Light

Overview


This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, ...
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Light

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Overview


This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements.
Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic optics, polarized light, electromagnetic theory, and the quantum theory of radiation. The more difficult mathematics has been placed in appendixes, or in separated paragraphs in small type, intended to be omitted on first reading. Examples and/or references follow each chapter to assist the student in absorbing the material and to suggest additional resources.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780486666679
  • Publisher: Dover Publications
  • Publication date: 11/30/2011
  • Series: Dover Books on Physics Series
  • Edition description: Unabridged
  • Pages: 736
  • Sales rank: 1,342,060
  • Product dimensions: 5.38 (w) x 8.49 (h) x 1.51 (d)

Table of Contents

CHAPTER I HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION
1.1. The Scientific Picture
1.6. Light in Relation to Biological Science
1.9. Ligh in Relation to Physical Science
1.10. Waves or Corpuscles
1.11. Rays of Light
1.12. Interference
1.13. Development of the Wave Theory
1.14. Electromagnetic Theory
1.15. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
1.16. Photons
1.17. Relativity Theory
1.18. Modern Quantum Theory
  EXAMPLES [1(i)-l(vi)]
CHAPTER II WAVE THEORY-INTRODUCTION
2.1. Fundamental Ideas
2.3. The Simple Harmonic Oscillator
2.4. Experimental Observations
2.5. Equations of Motion
  EXAMPLES [2(i)-2(vi)]
  EXAMPLES [2(vii) and 2(viii)]
2.8. Vector Representation of Simple Harmonic Motion
2.9. Equation of Propagation-One Dimension
2.11. Wavelength and Wavelength Constant
2.12. Phase
  EXAMPLES [2(ix)-2(xi)]
2.13. Propagation of Waves in Three Dimensions
2.14. Plane Waves
2.15. The Wave Equation
  EXAMPLES [ 2(xii)-2(xv)]
2.16. The Velocity of Propagation
2.17. Waves on a Rod
2.18. Transport of Energy and Momentum
2.20. Spherical Waves-Inverse Square Law
2.21. Photometry-Definitions
2.22. Doppler-Fizeau Principle
2.26. Representation of Wave Motion by Complex Quantities
  EXAMPLES [2(xvi)-2(xviii)]
  REFERENCES
CHAPTER III WAVE THEORY-COMBINATION OF WAVE MOTIONS
3.1. Principle of Superposition
3.3. Addition of Simple Harmonic Motions
3.4. Algebraic Method
3.5. Vector Method
  EXAMPLES [3(i)-3(vi)]
3.8. Huygens' Principle
3.11. Reflection and Refraction at Plane Surfaces
3.13. Wave Theory of Reflection and Refraction
3.14. Reflection and Refraction at Spherical Surfaces: Mirrors and Lenses
  EXAMPLES [3(vii)-3(viii)]
3.17. Dispersion
3.20. Stationary Waves
3.22. Wiener's Experiment
3.26. Coefficient of Reflection-Normal Incidence
3.30. Optical Path Differnce
3.31. Corpuscular Theory of Reflection and Refraction
  EXAMPLES [3(ix)-3(xv)]
CHAPTER IV REPRESENTATION OF LIGHT BY WAVE TRAINS OF FINITE LENGTH
4.1. Sources of Light. Types of Spectra
4.2. Line Spectra and Continuous Spectra
4.3. Band Spectra
4.4. Infra-red and Ultra-violet Spectra
4.5. Absorption Spectra
4.6. Atomic Oscillators
4.8. The Michelson Interferometer
4.10. Visibility of the Fringes
4.15. Waves of Irregular Profile
4.17. Fourier's Series
4.19. Fourier's Integral
4.21. The Gaussian Wave Group
4.25. Width of Spectral Lines
4.28. Propagation of a Wave Group in a Dispersive Medium
4.29. Group Velocity
4.32. Representation of Light by Wave Groups
4.33. White Light
  EXAMPLES [4(i)-4(ix)]
  REFERENCES
  APPENDIX IV A-Adjustment of the Michelson Interferometer
  APPENDIX IV B-Fourier Series and Fourier's Integral Theorem
