Listening to Western Music (with CD) / Edition 1

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LISTENING TO WESTERN MUSIC helps you to develop and refine your listening skills. With Wright, you will learn to move comfortably from the classroom to the concert hall, listening to classical and popular music with more confidence and enjoyment. Unique multimedia and online support give you the tools you need to master the material, score well on exams and quizzes, and enjoy classical music.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780495116271
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 1/23/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 432
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Craig M. Wright (Bachelor of Music, Eastman School of Music, 1966; Ph.D., Harvard University, 1972) taught at the University of Kentucky for one year and has taught at Yale University for the past thirty-two years. He is the author of numerous scholarly books and articles on composers ranging from Leoninus to Bach. Wright has also been the recipient of many awards, including a Guggenheim Fellowship, the Einstein and Kinkeldey Awards of the American Musicological Society, and the Dent Medal of the International Musicological Society. In 2004, he was awarded the honorary degree Doctor of Humane Letters from the University of Chicago. He has also published LISTENING TO WESTERN MUSIC, Sixth Edition (Schirmer Cengage Learning, 2011), and, with Bryan Simms, MUSIC IN WESTERN CIVILIZATION, Media Update (Schirmer Cengage Learning, 2010).

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Table of Contents

Listening Exercises     xiii
Boxes     xiv
About the Author     xv
About the Cover     xvi
Preface     xvii
The Elements of Music     1
Listening to Music     2
How Musical Sound and Sound Machines Work     2
Music and the Brain     3
Listening to Whose Music?     4
Classical Music-Popular Music     4
Why Listen to Classical Music?     5
Classical Music All Around You     5
Attending a Classical Concert     6
Learning to Be a Good Listener     7
Getting Started: Three Musical Beginnings     7
Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor-Opening     7
Listening Guide: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor     9
Peter Tchaikovsky, Piano Concerto No. 1-Opening     9
Listening Guide: Tchaikovsky, Piano Concerto No. 1     10
Richard Strauss, Also Sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spoke Zarathustra)-Opening     10
Listening Guide: Strauss, Thus Spoke Zarathustra     11
Key Words     13
Rhythm     13
Rhythm and Rhythmic Notation     14
Meter     16
Hearing Meters     17
Syncopation     19
Tempo     19
Rhythm and Rap     20
Key Words     21
Melody     22
Pitch     22
The Octave     22
Notating Melodies     23
Tonality, Keys, and Scales     26
Modulation     27
Hearing Major and Minor     27
Chromatic Scale     29
Melodic Structure     29
Hearing Melodies and Phrases     31
Key Words     32
Harmony     33
Building Harmony     33
Consonance and Dissonance     35
Hearing the Harmony Change     35
The Twelve-Bar Blues Harmony Then and Now     37
Key Words     38
Dynamics and Color     38
Dynamics     39
Color     39
The Voice     40
Musical Instruments     40
Listening Guide: Instruments of the Orchestra: Strings     43
Listening Guide: Instruments of the Orchestra: Woodwinds     44
Listening Guide: Instruments of the Orchestra: Brasses     46
Listening Guide: Instruments of the Orchestra: Percussion     47
Key Words      51
Musical Texture and Form     52
Monophonic, Polyphonic, and Homophonic Textures     52
Listening Guide: Handel, Messiah, "Hallelujah" chorus     54
Form     55
Five Favorite Musical Forms     56
Listening Guide: Brahms, Lullaby     56
Listening Guide: Mozart, Variations on Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star     57
Listening Guide: Haydn, Symphony No. 94, 2nd movement     58
Listening Guide: Tchaikovsky, "Dance of the Reed Pipes"     58
Listening Guide: Mouret, Rondeau     59
Key Words     60
Musical Style     61
Key Word     61
Checklists of Musical Style by Periods     61
The Middle Ages and Renaissance, 476-1600     68
Medieval Music, 476-1475     70
Music in the Monastery     70
Gregorian Chant     70
Listening Guide: Anonymous, All the Ends of the Earth     71
The Gregorian Chant of Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)     71
Listening Guide: Hildegard of Bingen, O Greenest Branch     73
Music in the Cathedral     73
