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The Lion's Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and His Family in Peace and War

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Overview

In The Lion's Pride, Edward J. Renehan, Jr. vividly portrays the grand idealism, heroic bravery, and reckless abandon that Theodore Roosevelt both embodied and bequeathed to his children and the tragic fulfillment of that legacy on the battlefields of World War I.
Drawing upon a wealth of previously unavailable materials, including letters and unpublished memoirs, The Lion's Pride takes us inside what is surely the most extraordinary family ever to occupy the White House. Theodore Roosevelt believed deeply that those who had been blessed with wealth, influence, and education were duty bound to lead, even—perhaps especially—if it meant risking their lives to preserve the ideals of democratic civilization. Teddy put his principles, and his life, to the test in Spanish American war, and raised his children to believe they could do no less. When America finally entered the "European conflict" in 1917, all four of his sons eagerly enlisted and used their influence not to avoid the front lines but to get there as quickly as possible. Their heroism in France and the Middle East matched their father's at San Juan Hill. All performed with selfless some said heedless courage: Two of the boys, Archie and Ted, Jr., were seriously wounded, and Quentin, the youngest, was killed in a dogfight with seven German planes. Thus, the war that Teddy had lobbied for so furiously brought home a grief that broke his heart. He was buried a few months after his youngest child.
Filled with the voices of the entire Roosevelt family, The Lion's Pride gives us the most intimate and moving portrait ever published of the fierce bond between Teddy Roosevelt and his remarkable children.