    Analysis of a sharply limited Wave Train
    Profile for sharply limited Wave Band
    Distribution of Energy for a Damped Harmonic Wave
    The Gaussian Wave Group
    Progress of the Wave Group in a Dispersive Medium
CHAPTER V INTERFERENCE
5.1. Law of Photometric Summation
5.3. Coherent and Non-coherent Beams of Light
5.5. Formation of Interference Fringes
5.7. Interference between Two Sources Side by Side
5.12. Interference produced by Thin Films
5.14. Visibility of the Fringes
5.16. Fringes as Loci of Constant Path Difference
5.17. Fringes of Constant Inclination
5.18. Fringes of Constant Optical Thickness
5.19. Newton's Rings
  EXAMPLES [5(i)-5(ix)]
5.20. Localization of Interference Fringes
5.22. Non-reflecting Films
5.24. High-efficiency Reflecting Films
  EXAMPLES [5(x)-5(xii)]
5.26. Interference with Multiple Beams
5.29. Fabry-Pérot Interferometer
5.30. Lummer-Gehrcke Plate
5.31. Edser-Butler Method of Calibrating a Spectrograph
  EXAMPLES [5(xiii)-5(xvi)]
5.32. Fringes of Superposition
5.34. Achromatic Fringes
5.36. Achromatic Systems of Fringes
5.40. Interference Filters
  EXAMPLES [5(xvii)-5(xix)]
  REFERENCES
CHAPTER VI DIFFRACTION
6.1 General Character of the Observations
6.3. Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffraction
6.5. Theory of Diffraction. The General Problem
6.10. Extension of the Concept of a Wave Group
6.12. Beam of Finite Width-One Dimension
6.13. St. Venant's Hypothesis
6.14. Beam restricted in Two Dimensions
6.15. Diffraction at a Rectangular Aperture
6.16. Diffraction at a Circular Aperture
6.17. Diffraction with a Slit Source
6.18. Diffraction by a Number of Similar Apertures
6.21. Babinet's Theorem
6.22. Diffraction by a Number of Circular Apertures or Obstacles
6.23. Young's Eriometer
6.24. Diffraction by Reflecting Screens
6.25. Diffraction by a Screen not Coincident with a Wave Surface
6.26. "Laws of Rectilinear Propagation, Reflection and Refraction"
6.27. Diffraction Gratings
6.28. The Functions f(U) and F(NW)
6.30. Distribution of Light among the Principal Maxima
6.31. Diffraction Grating Spectra
6.32. Overlapping of Orders
6.33. Gratings Ruled on Glass or Metal
6.36. Echelette Gratings
6.39. The Michelson Echelon Grating
6.40. The Michelson-Williams Reflecting Echelon
6.41. Theory of the Reflecting Echelon
  EXAMPLES [6(i)-6(x)]
  REFERENCES
  APPENDIX VI A-Kirchhoff's Diffraction Formula
  APPENDIX VI B-The Concave Grating
CHAPTER VII HUYGEN'S PRINCIPLE AND FERMAT'S PRINCIPLE
7.1. Development of Huygens' Principle
7.2. Fresnel's Method
  EXAMPLES [7(i)-7(iv)]
7.5. Kirchhoff's Analysis
7.6. Elimination of the Reverse Wave
7.7. Diffraction at a Circular Apterture
7.8. Diffraction by a Circular Obstacle
  EXAMPLES [7(v)-7(viii)]
7.11. The Zone Plate
7.15. Fresnel's Integrals
7.17. Cornu's Spiral
7.21. Diffraction at a Straight Edge
7.22. Rectilinear Propagation
7.23. Fermat's Principle
7.26. Guoy's Experiment
7.27. Relation between Wave and Ray Optics
7.28. Ray and Wave Normals
7.29. Rays in Relation to Wave Groups
7.30. Fermat's Principle as a General Statement of the Laws of Ray Optics
  EXAMPLES [7(ix)-7(xvii)]
  REFERENCES
CHAPTER VIII THE ACCURACY OF OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS
8.1. Imperfections in Images due to Diffraction
8.2. The Rayleigh Criterion
8.5. Limit of Resolution for a Telescope
  EXAMPLES [8(i)-8(iii)]
8.7. Limit of Resolution for the Eye
8.8. Useful and Empty Magnification
8.9. Resolving Power of a Prism Spectroscope
8.10. Resolving Power of a Grating Spectroscope
8.12. The Rayleigh Limit of Aberration
8.13. Accuracy of Measurements with Mirror and Scale
  EXAMPLES [8(iv)-8(xi)]
