Life and Work in Medieval Europe [NOOK Book]

Overview



Erudite yet readable work traces the economic evolution of Europe from 5th to 15th century. Focusing on working people, it covers breakup of feudal estates, development of small craft industries and large capitalist enterprises, rise of wage laborers, development of technical advances in industry and agriculture, rise of international commerce and finance.
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Life and Work in Medieval Europe

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Overview



Erudite yet readable work traces the economic evolution of Europe from 5th to 15th century. Focusing on working people, it covers breakup of feudal estates, development of small craft industries and large capitalist enterprises, rise of wage laborers, development of technical advances in industry and agriculture, rise of international commerce and finance.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780486149776
  • Publisher: Dover Publications
  • Publication date: 4/13/2012
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Pages: 416
  • File size: 4 MB

Table of Contents

FOREWORD
AUTHOR'S PREFACE
"BOOK I : LABOUR IN CHRISTIAN EUROPE DURING THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES. THE INVASIONS ; THE WORK OF DESTRUCTION AND ATTEMPTS AT RECONSTRUCTION, FIFTH TO TENTH CENTURIES"
I. ROMAN EUROPE AND BARBARIAN EUROPE IN THE EARLY DARK AGES. THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION OF THE INVADERS
"The Roman Empire at the close of the fourth century, superiority of its organisation."
"The Barbarian World; Uralo-Celtic and Slav races, their economic and social organisation, their rôle; the Germans, their social and economic condition in the fifth century, their rôle."
II. THE INVASIONS AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF BARBARIAN KINGDOMS IN CHRISTIAN EUROPE. RUIN OF THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RÉGIME OF ROME (FIFTH TO SEVENTH CENTURIES)
Infiltration of Barbarians into the Empire ; character of the Invasions ; settlements of the barbarians.
Results of the establishment of barbarian kingdoms ; their work of destruction and economic and social retrogression.
III. THE EAST ROMAN EMPIRE AND THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION OF EASTERN EUROPE FROM THE FIFTH TO THE TENTH CENTURIES. COLONISATION AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION. THE DIVISION OF PROPERTY AND RURAL CLASSES IN EASTERN EUROPE
The superior organisation of the Byzantine Empire; colonisation and the development of agricultural production.
"The distribution of landed property ; domains of the state, the Church, and the aristocracy."
Formation and progress of the power of the Byzantine aristocracy.
Medium-sized and small free properties in the East and the class of small landowners.
The dependent agricultural classes; disappearance of a wage-earning class and of free tenant farming (fermage) and métayage ; abolition of slavery ; diffusion of the colonate and evolution of serfdom.
IV. INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL HEGEMONY OF THE EASTERN EMPIRE DURING THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES
Persistence of urban economy and industrial activity in the East.
Organisation of urban corporations and crafts.
Varieties of industrial production in the Byzantine Empire.
Organisation and world supremacy of Byzantine commerce.
Activity and prosperity of urban life in the Byzantine Empire.
V. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INFLUENCE OF BYZANTINE CIVILISATION IN EAST AND WEST
"The influence of Byzantium in Italy, and in the Roumanian and South Slav lands."
Influence on the Bulgars.
The part played by Byzantium civilisation in Varangian Russia.
The work of Byzantium in the history of labour.
VI. THE WORK OF CHURCH AND STATE IN THE REORGANISATION OF LABOUR AND IN THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESTORATION OF WESTERN CHRISTENDOM DURING THE DARK AGES
Attempts to reconstitute the state in the West; political and economic policy of the princes.
Part played by the Church in the economic renaissance of the Carolingian age.
VII. THE AGRARIAN ECONOMY OF WESTERN CHRISTENDOM. THE FIRST ATTEMPT AT COLONISATION. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND REPOPULATION FROM THE SEVENTH TO THE TENTH CENTURIES
The promoters; methods and work of colonisation.
"Persistence of a primitive agrarian economy ; waste lands, forest, pastoral cultivation, cereals, arboriculture, vine-growing, industrial crops."
Partial renaissance of agricultural production and repopulation of the land.
VIII. EVOLUTION OF THE RÉGIME OF PROPERTY IN THE WEST FROM THE SEVENTH TO THE TENTH CENTURIES : THE DECLINE OF THE OLD FORMS OF LAND OWNERSHIP. THE PROGRESS OF THE GREAT DOMAINS. THE ATTACK ON SMALL PROPERTIES AND THE CLASS OF FREEMEN
Decline of collective and family ownership and progress of individual ownership.
"Predominance of large properties in royal, ecclesiastical or aristocratic hands."