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Editorial Reviews

Robert W. Merry
. . .[A] beguiling book. . . .provide[s] a revealing portrait of the old Anglo-Saxon elite that once dominated American society. No family personified that elite quite like the Roosevelts.
The New York Times Book Review
Publishers Weekly - Publisher's Weekly
In his examination of TR's last years, Renehan creates a story that is at once a family tragedy and the denouement of a way of thinking. For 39-year-old Teddy Roosevelt, the 1898 Spanish-American War was the fulfillment of a romantic martial ideal and compensation for a history of frail health and his father's use of a substitute to avoid conscription during the Civil War. His much-publicized exploits with the Rough Riders shaped his career and his sense of self to such an extent that he welcomed WWI as an opportunity for his sons and for the nation. But although TR's sons--Ted Jr., Kermit, Archie, Quentin--were eager to find the fastest way to the front, the nation and President Wilson were not. Renehan parallels TR's strident calls for military "preparedness" with his sons' efforts to train themselves for a war America would eventually join in 1917. Even in Europe--far from their father's influence--the boys goaded each other, going so far as calling Quentin a slacker because pneumonia prevented him from getting to the front fast enough. In the end, the Roosevelts suffered for their daring: TR would write a friend, "[My sons] have done pretty well, haven't they? Quentin killed... Archie crippled... Ted gassed...." But despite his bravado, TR was stricken and would outlive his youngest son by only a few months. Through previously unpublished family papers, judiciously chosen facts and a moving narrative that skillfully parallels the personal and political, Renehan reveals a great deal about American society and politics, and about the culture of war. But most of all, he tells a sad story of the end of an era and the end of a man. 36 halftones not seen by PW. BOMC, History Book Club alternate. Author tour. (Oct.)
KLIATT
Theodore Roosevelt was probably the nation's most beloved president, and this book about the man and his four sons makes it easy to understand why this is so. Teddy Roosevelt's ebullient personality, of course, needs no introduction. Life at Sagamore Hill was vigorous and often rambunctious, as the family members played hard, studied hard, and bounced noisily off each other. All four of the sons shared the ex-President's lively curiosity and his unquestioned personal bravery. When WW I burst upon the nation, TR's bellicosity almost matched that of Kaiser Wilhelm, and it was all that Woodrow Wilson could do to keep the old warrior out of uniform. No one was surprised when the four brothers took to arms. Kermit, Archie and Theodore Jr. immediately headed for the "mud infantry" and began honorable service, which extended into WW II, young Ted eventually winning his general's stars. Meanwhile, dreamy and nearsighted Quentin went into the air service, where the rookie pilot swiftly found himself in desperate combat with the Richthofen Squadron. His death over the Western Front in July 1918 shocked the nation and completely shattered the ex-President. Sagamore Hill became a home of mourning like so many others, and life thereafter would never be the same. Renehan's narrative is fast-moving and anecdotal, a perfect match to the hyperactive Roosevelts and the straightforwardness of their era. There is enough detail here to satisfy all but the most expert scholars and action enough to please the most restless YAs. This book is a good choice for school libraries and all public collections. KLIATT Codes: SA*—Exceptional book, recommended for senior high school students, advanced students,and adults. 1998, Oxford Univ. Press, 289p, 24cm, 98-23998, $16.95. Ages 16 to adult. Reviewer: Raymond L. Puffer, Ph.D.; Historian, Edwards Air Force Base, CA, July 2000 (Vol. 34 No. 4)
Library Journal
Renehan, author of the acclaimed The Secret Six: The True Tale of the Men Who Conspired with John Brown, delivers an informative, well-written anecdotal account of the Roosevelts -- but not the one the title promises. Roosevelt's role as a former president, attacking the neutral policies of President Wilson and preparing America for war, is examined more closely than his relationship with his four sons and daughter. The elder Roosevelt passed along his martial spirit to his sons, all of whom served with distinction in World War I. Quentin was killed in the war; Theodore Jr., who won the Congressional Medal of Honor in World War II, and Archie were gravely wounded; and Kermit escaped the Great War unharmed but committed suicide during World War II. Theodore Roosevelt's glorification of war as a noble pursuit now appears reckless when seen in light of America's experience in Vietnam. -- Karl Helicher, Upper Merion Township. Library, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania
Robert W. Merry
. . .[A] beguiling book. . . .provide[s] a revealing portrait of the old Anglo-Saxon elite that once dominated American society. No family personified that elite quite like the Roosevelts. -- The New York Times Book Review
Kirkus Reviews
A warm, poignant picture of the relationship between Theodore Roosevelt and his six remarkable children, based on previously unpublished family letters, papers, and interviews. Renehan (John Burroughs: An American Naturalist) finds that all the children of T.R., especially his four sons, grew up in the heady light of their father's dashing charge up San Juan Ridge at Santiago, Cuba, during the Spanish-American War: The young Roosevelts were taught to fight for an honorable cause with a great sense of duty; boys and girls alike 'absorbed or inherited his reckless, all-or-nothing approach to hazards.' Ethel, a daughter who observed the pain of battle while serving in a Paris military hospital, felt that the family's happiness at Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay, Long Island, would be offset by their sad (if heroic) experiences during the Great War. The two oldest boys, Theodore Jr., and Archie, were indeed both seriously wounded; Quentin, the baby of the family, would be killed in aerial combat. T.R.'s martial, patriotic spirit undeniably lived on in his children, though he was saddened by the simultaneous deaths of his wife, Alice, and of his mother. He was never the same after the demise of Quentin. Even so, his equally beloved second wife, Edith, sustained him in his last illness. Renehan's research leaves us with the portrait of a dearly loved father and grandfather who doted on his children without spoiling them and became an unforgettable role model. A postscript: Both Ted Jr., and Kermit died in uniform in WWII. Ted Jr. won the Medal of Honor in Normandy for leading his men ashore. An unusual view of the human side of an extraordinary public figure.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195134247
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 12/28/1999
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 320
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Edward J. Renehan, Jr., is the author of The Secret Six: The True Tale of the Men Who Conspired with John Brown and John Burroughs: An American Naturalist. He lives in North Kingstown, Rhode Island.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xi
Part 1 Roosevelt Form
1 Mementoes 3
2 Roots 9
3 Crowded Hour 21
Part 2 The Lion's Pride
4 The Uninvited 37
5 A Rather Enlarged Football Game 51
6 All the Kinds of Boys There Are 71
7 The Kaleidoscope Shaken 87
8 Too Proud to Fight 99
9 Equal Billing with Woodrow 110
10 Dust in a Windy Street 123
11 Everybody Works But Father 138
12 Rue de Villejust 148
13 Issoudun 155
14 Pater Familias 168
15 Dark Harbor 186
16 The Capital of the World 204
17 The Old Lion Is Dead 212
18 War Once More 226
19 Epilogue 241
Notes 247
Selected Bibliography 267
Index 273
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First Chapter