8.14. Development of the Theory of Resolving Power
8.18. Resolving Power of the Fabry-Pérot Etalon
8.19. Resolving Power of a Microscope
8.20. Resolution with Non-coherent Illumination
8.21. Abbe Theory of Resolution with Coherent Illumination
8.26. Representation of Detail in an Object seen through a Microscope
8.29. Phase-contrast Microscope
8.31. Optimum Magnification
8.32. Purity of a Spectrum obtained with White Light
8.36. Talbot's Bands
  EXAMPLES [8(xii)-8(xv)]
  REFERENCES
CHAPTER IX MEASUREMENTS WITH INTERFEROMETERS
9.2. Classification by Type of Interference
9.4. Classification of Uses of Interferometer
9.5. The Testing of Optical Components
9.6. The Twyman-Green Interferometer
9.11. Fizeau Method
9.15. Multiple-beam Fringes
9.16. Testing of Mechanical Gauges
  EXAMPLES [9(i)-9(vii)]
9.18. The Double Interferometer
9.20. Measurement of Mechanical Displacements
9.21 Measurement of Refractive Index and of Small Differences of Index
9.29. The Jamin Refractometer
  EXAMPLES [9(viii)-9(xiii)]
9.30. Measurement of Wavelength
9.31. Comparison of Wavelengths by Coincidences
9.32. Comparison of Wavelengths by Exact Fractions
  EXAMPLES [9(xiv)-9(xvii)]
9.38. Comparison between Optical and Mechanical Standards of Length
9.44. Recent Work on Standards of Length
9.50. Investigations of Hyperfine Structure
  REFERENCES
CHAPTER X THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT
10.1. Historical
10.2. General Review of Methods
10.3. Indirect Methods
10.5. Römer's Method
10.6. Fizeau's Method
10.7. Rotating-mirror Method
10.11. The Kerr Cell Optical-shutter Method
10.12. Discussion of Results
10.13. Group Velocity or Wave Velocity
10.15. Recent Work
10.18. Variation of Velocity with Refractive Index
  EXAMPLES [10(i)-10(v)]
  REFERENCES
CHAPTER XI RELATIVISTIC OPTICS
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Relatve Velocity of Earth and Aether
11.4. The Michelson-Morley Experiment
11.7. The FitzGerald-Lorentz Contraction
11.8. Special Theory of Relativity
11.12. Dilation of Time and Contraction of Space
11.14. Experiments in which Source and Observer are in Relative Motion
  EXAMPLES [11(i)-11(v)]
11.15. Radial Doppler Effect
11.16. Transverse Doppler Effect-Dilation of Time
  EXAMPLES [11(vi)-11(vii)]
11.18. Reflection of Light by a Moving Mirror
  EXAMPLES [11(viii)-11(x)]
11.19. Aberraton Experiments
11.20. Experiments with a Moving Medium
11.21. General Theory of Relativity
11.23. Refraction of Light Rays in a Gravitational Field
11.24. Displacement of Lines in a Gravitational Field
11.25. Interference in a Rotating System
  EXAMPLE 11(xi)
11.29. The Nebular Red-shift
11.32. Relation between Mass and Energy
11.34. "Mass, Momentum and Energy of the Photon"
  REFERENCES
CHAPTER XII POLARIZED LIGHT
12.1. Scalar and Vector Wave Theories
12.2. The Experiment of Malus
12.3. Definition of the Plane of Polarization
12.4. Brewster's Law
12.5. Polarization by Transmission
12.6. Double Refraction
12.10. Malus' Law
12.11. Methods of producing Plane-polarized Light
12.12. "Nicol, Foucault, and Glan-Thompson Prisms"
12.13. Polarization by Absorption
12.14. Uses of Polarizing Devices
12.15. Interaction of Beams of Plane-polarized Light
12.18. Circularly Polarized Light and Elliptically Polarized Light
  EXAMPLES [12(i)-12(vi)]
12.20. Huygens' Wave Surface in Crystals
12.21. Verification of Huygens' Wave Surface for Uniaxial Crystals
12.22. Transmission of Plane-polarized Light in a Thin Anisotropic Plate
12.25. Quarter-wave Plate
12.26. Two or more Plates in Series
  EXAMPLES [12(vii)-12(xiv)]
12.27. Analysis of Polarized Light
12.29. Representation of Unpolarized Light
  EXAMPLES [12(xv)-12(xvi)]
12.33. The Babinet Compensator