Notre Dame of Paris     74
Leoninus: Organum, All the Ends of the Earth     74
Chant at the Top of the Charts     75
Listening Guide: Leoninus, All the Ends of the Earth     75
Notre Dame of Reims     76
Machaut, Mass of Our Lady     76
Musical Portions of the Mass     77
Listening Guide: Machaut, Mass of Our Lady, Kyrie     78
Music at the Court     78
Music at the Forefront of Science     79
Troubadours and Trouveres     79
Listening Guide: Countess of Dia, I Must Sing     80
Music at the Court of Burgundy     81
Listening Guide: Dufay, This Month of May     82
Medieval Musical Instruments     83
Listening Guide: Anonymous, The Spanish Tune     84
Key Words     84
Checklist of Musical Style     84
Renaissance Music, 1475-1600     85
Music Becomes a Fine Art     86
Josquin Desprez (c 1455-1521) and the Renaissance Motet     87
Listening Guide: Josquin, Ave Maria     90
The Counter-Reformation and Palestrina (1525-1594)     91
Male Choirs     92
Female Choirs in Convents     93
Listening Guide: Palestrina, Sanctus     94
Popular Music in the Renaissance     95
The Madrigal      95
Listening Guide: Weelkes, As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending     97
Key Words     98
Checklist of Musical Style     98
The Baroque Period, 1600-1750     100
Introduction to Baroque Art and Music     102
Baroque Architecture and Music     102
Baroque Painting and Music     104
Characteristics of Baroque Music     105
Expressive Melody     105
The Basso Continuo     105
Elements of Baroque Music     107
Melody     107
Harmony     108
Rhythm     108
Texture     108
Dynamics     108
Key Words     109
Early Baroque Vocal Music     109
Opera     109
Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)     110
Listening Guide: Monteverdi, Orfeo, Toccata     112
Listening Guide: Monteverdi, Orfeo, "At the bitter news" and "Thou art dead"     113
Listening Guide: Monteverdi, Orfeo, "Powerful spirit"     114
Chamber Cantata     114
Barbara Strozzi: Professional Composer     115
Listening Guide: Strozzi, "I want to die"     116
Opera in London     117
Henry Purcell (1659-1695)     117
Listening Guide: Purcell, Dido and Aeneas, "When I am laid in earth"     119
Elton John and Basso Ostinato     121
Key Words     121
Middle Baroque Instrumental Music     121
The Baroque Orchestra     122
Orchestral Overture     123
Jean-Baptiste Lully, (1632-1687)     124
Listening Guide: Lully Overture to Armide     124
Solo Sonata and Trio Sonata     125
Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713)     125
The Baroque Violin     116
Listening Guide: Corelli, Trio Sonata in C major     127
The Baroque Concerto     128
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)     128
The Hospice of Mercy: Convent and Concert Hall     129
Listening Guide: Vivaldi, Violin Concerto in E major, 1st movement     131
Key Words     133
Checklist of Musical Style     133
The Late Baroque: Bach     134
Aspects of Late Baroque Musical Style     134
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)     135
Fugue     135
Listening Guide: Bach, Organ Fugue in G minor     137
Bach's Orchestral Music     139
Listening Guide: Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D major, 1st movement     140
The Church Cantata     141
What Did Mrs. Bach Do?     143
Listening Guide: Bach, Awake, a Voice Is Calling, 1st movement     144
Listening Guide: Bach, Awake, a Voice Is Calling, 4th movement     146
Listening Guide: Bach, Awake, a Voice Is Calling, 7th movement     148
Bach's Bones     149
Key Words     149
The Late Baroque: Handel     150
George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)     150
Handel and the Orchestral Dance Suite     151
Listening Guide: Handel, Water Music, Minuet and Trio     152
Handel and Opera     153
Handel and Oratorio     153
The Theatrical Quality of Baroque Art     154
Listening Guide: Handel, Messiah, "Rejoice greatly"     156
Listening Guide: Handel, Messiah, "Hallelujah" chorus     157
Key Words     160
Checklist of Musical Style     160
The Classical Period, 1750-1820     162
Classical Style     164
The Enlightenment     164
Music and Social Change: Comic Opera     165
Public Concerts     166
The Advent of the Piano     166
Elements of Classical Style      167
Melody     167
Harmony     168
Rhythm     168
Texture     168
Classical Style in Painting     169
The Dramatic Quality of Classical Music     169
An Example of Classical Style     170
Listening Guide: Mozart, The Marriage of Figaro, "If you want to dance"     171