Chapter One

MEMENTOES

    At one o'clock in the afternoon of 1 July 1898, Colonel Theodore Roosevelt led his Rough Riders in two daring charges up Kettle Hill and the adjacent San Juan Ridge, just outside the city of Santiago, Cuba, in a pivotal battle of the Spanish-American War. Their object was to dislodge the Spanish from these two heavily defended positions, and thus pave the way for the capture of Santiago. The only mounted officer in the battle, the bespectacled 39-year-old Roosevelt seemed an easy target for the Spanish guns firing from the top of each promontory. "Are you afraid to stand up when I am on horseback?" he shouted at the start of the first charge, rallying his troopers to run behind him as he turned, at a gallop, toward the Spanish. "No man," wrote journalist Richard Harding Davis, "who saw Roosevelt take that ride expected he would finish it alive." Davis said it was the bravest thing he'd ever seen, and the most foolhardy.

    In the evening, Roosevelt stalked happily back and forth across the brow of San Juan Hill, the highest peak of the San Juan Ridge. The trenches below him were filled to capacity with cadavers. Roosevelt seemed to take a grim satisfaction in contemplating the day's carnage. As his close friend and fellow Rough Rider, Bob Ferguson, wrote, "no hunting trip so far has equalled it in Theodore's eyes.... T. was just revelling in victory and gore."

    Throughout the evening he stood high on the crest of the ridge in range of firing Spanish guns, just so he could get a good view back at all the "damned Spanish dead." At one point a shell landed so close it singed him. The same shell killed several men standing nearby. At least one observer commented that Roosevelt seemed to think himself invulnerable. The only time he bent low was to collect spent cartridges he thought his young sons would like as souvenirs.

    Roosevelt personally brought down one Spaniard that day--the first and only time he ever killed a man. The events at the San Juan Ridge made him a celebrity and primed his political career to take off like a rocket upon his return to the States. Yet, as he told one of his closest confidants, the most important thing about his charge at San Juan was that it would serve forever for his children "as an apology for my having existed ... should the worst come to the worst I am quite content to go now and to leave my children at least an honorable name." To another friend he wrote that the war against Spain was his "one chance to cut my little notch in the stick that stands as a measuring rod in every family. I know now that I would have turned from my wife's death bed to answer that call."

    * *

    All the children of Theodore Roosevelt--most especially his four boys--grew up in the light of his great martial example. Each came of age sharing Roosevelt's Kiplingesque view of the battlefield as a place of honor, fulfillment, and robust democracy. All of them realized that their father had found a political fortune in his dashing charge up the battle-scarred slopes of the San Juan Ridge. And each was forever infused with Roosevelt's passion for righteous battle. Yet they also saw that romantic vision of armed conflict tarnished by the first great war they encountered as adults, and the tragedies it inflicted on their family.

    "Quentin's death is always going to be the greatest thing in any of our lives...." Theodore Roosevelt Jr. wrote his sister Ethel in 1918, not long after the youngest of the family was blown from the sky in aerial combat over Chamery, France. Ethel, who had seen the painful results of battle close-up when she served with her husband in a Paris military hospital, perceived clearly that the European war experience she and Teddy had undergone would forever separate the happiness of their youth from the sad longing and retrospection of their maturities. "I sometimes just cannot believe," she wrote, "that all this has come to us and that never again will we be happy and young as we were, and that always there will be the pain beneath the laughter." Alice Roosevelt Longworth--the eldest of Theodore Roosevelt's brood--spoke not only for herself but for her sister and brothers when she wrote: "All our lives before and after have just been bookends for the heroic, tragic volume of the Great War."

    Heroic and tragic indeed. By the time of the Armistice (11 November 1918), Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (the eldest of Theodore Roosevelt's four boys) and Archie Roosevelt (the second-youngest) were both gravely wounded, and Archie showed disturbing signs of the profound mental depression that was to haunt him, on and off, till the end of his life. Quentin, the baby of the family, was dead. So too was the Roosevelts' good friend--Quentin's fellow aviator and boon companion from Groton and Harvard--Hamilton Coolidge, who was shot down near the Argonne Forest on Theodore Roosevelt's sixtieth (and last) birthday, within weeks of the Armistice. Among Theodore Roosevelt's immediate family, his second-oldest son, Kermit, was the only uniformed male to survive the war relatively unscathed.

