Linux in a Nutshellby Ellen Siever, Stephen Figgins, Robert Love, Arnold Robbins
Everything you need to know about Linux is in this book. Written by Stephen Figgins, Ellen Siever, Robert Love, and Arnold Robbins people with years of active participation in the Linux community Linux in a Nutshell, Sixth Edition, thoroughly covers programming tools, system and network administration tools, the shell, editors, and LILO and/i>
Everything you need to know about Linux is in this book. Written by Stephen Figgins, Ellen Siever, Robert Love, and Arnold Robbins people with years of active participation in the Linux community Linux in a Nutshell, Sixth Edition, thoroughly covers programming tools, system and network administration tools, the shell, editors, and LILO and GRUB boot loaders.
This updated edition offers a tighter focus on Linux system essentials, as well as more coverage of new capabilities such as virtualization, wireless network management, and revision control with git. It also highlights the most important options for using the vast number of Linux commands. You'll find many helpful new tips and techniques in this reference, whether you're new to this operating system or have been using it for years.
- Get the Linux commands for system administration and network management
- Use hundreds of the most important shell commands available on Linux
- Understand the Bash shell command-line interpreter
- Search and process text with regular expressions
- Manage your servers via virtualization with Xen and VMware
- Use the Emacs text editor and development environment, as well as the vi, ex, and vim text-manipulation tools
- Process text files with the sed editor and the gawk programming language
- Manage source code with Subversion and git
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Chapter 5: Red Hat and Debian Package Managers
This chapter describes the two major Linux packaging systems, the Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) and the Debian GNU/Linux Package Manager.
When you want to install applications on your Linux system, most often you'll find a binary or a source package containing the application you want, instead of (or in addition to) a .tar.gz file. A package is a file containing the files necessary to install an application. But note that while the package contains the files you need for installation, the application might require the presence of other files or packages that are not included, such as particular libraries (and even specific versions of the libraries), in order to be able to run. Such requirements are known as dependencies.
Package management systems offer many benefits. As a user, you may find you want to query the package database to find out what packages are installed on the system and their versions. As a system administrator, you need tools to install and manage the packages on your system. And, if you are also a developer, you need to know how to build a package for distribution.
Among other things, package managers:
Provide tools for installing, updating, removing, and managing the software on your system.
Let you install new or upgraded software directly across a network.
Tell you what software package a particular file belongs to or what files a package contains.
Maintain a database of packages on the system and their state, so you can find out what packages or versions are installed on your system.
Provide dependency checking, so you don't mess up your system with incompatible software.
Provide PGP, MD5, or other signature verification tools.
Provide tools for building packages.
Any user can list or query packages. However, installing, upgrading, or removing packages generally requires superuser privileges. This is because the packages normally are installed in systemwide directories that are writable only by root. Sometimes you can specify an alternate directory, to install, for example, a package into your home directory or into a project directory where you have write permission.
Both RPM and the Debian Package Manager back up old files before installing an updated package. Not only does this let you go back if there is a problem, but also if you've made changes (to configuration files, for example), they aren't completely lost.
The Red Hat Package Manager
The Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) is a freely available packaging system for software distribution and installation. In addition to Red Hat and Red Hat-based distributions, both SuSE and Caldera are among the Linux distributions that use RPM.
Using RPM is straightforward. A single command, rpm, has options to perform all the package functions. For example, to find out if the Emacs editor is installed on your system, you could say:
rpm -q emacs
In addition, the GNOME-RPM program provides an X-based graphical frontend to RPM (that can be run even if you are not running GNOME). This section describes the rpm command and then the gnorpm command that runs GNOME-RPM.
The rpm Command
RPM packages are built, installed, and queried with the rpm command. RPM package names usually end with a .rpm extension. rpm has a set of modes, each with its own options. The format of the rpm command is:
With a few exceptions, as noted in the lists of options that follow, the first option specifies the rpm mode (e.g., install, query, update, build, etc.), and any remaining options affect that mode.
In the option descriptions that refer to packages, you'll sometimes see them specified as package-name and sometimes as package-file. The package name is the name of the program or application, such as gif2png. The package file is the name of the RPM file: gif2png-2.2.5-1.i386.rpm.
