberal Democracy and Political Egalitarianism     395
Integral Political Equality     395
Liberal Democracy and Justice     411
Political Egalitarianism and Justice in Liberal Democracy     411
Integral Political Justice     414
Liberal Democracy and Political Universalism     420
Liberal Political Universalism and Inclusion vs. Illiberal Particularism and Exclusion     420
Universalistic Political Culture     423
Modern Liberal and Illiberal Democracies and Universalism     424
Liberal Democracy and Secularism     432
Formal Secularism: A Secular Liberal State     434
Substantive Secularism: Secular Liberal Society     437
Liberal Democracy and Rationalism     443
Political Rationalism versus Economic Rationality     444
Public Use of Reason      445
Liberal Democracy and Humanism     449
Liberal Democracy and Human Liberties, Rights and Life     452
Liberal Humanism and the Welfare State     455
Political Liberalism and the Welfare State     462
Liberal Civil Society and Culture: Socio-Cultural Liberalism     473
Liberalism and Civil Society     473
Liberal Civil Society and Social Liberty     475
Economic and Non-Economic Liberties     476
Individual and Group Liberties, Rights and Identities     480
The 'Dark Side' of Liberal Civil Society and Anti-Liberalism     484
Liberal Culture     487
Enlightenment Culture     487
Liberal Multiculturalism     493
Moral Liberalism     498
Liberal Morality: Moral Liberty and Individualism     498
Liberal Moral Virtue     504
Ethical Universalism and Humanism     506
Ethical Rationalism     510
Religious Liberalism     516
Liberal Religious Freedom     516
Secular Civil Society and Culture     533
Conclusion     545
References     553
Index     571
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