    For all their losses, family members expressed few regrets. Instead they assured one another that as a clan they'd done what was necessary in their time. "You are drifting into a family," Archie had written Quentin's fiancee in 1917, "that is doing the right thing as well as it knows how, and you will never have to make any excuses for any of your future in-laws not sacrificing themselves for the cause."

    The Roosevelt who came closest to expressing regret was the one among them who was most free to do so. "To feel that one has inspired a boy to conduct that has resulted in his death, has a pretty serious side for a father," Theodore Roosevelt wrote of Quentin. However, he did not publicly question the usefulness of the losses suffered by his and so many other families. How could he? He had, after all, been the high priest of American interventionism since early 1915. The war in which his youngest son died and his other sons suffered was one for which he'd lobbied with a vengeance. "Honor, highest honor," the sickly and dispirited ex-President editorialized after Quentin's last flight, "to those who fearlessly face death for a good cause; no life is so honorable or so fruitful as such a death. Unless men are willing to fight and die for great ideals, including love of country, ideals will vanish, and the world will become one huge sty of materialism."

    The family clung to this credo after Roosevelt himself died on 6 January 1919. In the decades that followed, they commemorated the sad events of the war years with the same gusto as they had the happier moments in their shared history. At Sagamore Hill, the home on Long Island where Quentin Roosevelt was once a boy and Theodore Roosevelt a robust young father, the mementoes and memorabilia of their deaths took equal places beside the mementoes and memorabilia of the family's joyous life together before the war. Trophies of great victories and accomplishments rested side by side with symbols--artifacts--of mortal pain bravely borne, which were themselves taken as tokens of more subtle victories and accomplishments.

    In the North Room, which was Theodore Roosevelt's trophy room, the heads of beasts slain in Kenya, the Far West, and Maine gazed dumbly at visitors. Beside these were hung Roosevelt's Nobel Prize medal and his hat and sword from Rough Riders days. Then there was his death mask. Among moose and bear and buffalo, the startled guest came across the white plaster face of the hunter, with closed eyes, as he'd looked at his death. On another wall of the same room hung the twisted, mutilated axle of the Nieuport plane in which Quentin Roosevelt died in 1918.

    After Quentin was killed, German photographs of his battered corpse mysteriously found their way to Sagamore Hill. The anonymous sender was probably malicious. There was most likely a wish to offend, wound, or horrify. But the photographs did not offend. They were instead cherished as further evidence of Quentin's gallant ending. Prints were placed in family scrapbooks, copies sent to relatives. Nearly thirty years later, after Quentin's body had been exhumed from the field at Chamery and taken to an American military cemetery at Normandy, his Chamery headstone was carried to Sagamore and installed in a place of honor beneath the flagpole. Here his elderly mother--Edith, widow of Theodore Roosevelt--could see it and be daily reminded of her youngest child's brave sacrifice.

    * *

    Both Ted Jr. and Kermit died in uniform during World War II, though not from enemy fire. Their mother, Edith, died in 1948. Sagamore Hill was opened to the public five years later. The tourists swarmed in. Among them--anonymous and silent--was Archie, Theodore Roosevelt's lone surviving son, who lived only a few miles away. In line with the other sightseers, he would stand behind the ropes and stare into all the rooms he remembered so well from childhood.

    He was annoyed, on one such visit, to see both the death mask and the axle gone from the North Room. The items, he learned, had been placed in storage in the basement vault. Under stern questioning, a nervous National Park Service guide explained that the pieces were thought too disturbing for some of the sightseers who came through the house--so many of them young children. The removal, complained Archie, was the act of people who "do not understand the Roosevelts and do not understand what we did in the war, who we were before the war, or who we were after." His mother, he was sure, would want the relics left where she had kept them for nearly thirty years and where they remained on the day she died. It was, after all, her home.

    In his charming yet guarded memoir All in the Family, Ted Jr. said Sagamore Hill was a product of the years "as surely as is a reef of coral." Each room and niche, each table and chair seemed to be associated with some choice bit of family lore. Every item was a keepsake, such as the footstool of the children's great-grandfather Roosevelt. To understand a family, said Ted, it was important to understand the stories held in the items that made up the furnishings and decorations of their house.

