Linguistics: The Basics

Overview

Linguistics is a comprehensive crosslinguistic introduction to the study of language, and is ideal for students with no background in linguistics. A comprehensive introduction to the study of language, set apart by its inclusion of cross-linguistic data from over 80 different spoken and signed languages Explores how language works by examining discourse, sentence- structure, meaning, words, and sounds Introduces psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic issues, including language acquisition, neurolinguistics, ...

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Linguistics

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Overview

Linguistics is a comprehensive crosslinguistic introduction to the study of language, and is ideal for students with no background in linguistics. A comprehensive introduction to the study of language, set apart by its inclusion of cross-linguistic data from over 80 different spoken and signed languages Explores how language works by examining discourse, sentence- structure, meaning, words, and sounds Introduces psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic issues, including language acquisition, neurolinguistics, language variation, language change, language contact, and multilingualism Written in a problem-oriented style to engage readers, and is ideal for those new to the subject Incorporates numerous student-friendly features throughout, including extensive exercises, summaries, assignments, and suggestions for further reading Based on the bestselling Dutch edition of this work, the English edition has been revised and expanded to offer an up-to- date and engaging survey of linguistics for students new to the field

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What People Are Saying

From the Publisher
Linguistics. The Basics offers a brilliant classroom and self-study introduction to all aspects of the discipline, examining the structure of language, the processes of perception and production by individuals, and the social dynamics of the language community.” – Johan van der Auwera, University of Antwerp
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780631230366
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/20/2012
  • Series: Introducing Linguistics Series, #15
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 468
  • Product dimensions: 6.70 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Anne E. Baker is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Amsterdam with a specialisation in psycholinguistics and sign linguistics. Her publications include Taal en taalwetenschap (ed. with René Appel, Kees Hengeveld, Folkert Kuiken, and Pieter Muysken, 2002) and Sign Language Acquisition (ed. with Bencie Woll, 2008).

Kees Hengeveld is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Amsterdam with a specialisation in linguistic typology and grammatical theory. His publications include Functional Discourse Grammar: A typologically-based theory of language structure (with J. Lachlan Mackenzie, 2008) and The Theory of Functional Grammar (with Simon C. Dik, 1997).

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Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables xiii

Preface xvii

Part I Language and the Language Faculty 1

1 From Language to Linguistics 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Languages 5

1.3 Other Languages 9

1.4 Differences 15

1.5 Linguistics 17

1.6 Different Kinds of Grammar 19

1.7 The Contents of this Book and the Subfields of Linguistics 22

Summary 24

Assignments 26

Test Yourself 27

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 27

2 The Language User 29

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Knowledge and Ability: The Cognitive System 30

2.3 Language and the Brain 34

2.4 Language Comprehension 37

2.4.1 Speech Recognition 38

2.4.2 Word Recognition 39

2.4.3 Understanding Sentences 41

2.4.4 Interpretation of Utterances 43

2.4.5 From Speech Recognition to Interpretation 43

2.5 Language Production 44

2.5.1 What Do You Want to Say? 45

2.5.2 Formulation: Grammatical Encoding 46

2.5.3 Formidation: Phonological Encoding 48

2.5.4 Articulation 50

2.5.5 Speaking: From Intention to Articulation 51

Summary 52

Assignments 53

Test Yourself 54

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 55

3 Language Acquisition 57

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 How do Children Acquire Language? 59