12.35. Rotatory Polarization
12.38. Dispersion of Birefringence and Optical Rotation
  EXAMPLES [12(xvii)-12(xxi)]
12.44. The Biquartz
12.45. Saccharimetry
12.48. Light Beats
  EXAMPLES [12(xxii)-12(xxx)]
  REFERENCES
CHAPTER XIII THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY
13.1. Development of the Theory
13.3. Mathematical Methods
13.4. Definitions of E and H
13.5. Definition of Charge Density and Current
13.6. Polarization of a Material Medium
13.7. Maxwell's Equations
13.8. Waves in an Insulating Medium
13.9. The Velocity of Light
13.10. Properties of Electromagnetic Waves
  EXAMPLES [13(i)-13(vii)]
13.11. Superposition of Electromagnetic Waves
13.12. Representation of Polarized Light
13.13. Energy of the Electromagnetic Field
13.14. Poynting's Theorem
13.15. Momentum of the Electromagnetic Waves
  EXAMPLES [13(viii)-13(x)]
  REFERENCES
  APPENDIX XIII A-Representation of the Electromagnetic Field by Potentials
    Analysis of the Electromagnetic Field
    Number of Standing Waves between w and w + dw
  APPENDIX XIII B-Radiation from a Dipole
    Scattering by Free Electrons
    Scattering by Bound Electrons
    Multipole Radiation
CHAPTER XIV THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF REFLECTION AND REFRACTION
14.1. Boundary Conditions
14.2. Laws of Reflection and Refraction
14.8. Reflection Coefficients
14.9. Degree of Polarization
14.10. Rotation of the Plane of Polarization
14.11. Change of Phase on Reflection
  EXAMPLES [14(i)-14(iv)]
14.12. Stationary Waves
  EXAMPLES [14(v)-14(vi)]
14.15. Total Reflection
  EXAMPLES [14(vii)-14(x)]
14.16. Disturbance in the Second Medium
14.17. Experimental Test of the Theory of Reflection and Refraction
  REFERENCES
CHAPTER XV THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF ABSORPTION AND DISPERSION
15.5. Transmission of Light in an Absorbing Medium
  EXAMPLES [15(i)-15(iv)]
15.6. Reflection of Light by an Absorbing Medium
15.7. Reflection at Normal Incidence
  EXAMPLE [15(v)]
15.8. Reflection at Oblique Incidence
15.10. Principal Angle of Incidence
15.11. Principal Azimuth
15.12. Comparison of Theory and Experiment
  EXAMPLE [15(vi)]
15.13. Optical Constants of Metals
15.18. Dispersion Theory. Dielectric Media
15.24. Dispersion in Regions of Small Absorption
15.25. Dispersion of Gases in Regions remote from Absorption Lines
15.26. Molecular Refractivity
15.27. Region of Absorption
15.28. Measurement of the f-Value
15.30. Absorption in Liquids and Solids
15.31. "The "Reststrahlen"
15.32. Dispersion Formulæ for Metals
  EXAMPLE [15(vii)]
  EXAMPLES [15(viii) and 15(ix)]
15.41. The Relation between Dispersion and Molecular Scattering
15.44 Relation between k and µ
  EXAMPLES [15(x) and 15(xi)]
  EXAMPLES [15(xii)]
15.47. Other Types of Scattering
  APPENDIX XV A-The Refracted Wave in an Absorbing Medium
  REFERENCES
CHAPTER XVI ANISOTROPIC MEDIA
16.1. Optical and Electrical Anisotropy
16.5. The Ray in an Anisotropic Medium
16.6. Propagation of Plane Waves
  EXAMPLE [16(i)]
16.7 "Angular Relations between D, E, H, s, and ?"
  EXAMPLES [16(v) and 16(viii)]
16.9 Rate of Transport of Energy. Ray Velocity
16.10 Properties of the Ray
  EXAMPLES [16(ix)-16(xi)]
  EXAMPLES [16(xii) and16(xiii)]
  EXAMPLE [16(xiv)]
16.13. Direction of the Ray
16.14. The Wave Surface or Ray Surface
16.16. Identity of he Ray Surface and the Wave Surface
16.17 The Normal Surface
16.18. Difference of the Two Phase Velocities for a Given Direction of the Wave Normal
16.19. The Wave Surface in Uniaxial Crystals
16.20. Double Refration
16.24. Conical Refraction
16.31. Transmission of Convergent
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