RPM provides a configuration file for specifying frequently used options. The system configuration file is usually /etc/rpmrc, and users can set up their own $HOME/.rpmrc file. You can use the --showrc option to show the values RPM will use for all the options that may be set in an rpmrc file:
The rpm command includes FTP and HTTP clients, so you can specify an ftp:// or http:// URL to install or query a package across the Internet. You can use an FTP or HTTP URL wherever package-file is specified in the commands presented here.
Any user can query the RPM database. Most of the other functions require superuser privileges.
The following options can be used with all modes:
- --dbpath path
Use path as the path to the RPM database.
- --ftpport port
Use port as the FTP port.
- --ftpproxy host
Use host as a proxy server for all transfers. Specified if you are FTPing through a firewall system that uses a proxy.
Print a long usage message (running rpm with no options gives a shorter usage message).
Update only the database; don't change any files.
- --pipe command
Pipe the rpm output to command.
Display only error messages.
- --rcfile filename
Use filename as the configuration file instead of the system configuration file /etc/rpmrc or $HOME/.rpmrc.
- --root dir
Perform all operations within directory dir.
Print the version number of rpm.
Print debugging information.
Install, upgrade, and freshen options
Install or upgrade an RPM package. The syntax of the install command is...
Meet the Author
Ellen Siever is a writer and editor specializing in Linux and other open source topics. In addition to Linux in a Nutshell, she coauthored Perl in a Nutshell. She is a long-time Linux and Unix user, and was a programmer for many years until she decided that writing about computers was more fun.
Stephen Figgins honed many of his computer skills while working as O'Reilly's book answer guy. A life long learner with many interests, Stephen draws on many resources to make difficult topics understandable and accessible.
Now living in Lawrence, Kansas, he administrates Linux servers for Sunflower Broadband, a cable company. When not found working with computers, writing, or spending time with his family, you will likely find him outdoors. Stephen teaches wilderness awareness and living skills.
Robert Love has been a Linux user and hacker since the early days. He is active inand passionate aboutthe Linux kernel and GNOME desktop communities. His recent contributions to the Linux kernel include work on the kernel event layer and inotify. GNOME-related contributions include Beagle, GNOME Volume Manager, NetworkManager, and Project Utopia. Currently, Robert works in the Open Source Program Office at Google.
Robert is the author of Linux Kernel Development (SAMS 2005) and the co-author of Linux in a Nutshell (2006 O'Reilly). He is also a Contributing Editor at Linux Journal. He is currently working on a new work for O'Reilly that will be the greatest book ever written, give or take. Robert holds a B.A. in Mathematics and a B.S. in Computer Science from the University of Florida. A proud Gator, Robert was born in South Florida but currently calls home Cambridge, MA.
Arnold Robbins, an Atlanta native, is a professional programmer and technical author. He has worked with Unix systems since 1980, when he was introduced to a PDP-11 running a version of Sixth Edition Unix. He has been a heavy AWK user since 1987, when he became involved with gawk, the GNU project's version of AWK. As a member of the POSIX 1003.2 balloting group, he helped shape the POSIX standard for AWK. He is currently the maintainer of gawk and its documentation. He is also coauthor of the sixth edition of O'Reilly's Learning the vi Editor. Since late 1997, he and his family have been living happily in Israel.
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This book is a reference and not a how to. I feel it is an excellent attempt to form a concise reference for almost all of the commands found in a common linux distribution. I would recommend this book for for everyone running linux (or UNIX), but it is not much help for those in need of answers to setup or configuration information (MHO). Instead, this book is written for those who already have a running system and need a memory jog on a particular command or option.
This book is designed for those with little experience using Linux. About half the book is a command reference guide covering most (if not all) commands you can type via terminal.Also includes chapter for package management, Bash, editors (vim, vi, emacs), subversion and virtualization. However no reference is made to Gnome, KDE or similars. If you know nothing about Linux, better start with "Running Linux". If you want a more advanced book then "Linux Cookbook", "Linux Networking Cookbook" and "Linux System Administration" are for you.