"Formation of landed nobility, the system of vassalage and benefices."
The great domain of the West and its organisation during the early Middle Ages.
Decline of small ownership and of free classes and free labour in the West.
IX. "DEPENDENT RURAL CLASSES IN THE WEST, THEIR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ORGANISATION AND THEIR GENERAL CONDITION (SEVENTH TO TENTH CENTURIES)"
"Day labourers, métayers and tenant-farmers (fermiers) ; the hôtes and the dependent free tenants."
The class of coloni in the West.
Disappearance and transformation of slavery.
Formation and extension of serfdom attached to the soil.
Material and moral life of the rural classes in the West from the seventh to the tenth centuries.
X. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION AND EXCHANGE IN THE WEST DURING THE LAST CENTURIES OF THE DARK AGES. PARTIAL RENAISSANCE OF AN URBAN ECONOMY
Characteristics of industry at this period ; family industry and industry on the great domains.
Organisation of monastic workshops.
Disappearance and survivals of the class of urban artisans.
"Industrial production, its varieties and comparative unimportance."
Renaissance of commerce in the West in the Carolingian age ; characteristics of this commerce ; commercial currents.
"The first renaissance of urban life, its unevenness ; urban populations ; aspect and character of urban centres."
The last invasions and the achievements of the Dark Ages in the history of labour.
"BOOK II : THE RESTORATION, EMANCIPATION, ACHIEVEMENTS AND APOGEE OF LABOUR IN CHRISTIAN EUROPE FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE TENTH TO THE MIDDLE OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY"
I. THE FEUDAL RÉGIME IN THE WEST ; THE RULING CLASSES AND THE OWNERSHIP OF THE SOIL
"Political, social and economic foundations of the feudal régime in Europe."
Forms of ownership of the soil ; diminution of collective property and decline of small free ownership.
The great ecclesiastical properties.
Domains of sovereign princes ; seigneurial domains and lands of the nobility ; subdivision into fiefs.
"The great domain of the feudal period, its organisation and break up into tenant's holdings."
II. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ORGANISATION OF THE RURAL DISTRICTS OF THE WEST DURING THE EARLY FEUDAL PERIOD
"Different classes of peasants ; the free villeins, their lands, obligations and rights. "
The servile villeins ; serfdom becomes general ; classes of serfs and their obligations.
Hard conditions of peasant life under the feudal régime.
Backward state of agricultural economy at this period.
Advantages and precarious condition of the peasants.
Villein life during the early feudal period ; the spirit of revolt.
III. PART PLAYED BY CHURCH AND STATE IN THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE RÉGIME OF PRODUCTION
Bad organisation of feudal government and its influence on the condition of the mass of the workers.
Influence of the new feudal governments and centralised monarchies upon labour.
Influence of the Western Church upon labour.
IV. THE APPEARANCE OF A MONEY ECONOMY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN COMMERCE FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE TENTH TO THE MIDDLE OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY
Unimportant part played by a money economy in the early feudal period.
The renaissance of commerce and its causes ; forms of commercial organisation ; largescale international commerce and great mercantile associations.
The restoration of means of transport ; increase in the use of money and credit ; development of markets and fairs.
Rise of maritime commerce ; predominance and prosperity of Mediterranean trade ; progress of trade in Western and Central Europe ; the commerical powers.
Effects of the commercial revolution.
V. THE RENAISSANCE OF INDUSTRY IN WESTERN CHRISTENDOM DURING THE GOLDEN AGE OF THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD
Industry during the early feudal period.
Causes and characteristics of the industrial renaissance in the West.
Chief forms of industry in the golden age of the medieval period.
Small-scale industry.
First manifestations of the great industry.
"Wide scope of industrial development in the West from the eleventh century ; mineral, metallurgical and textile industries ; wood, earthenware and glass industries ; art industries."
Results of this renaissance.
VI. "EMANCIPATION OF THE COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL CLASSES, THEIR PART IN THE URBAN RENAISSANCE OF THE ELEVENTH TO THE FOURTEENTH CENTURIES IN THE WEST"
The renaissance of towns from the eleventh to the fourteenth century ; formation and early progress of the commercial and industrial classes (tenth to eleventh centuries).
Movement of the emancipation of these classes (eleventh to thirteenth centuries).
"Character, extent and limits of this movement."
Civil and economic liberties of the urban classes.
Diversity of their political rights.
Predominance of economic preoccupations and interests in the urban state.
Economic powers of the urban community.
