Liberal Professions and Illiberal Politics: Hungary from the Habsburgs to the Holocaust [NOOK Book]

Overview

In this important new historical survey of social and intellectual history, Maria Kovacs examines the struggle between liberal and anti-Semitic policies in professional groups - doctors, lawyers, engineers - in Hungary up to 1945. Kovacs's main emphasis is on the interwar period when unemployment, expansion of the welfare system, and competition for state jobs during the Great Depression, combined with crass anti-Semitism on the part of engineers, and medical associations, radically altered previously liberal ...
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Liberal Professions and Illiberal Politics: Hungary from the Habsburgs to the Holocaust

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Overview

In this important new historical survey of social and intellectual history, Maria Kovacs examines the struggle between liberal and anti-Semitic policies in professional groups - doctors, lawyers, engineers - in Hungary up to 1945. Kovacs's main emphasis is on the interwar period when unemployment, expansion of the welfare system, and competition for state jobs during the Great Depression, combined with crass anti-Semitism on the part of engineers, and medical associations, radically altered previously liberal policies of open entry and equal educational opportunity. Liberal Professions and Illiberal Politics uses extensive archival records to assess to what extent these new policies were dictated by authoritarian governments from above and to what extent they originated within the professions themselves. The story ends with the Holocaust, which sealed the fate of those professionals who had become victims of persecution under the German occupation of Hungary. This fascinating analysis, a copublication with the Woodrow Wilson Center Press, will be of interest not only to scholars and students of Jewish history but also to the general reader interested in a case study of ethnic segregation within the learned professions.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"This book helps us to understand, more than most other studies, the reasons behind the current resurrection of East European xenophobia, nationalism, and anti-semitism."—Istváv Deák, Institute on East Central Europe, Columbia University

"...impressive and convincing new study."—Austrian History Yearbook

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Product Details

Table of Contents

Tables
Glossary: Abbreviations
Introduction
1 Liberalism and Professionalization in the Nineteenth Century 3
Two Paths of Professionalism: The Central European and the Anglo-American Patterns 4
Professional Associations in Liberal Hungary 6
The Medical Profession 8
The Engineering Profession 11
The Legal Profession 14
Ethnic Tensions in the Professions 15
The Dilemma: Preserving Equal Access 22
2 From Professional to Political Ideology, 1900-1919 26
The Neoconservative Criticism of the Liberal Professions 28
The Illiberal Avant-garde at the Turn of the Century 31
Radicalism in the Science-based Professions: The Sources 35
The Doctors' Avant-garde in the Revolution of the Left 38
Technocrats and the Left 43
The Legal Profession Disbanded 46
3 The Restrictive Reform of the Professions, 1920-1928 49
Numerus Clausus in Europe and Hungary 52
The Numerus Clausus of 1920 54
Ethnic Division in the Professions: The Birth of Racist Associations 62
Doctors and the Radical Right 65
Ethnic Division of Medical Services 69
Engineers and the Radical Right 70
Lawyers and Tradition 75
4 The Professions during the Depression 82
Corporatist Reform in Medicine 84
Technocracy in New Colors 90
Lawyers under Corporatist Pressure 97
5 Professions and Discrimination, 1938-1944 101
Opposition to Discrimination: The Lawyers 106
The Middle Course: The Engineers 112
The Extremes of Discrimination: The Physicians 116
The Government of the Right against the Radicals of the Right 122
Epilogue 128
Notes 133
Selected Bibliography 145
Index 163
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