The Life Cycle of Copper, Its Co-Products and Byproducts / Edition 1

The Life Cycle of Copper, Its Co-Products and Byproducts / Edition 1

by Robert U. Ayres, Leslie W. Ayres, Ingrd R?de
     
 

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ISBN-10: 904816396X

ISBN-13: 9789048163960

Pub. Date: 12/09/2010

Publisher: Springer Netherlands

Copper is one of the three most important metals in the world economy, and the only one of the three that is comparatively scarce in the earth's crust. Known reserves will only last a few decades at projected rates of consumption. While some substitution possibilities exist for some of its applications, copper is uniquely valuable as a conductor of electricity in a

Overview

Copper is one of the three most important metals in the world economy, and the only one of the three that is comparatively scarce in the earth's crust. Known reserves will only last a few decades at projected rates of consumption. While some substitution possibilities exist for some of its applications, copper is uniquely valuable as a conductor of electricity in a world that is rapidly electrifying. This fact makes the copper life cycle an appropriate subject for holistic analysis. This book, which includes a quantitative demand forecasting model, is based on a study commissioned by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) for the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) fills that need for the first time.

Among the conclusions of the study are the following. The medium-term prospects for copper producers and copper consuming industries include (1) more intensive exploration into more remote regions, (2) utilization of lower grade ores resulting in more mine wastes and associated waste disposal problems, (3) more intensive mining efficient ore reduction processes, (4) dramatic price increases when the current glut works itself out, (5) significant changes in the patterns of consumption (increasingly electrical applications), (6) sharp increases in the need for recovering and recycling old scrap copper in the future, (7) a significant buildup of copper and by-products (especially arsenic) either in use or in the human environment. Similar implications can be drawn for two other scarce and toxic metals - lead and zinc - often found in geological association with copper.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9789048163960
Publisher:
Springer Netherlands
Publication date:
12/09/2010
Series:
Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science Series, #13
Edition description:
Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. 2003
Pages:
265
Product dimensions:
8.27(w) x 11.69(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Forewordix
Acknowledgementsxiii
Chapter 1.Introduction1
1.1.The life cycle perspective1
1.2.Historical background6
1.3.Geology of copper14
1.4.Geology of lead and zinc18
Chapter 2.Copper: Sources and Supply21
2.1.Physical properties and chemistry21
2.2.Copper production22
2.3.Process technology23
2.3.1.Mining27
2.3.2.Beneficiation30
2.3.3.Leaching33
2.3.4.Cementation and solvent extraction (SX)34
2.3.5.Roasting, and smelting35
2.3.6.Converting37
2.3.7.Electrowinning38
2.3.8.Fire refining and electrolytic refining38
2.3.9.Future trends in primary processing39
2.4.Exergy and exergy flows40
2.5.Sulfur recovery44
2.6.Production-related wastes and emissions46
2.6.1.Mining wastes46
2.6.2.Beneficiation wastes48
2.6.3.Leaching (acid) wastes50
2.6.4.Smelting wastes51
2.6.5.Wastes from finishing operations54
2.6.6.Recycling (secondary recovery) wastes54
2.6.7.Toxic releases54
2.6.8.Global estimates of airborne emissions54
2.7.Optimal extraction/production56
Chapter 3.Copper: Demand and Disposition59
3.1.Consumption patterns and trends59
3.2.Accumulation of copper stocks in the anthroposphere70
3.3.Dissipative uses and losses of copper80
3.4.The future of demand for copper83
Chapter 4Lead, Zinc and Other Byproduct Metals101
4.1.Context101
4.2.Physical properties and chemistry of lead and zinc101
4.3.Lead process technology103
4.3.1.Ore mining and beneficiation103
4.3.2.Sintering105
4.3.3.Smelting105
4.3.4.Drossing and final refining106
4.3.5.Exergy and exergy flows106
4.4.Lead sources and uses109
4.5.Zinc processing112
4.5.1.Ore mining and beneficiation112
4.5.2.Roasting and sintering112
4.5.3.Smelting and refining114
4.5.4.Exergy and exergy flows114
4.5.5.Recycling old zinc scrap117
4.6.Zinc sources and uses117
4.7.Lead and zinc wastes and emissions120
4.8.Other byproduct metals127
4.8.1.Antimony130
4.8.2.Arsenic131
4.8.3.Bismuth135
4.8.4.Cadmium135
4.8.5.Germanium140
4.8.6.Gold141
4.8.7.Indium142
4.8.8.Rhenium142
4.8.9.Selenium143
4.8.10.Silver143
4.8.11.Sulfur143
4.8.12.Tellurium147
4.8.13.Thallium147
Chapter 5.The Future of Recycling149
5.1.Background149
5.2.Recovery and recycling of copper from old scrap153
5.3.Recovery and recycling of electronic scrap157
5.4.Copper as a contaminant of recycled steel159
5.5.Copper recycling wastes and emissions161
5.6.Recovery and recycling of lead162
5.7.Recovery and recycling of zinc164
5.8.Recovery and recycling of byproduct metals165
5.8.1.Antimony165
5.8.2.Arsenic165
5.8.3.Cadmium165
5.8.4.Germanium166
5.8.5.Gold166
5.8.6.Indium166
5.8.7.Selenium167
5.8.8.Silver167
5.8.9.Tellurium167
5.9.Further comments on losses and potential recoverability167
Chapter 6.Conclusions and Questions169
6.1.Introduction169
6.2.Copper availability169
6.3.Copper demand: the continuing electrification of the global energy system171
6.4.Lead, zinc and byproduct metals availability and uses173
6.5.Concentration, reduction and refining technology174
6.6.Sulfur recovery and acidification of the environment174
6.7.Copper, lead and zinc recycling175
6.8.Emissions and accumulation of copper and zinc in agricultural soils; probably a non-problem177
6.9.Accumulation of arsenic, cadmium and other toxic metals in the terrestrial environment: A real problem177
6.10.The threat of 'toxic time bombs'180
6.11.The long-term prospect180
References183
Appendix AThe Exergy Concept193
A1.Definition and description of exergy calculations193
A2.Exergy as a tool for resource and waste accounting195
A3.Composition of mixtures, including fuels197
Appendix BThe Behavior of Copper, Lead and Zinc in Soil201
B1.Metals in soils201
B2.Aqueous phase speciation203
B3.Solid phase constituents and complex formation204
B4.Summary210
Appendix CGlobal Copper Model211
C1.Introduction211
C2.A model of the global copper system211
C3.Calibration of the model219
C4.Copper consumption scenarios227
C5.Copper system scenarios232
Appendix DGlossary253
Index257

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