    There are marvelous stories contained in Sagamore Hill's cherished trophies of World War I. The stories go a long way toward helping us, paraphrasing Archie, to understand the Roosevelts, what they did in the war, why they did it, who they were before the war, and who they were after. But the stories do not begin with the war. In fact, they long predate the period when the six remarkable Roosevelt children--particularly the four sons who served in the fighting ranks--were sent to encounter the destiny at which they'd been aimed, like bullets shot by an expert marksman, since birth.

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Sort by: Showing all of 2 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted August 23, 2000

    Lion's Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and His Family in Peace and War

    Author Renehan has written a haunting look back at a time that seems never to have been and a bigger than life figure whose influence on his family was at once wonderful and tragic. Renehan moves quickly, giving just enough detail to render a sure feel for family life at Sagamore Hill and the White House. He touches on playtimes led by loving bear of a father, TR. He realls the competitiveness of Roosevelt's children as they strive to impress their father, and he notes the impact of Roosevelt's glory in the hills of Cubs: 'Teddy Roosevelt's children grew up in the glow of Roosevelt's crowded hour.' Roosevelt had clamored for war with Spain in 1898, and when he got it, he made good, charging into enemy rifle fire on horseback, while his men moved ahead on foot. He came home a hero, boastful and proud. In time, however, he would have cause to wonder about the impact fo his hour of glory. His sons, always quick to follow his example, had no three month assignment when their war came (also clamored for by TR), but instead endured long months at or near the front, ill prepared, poorly equipped and plagued by doubt. TR knew that this war was no summer season conflict. The weapons were deadlier, the losses staggering, and the warring sides grimly determined to fight on. He wrote one of his sons, 'If after you have been in the fighting line, you are offered a staff place in which you can be more useful, it would be foolish to refuse it...' It was too late to worry. Three of his boys would suffer serious injury. One, hopelessly out of his depth, would be killed. The death of his youngest son shook TR. 'I can see how he constantly thinks of him,' wrote Mrs. Roosevelt, 'and not the silly recollections ... but sad thoughts of what Quentin would have counted for in the future.' In less than six months Roosevelt himself would be dead, in a sense, a second victim of the bluster and blast that so defined him. What is most unique about this book is its feel for Roosevelt family life, the relationship of one to the other, the numerous and varied activities, the friends, associates, wives and husbands and, at the center, holding everyone together, the wonderful and impossible bully boy, Theodore Roosevelt. Perhaps without wanting to, Renehan creates a kind of challenge to the self-interest, materialism and disjointedness that so characterizes life in our time.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 28, 2000

    Lion's Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and His Family in Peace and War

    Here is a haunting look back at a time that seems never to have been and a larger than life figure whose influence on his family was wonderful and tragic. Mr. Renehan moves along quickly, giving just enough detail to render a sense of family life at Sagamore Hill (the family's private residence)and the White House. He touches on playtimes led by the loving bear of a father, TR. He recalls the competitiveness of the children as they strive to impress their father, and he notes the the impact of Roosevelt's glory in the Spanish American War: 'Teddy Roosevelt's children grew up in the glow of Roosevelt's crowded hour.' TR clamored for war with Spain in 1898, and when he got his wish, he made the most of it, charging into enemy rifle fire on horseback, while his men moved ahead on foot. He came home a hero, boastful and full of pride. In time, he would have cause to wonder about the impact of his hour of glory. His sons, always quick to follow their father's example, had no summer time assignment when their war came. They endured long months at or near the front, ill prepared, poorly equipped and plagued by doubt. TR knew that WWI was a much different war. The weapons were deadlier, the losses staggering and the combatants grimly determined to fight on. He wrote one of his sons, 'If after you have been in the fighting line, you are offered a staff place in which you can be more useful, it would be foolish to refuse it...' It was too late to worry. His boys would suffer serious injury. One would lose his life. The death of his youngest shook TR. 'I can see how he constantly thinks of him,' wrote Mrs. Roosevelt, 'and not the silly recollections ... but sad thoughts of what Quentin would have counted for in the future.' In less than six months Roosevelt himself would be dead, in a sense a second victim of the bluster and blast that characterized him. What is most unique about this book is its feel for Roosevelt family life, the relationships of one to the other, the numerous and varied activities, the friends, associates, wives and husbands, and, at the center, holding everything together, the wonderful and impossible Bully Boy, Theodore Roosevelt. Renehan creates a kind of challenge to the self-interest, materialism and disjointedness that so define life in our own time.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
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