3.3 The Order of First Language Acquisition 62

3.4 Factors that Influence the Acquisition of Second Language 66

3.5 The Order of Second Language Acuquistion 69

3.6 Bilingual Development 74

Summary 77

Assignments 78

Test Yourself 79

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 80

Part II Language and Interaction 81

4 Discourse 83

4.1 Introduction 83

4.2 Interpretation and Inference 84

4.3 Cooperation 86

4.4 Conversations 89

4.5 Coherence Through Linguistic Form 95

Summary 98

Assignments 99

Test Yourself 100

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 101

5 Speech Acts 103

5.l Introduction 103

5.2 An Utterance is an Act 104

5.3 Information Structure 110

5.4 Pramatic Appropriateness 114

Summary 117

Assignments 118

Test Yourself 119

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 119

Part Sentences and their Meaning 21

6 Constituents and Word Classes 123

6.1 Introduction 123

6.2 Constituents 124

6.3 Sentences, Clauses and Phrases 126

6.4 Phrase Types 127

6.5 Heads and Modifiers 130

6.6 Constituent Structure 131

6.7 Phrases Versus Words 135

6.8 Word Classes: Content Words 136

6.9 Word Classes: Function Words 138

Summary 140

Assignments 140

Test Yourself 142

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 142

7 Simple Sentences 143

7.1 Introduction 143

7.2 Functions of Phrases Within the Sentence 144

7.3 Valency 147

7.4 Semantic Roles 150

7.5 Grammatical Roles 151

7.6 The Marking of Semantic and Grammatical Roles 153

7.7 Reduction of Valency 154

7.8 Reflexive Constructions 155

7.9 Pronominalisation 157

Summary 158

Assignments 158

Test Yourself 160

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 160

8 Complex Sentences 161

8.1 Introduction 161

8.2 The Functions of Embedded Clauses 162

8.3 The Forms of Embedded Clauses 165

8.4 Interaction between Main Clause and Embedded Clause 168

8.4.1 Equi-Deletion 168

8.4.2 Raising 169

8.4.3 Sequence of Tenses 170

8.5 Coordinated Clauses 172

8.6 The Form of Coordinated Clauses 173

Summary 174

Assignments 175

Test Yourself 176

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 176

9 Constituent Order 177

9.1 Introduction 177

9.2 Constituent Order and Levels of Analysis 178

9.3 Constituent Order at the Sentence Level 179

9.4 Clause Type 181

9.5 Embedded Clauses 182

9.6 Complexity 183

9.7 The Information Status of Constituents 184

9.8 Constituent Order within Constituents 185

9.8.1 The Noun Phrase 186

9.8.2 The Verb Phrase 187

9.9 Correlations 188

9.10 Discontinuous Constituents 190

Summary 191

Assignments 191

Test Yourself 192

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 193

10 Sentence Meaning 195

10.1 Introduction 195

10.2 Compositionality 196

10.3 Noun Phrases: Reference 197

10.4 Noun Phrases: Deixis and Anaphora 203

10.5 Verb Phrases: Tense and Aspect 206

10.6 Verb Phrases: Situation Types 210

Summary 214

Assignments 214

Test Yourself 215

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 216

Part IV Words and Their Meaning 217

11 Lexicon 219

11.1 Introduction 219

11.2 What is a Word? 220

11.3 The Relation Between Word Form and Meaning 221

11.4 Content Words and Function Words 223

11.5 The Lexicon 226

11.6 Kinds of Lexical Information 228

11.7 Dictionaries 230

11.8 Meaning and Meaning Relations 232

11.9 Semantic Description 235

11.10 Words Across Languages 236

Summary 237

Assignments 239

Test Yourself 240

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 240

12 Word Formation 241

12.1 Introduction 241

12.2 The Internal Composition of Words 242

12.3 The Functions of Word Formation 243

12.4 Derivation 245

12.5 Inflection 249

12.6 Morphological Forms 251

12.7 The Structure of Words and Their Meanings 255

12.8 Differences between Derivation and Inflection 256

12.9 Morphological Differences between Languages 258

Summary 260

Assignments 261

Test Yourself 263

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 263

13 Compounds and Idiomatic Expressions 265

13.1 Introduction 265

13.2 Structure and Meaning of Compounds 266

13.3 Types of Compounds 270

13.4 Incorporation 271

13.5 Idiomatic Expressions 272

13.6 The Meaning of Idiomatic Expressions 274

Summary 279

Assignment 280

Test Yourself 281

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 281

Part V Speech Sounds 283

14 Speaking and Listening - Speech Sounds 285

14.1 Introduction 285

14.2 Speaking 287

14.3 The Speech Signal 288

14.4 Hearing and Understanding 291

14.5 Speech Sounds 292

14.5.1 Introduction 292

14.5.2 Pulmonic Consonants 293

14.5.3 Non-pulmonic Consonants 296

14.5.4 Vowels 296

14.5.5 Diphthongs 297

14.5.6 Further Features 298

14.6 Speech Synthesis and Speech Recognition 298

Summary 299

Assignments 301

Test Yourself 301

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 302

15 Sound Systems and Phonological Processes 303

15.1 Introduction 303

15.2 Distinctiveness 304

15.3 Sound Systems 307

15.4 Distinctive Features 311

15.5 Morphophonological Processes 314

15.6 Graphemes and Phonemes 316

Summary 317

Assignments 317

Test Yourself 318

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 319

16 Syllables, Stress and Intonation 321

16.1 Introduction 321

16.2 The Syllable: Phonotactics 322

16.3 The Word: Stress 326

16.4 The Sentence: Intonation 328

16.5 Rhythm 330

Summary 331

Assignments 332

Test Yourself 333

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 333

Part VI Languages and Communities 335

17 Differences and Similarities between Languages 337

17.1 Introduction 337

17.2 Similarities between Languages 339

17.3 Genetic Relations 342

17.4 Language and Culture 349

17.5 Language and Thought: The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis 354

Summary 358

Assignments 359

Test Yourself 359

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 359

18 Language Variation 316

18.1 Introduction 361

18.2 What is a Language? 362

18.3 What is a Dialect? 364

18.4 The Study of Language Variation 366

18.5 Language Variation and Social Factors 369

18.5.1 Region 370

18.5.2 Social Class 372

18.5.3 Ethnic Group 374

18.5.4 Age 375

18.5.5 Gender 375

18.6 Other Factors: Situation and Linguistic Context 377

18.7 Language Variation and Social Meaning 379

Summary 381

Assignments 382

Test Yourself 382

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 383

19 Language Change 385

19.1 Introduction 385

19.2 Historical Linguistics 386

19.3 The Process of Change 390

19.4 The Role of Social Groups in Language Change 394

19.5 Embedding Changes into the Language System 397

19.6 The Evaluation of Language Change 399

Summary 400

Assignments 400

Test Yourself 401

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 401

10 Bilingualism 403

20.1 Introduction 403

20.2 The Bilingual Community 404

20.3 Language Policy 407

20.4 Bilingual Education 408

20.5 The Bilingual Individual 410

20.6 Bilingualism and Interference 412

20.7 The Emergence of New Languages 418

Summary 421

Assignments 422

Test Yourself 422

Acknowledgments and Further Reading 423

References 425

Sources of Illustrations 433

Index 335

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