Results of emancipation and influence of urban economy.
VII. ORGANISATION AND CONDITION OF THE COMMERICAL AND INDUSTRIAL CLASSES IN THE WEST FROM THE ELEVENTH TO THE FOURTEENTH CENTURIES
"Formation, composition and power of the patriciate and the gild merchant ; their work in the towns."
"Economic and social tyranny of the burgess partriciate, its ostentation and arrogance."
"Origins, formation and development of the free crafts and sworn corporations."
"Organisation of free and sworn crafts ; masters and journeymen ; apprenticeship ; administration of the crafts, their privileges, monopolies and regulations ; characteristics and effects of this régime."
The conquest of power by the urban masses and the democratic and syndicalist revolution in the West (thirteenth century to first half of fourteenth century).
Material condition of the commercial and industrial classes ; work and wages ; material existence and moral state of these classes.
Results of this transformation.
VIII. THE ADVANCE OF COLONISATION AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND THE PROGRESS OF RURAL POPULATION IN THE WEST FROM THE ELEVENTH TO THE FOURTEENTH CENTURIES
"The great work of colonisation, its promoters, authors and methods."
Defensive works against water and works of drainage and irrigation.
The work of clearance in the West.
"Development of agricultural production, forests, fisheries and silviculture ; progress of stock raising."
"Advance in methods of cultivation : cereals, horticulture, arborculture, vine-growing, industrial crops."
Results of colonisation ; agricultural prosperity and the progress of rural population.
IX. CHANGES IN THE VALUE AND DISTRIBUTION OF LANDED PROPERTY AND EMANCIPATION OF THE RURAL CLASSES IN THE WEST FROM THE ELEVENTH TO THE FOURTEENTH CENTURIES
"The rise in the value of property, landed revenue and agricultural produce."
Renewed decline of collective property.
Crisis in the history of seigneurial property.
Reconstitution of state domains.
Accession of the communes and the urban bourgeoisie to rural landed property.
"Movement towards the emancipation of the rural classes, its causes, character and variety."
The liberties or franchises of the emancipated rural classes.
Results of their emancipation.
X. ORGANISATION AND CONDITION OF THE RURAL CLASSES IN THE WEST FROM THE TWELFTH TO THE FOURTEENTH CENTURIES
Formation of a rural third estate and a class of small peasant properties.
"Censitaires and copyholders, their condition in the West from the twelfth century."
"Characteristics of peasant property, its small size and constant subdivision."
"The new classes of farmers, fermiers and métayers ; formation of a class of agricultural wage-earners, day labourers and servants in husbandry."
Survivals of serfdom and slavery.
Improvement in the material condition of the peasantry ; income from land and wages.
The increase in comfort ; conditions of material and moral life in the country side.
XI. "END OF THE ECONOMIC SUPREMACY OF BYZANTIUM IN THE EAST. THE RÉGIME OF LABOUR AND ITS EVOLUTION IN THE SLAV, MAGYAR, ROUMANIAN AND SCANDINAVIAN STATES (ELEVENTH TO FOURTEENTH CENTURIES)"
Decline of the Byzantine Empire ; progress of feudalism and of large properties.
Decline of small free ownership and extension of serfdom.
Decline of the bourgeoisie and of urban economy.
The revival of Eastern Europe under the civilising action of Byzantium and the West ; its economic and social transformation.
Economic and social conditions in Scandinavia in the tenth century.
Influence of Western civilisation on the Scandinavian States ; their economic and social transformation.
"BOOK III : THE CLOSE OF THE MIDDLE AGES, BIRTH OF CAPITALISM AND A NATIONAL ECONOMY. THE CENTURY OF REVOLUTIONS (1340-1453)"
I. "THE POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND DEMOGRAPHICAL DISTURBANCES AT THE CLOSE OF THE MIDDLE AGES AND THE BIRTH OF A NATIONAL ECONOMY (1340-1453)"
Crisis in the political and social history of Europe at the close of the Middle Ages.
National economy and the monarchical state ; growing intervention of the state in the field of labour.
"Population crisis in Europe, its causes and effects."
II. TRANSFORMATION AND PROGRESS OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN EUROPE AT THE CLOSE OF THE MIDDLE AGES
Progress of commercial organisation.
"Progress of maritime commerce in the Levant, the Mediterranean and the West."
The great commerical powers.
Industrial evolution and its forms at the close of the Middle Ages.
Specialisation of industrial work and technical progress.
Development of various industries.
III. CHANGES IN THE ORGANISATION OF THE COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL CLASSES ; THE URBAN REVOLUTIONS AND PROGRESS OF THE TOWNS AT THE CLOSE OF THE MIDDLE AGES
Progress of the capitalist bourgeoisie.
"Preponderance of the middle and smaller bourgeoisie, and of small scale industry and trade in the towns."
Preponderance of small free crafts.
Development of sworn co
Journeymen's societies and workers' f
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