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Liberalism, Fascism, or Social Democracy: Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in Interwar Europe
     

Liberalism, Fascism, or Social Democracy: Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in Interwar Europe

by Gregory M. Luebbert, Seymour Martin Lipset, David Collier
 

ISBN-10: 0195066111

ISBN-13: 9780195066111

Pub. Date: 03/28/1991

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

This work provides a sweeping historical analysis of the political development of Western Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Arguing that the evolution of most Western European nations into liberal democracies, social democracies, or fascist regimes was attributable to a discrete set of social class alliances, the author explores the origins

Overview

This work provides a sweeping historical analysis of the political development of Western Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Arguing that the evolution of most Western European nations into liberal democracies, social democracies, or fascist regimes was attributable to a discrete set of social class alliances, the author explores the origins and outcomes of the political development in the individual nations. In Britain, France, and Switzerland, countries with a unified middle class, liberal forces established political hegemony before World War I. By coopting considerable sections of the working class with reforms that weakened union movements, liberals essentially excluded the fragmented working class from the political process, remaining in power throughout the inter-war period. In countries with a strong, cohesive working class and a fractured middle class, Luebbert points out, a liberal solution was impossible. In Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Czechoslovakia, political coalitions of social democrats and the "family peasantry" emerged as a result of the First World War, leading to social democratic governments. In Italy, Spain, and Germany, on the other hand, the urban middle class united with a peasantry hostile to socialism to facilitate the rise of fascism.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780195066111
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date:
03/28/1991
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
432
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.25(h) x 1.09(d)

Table of Contents

1.Introduction1
IThe Origins
2.Ties That Would Divide: Liberal--Labor Alliances in Britain, France, and Switzerland before the War15
Britain15
France27
Weakness of the Labor Movement in Britain and France37
Switzerland48
Epilogue52
3.Cleavage Structures and the Failure of Liberal Movements in Late Nineteenth-Century Europe55
Liberal Weakness: A Survey56
Some Explanations of Liberal Weakness59
Cleavage Structures and the Failure of Liberal Movements63
Modernization, Cleavages, and Political Struggles97
Where Backwardness Mattered98
Epilogue107
4.The Break with Liberalism and the Formation of Working-Class Movements110
Abortive Lib--Labism and the Rise of Working-Class Movements110
Germany115
Norway121
Sweden125
Denmark133
Belgium and the Netherlands139
Italy144
Spain151
Imperialism, Nationalism, and Class Integration153
A Note on Leadership and Choice156
Epilogue157
5.The Organization of Workers: Liberal and Aliberal Societies Compared159
Parties159
Trade Unions: Membership and Organizational Coherence169
A Note on Industrial Concentration180
A Note on the Role of the State181
Epilogue: Toward the Great War184
IIThe Outcomes
6.War, Crisis, and the Stabilization of the Liberal Order191
Postwar Crises and Liberal Responses194
The Defeat of the Working-Class Movement199
Stabilization of the Liberal Order226
Epilogue232
7.Narrowing the Aliberal Outcomes: Liberalism's Final Failure and the Irrelevance of Traditional Dictatorship234
Neither Liberalism Nor Lib--Labism236
Politics against Markets249
Irrelevance of Traditional Dictatorship258
8.Social Democracy and Fascism267
Social Democracy: The Scandinavian Solution267
Fascism: The Solution of Germany, Italy, and Spain272
Family Peasantry: A Pivotal Force277
Red-Green Alliance and Social Democratic Hegemony285
Rural Class Conflicts and Fascist Hegemony295
Epilogue303
9.Conclusion: Class Alliances and Transition to Mass Politics306
A Structuralist Argument306
Structuralism and Other Arguments Compared307
Drawing Lessons from Europe310
Notes317
Bibliography377
Index403

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