Key Words     171
Classical Composers: Haydn and Mozart     173
Vienna: A City of Music     173
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)     174
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)     176
What's a Genius? Was Mozart a Musical Genius?     177
Mozart and Amadeus     178
Key Words     179
Classical Forms: Ternary and Sonata-Allegro     179
Ternary Form     180
Minuet and Trio     181
Listening Guide: Mozart, A Little Night Music, 3rd movement     183
Listening Guide: Haydn, Symphony No. 94, the "Surprise," 3rd movement     183
Sonata-Allegro Form     184
The Shape of Sonata-Allegro Form     185
Hearing Sonata-Allegro Form     187
Listening Guide: Mozart, A Little Night Music, 1st movement     188
Listening Guide: Mozart, Don Giovanni, Overture     189
Key Words     191
Classical Forms: Theme and Variations, Rondo     191
Theme and Variations     191
Mozart: Variations on Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star     192
Haydn: Symphony No. 94 (the "Surprise" Symphony), 2nd movement     193
Listening Guide Haydn, Symphony No. 94, the "Surprise," 2nd movement     194
Rondo Form     195
Mozart: Horn Concerto in E[Characters not reproducible] major, K. 495, 3rd movement (finale)     196
Listening Guide: Mozart, Horn Concerto in E[Characters not reproducible] major, 3rd movement     196
A Rondo by Sting     198
Form, Mood, and the Listener's Expectations     199
Key Words     199
Classical Genres: Instrumental Music     200
The Symphony and the Symphony Orchestra     200
The Classical Symphony Orchestra     201
Mozart: Symphony No. 40 in G minor, K. 550     202
Listening Guide: Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G minor, 1st movement     204
The String Quartet     206
Haydn: Opus 76, No. 3, the "Emperor" Quartet (1797)     207
Listening Guide: Haydn, String Quartet, the "Emperor," 2nd movement     208
The Sonata     209
The Concerto      210
Mozart: Piano Concerto in A major (1786), K. 488     211
Barbara Ployer: Concert Pianist     212
Listening Guide: Mozart, Piano Concerto in A major, 1st movement     212
Key Words     214
Classical Genres: Vocal Music     214
Classical Opera     215
Mozart and Opera     215
Mozart: Don Giovanni (1787), K. 527     215
Lorenzo Da Ponte: Librettist to Mozart     216
Listening Guide: Mozart, Don Giovanni, Act I, Scene 1     217
Listening Guide: Mozart, Don Giovanni, Act I, Scene 7     219
Key Words     222
Beethoven: Bridge to Romanticism     222
Beethoven's Music     222
The Early Years (1770-1802)     223
Piano Sonata, Opus 13, the "Pathetique" Sonata     224
Listening Guide: Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Opus 13, the "Pathetique"     225
Beethoven Becomes Deaf     227
Music and Suffering     228
The "Heroic" Period (1803-1813)     228
Symphony No. 3 in E[Characters not reproducible] major ("Eroica")     229
Symphony No. 5 in C minor     229
Listening Guide: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 1st movement     232
Listening Guide: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 2nd movement     235
Listening Guide: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 3rd movement     237
Listening Guide: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 4th movement     238
The Final Years (1814-1827)     239
Epilogue: Beethoven and the Nineteenth Century     240
Key Words     241
Checklist of Musical Style     241
Romanticism, 1820-1900     242
Introduction to Romanticism     244
Romantic Inspiration, Romantic Creativity     244
The Musician as "Artist," Music as "Art"     245
Lord Byron's Childe Harold's Pilgrimage     246
Romantic Ideals and Today's Concert Hall     247
The Style of Romantic Music     247
Romantic Melody     247
Colorful Harmony     248
Romantic Tempo: Rubato     249
Romantic Forms: Monumental and Miniature     249
Expressive Tone Colors, Greater Size, Greater Volume     250
The Romantic Orchestra     250
The Conductor     251
The Growth of the Symphony Orchestra     252
The Virtuoso     253
Coda     254
Key Words     255
Early Romantic Musk: The Art Song      255
The Art Song     255
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)     256
Listening Guide: Schubert, Erlking     259
Robert Schumann (1810-1856)     261
Listening Guide: R. Schumann "Dedication" from Myrtles     263
Clara Wieck Schumann (1819-1896)     263
Where Were the Women?     264
Listening Guide: C. Schumann, "If You Love for Beauty"     265
Lives of Tragedy and Fidelity     265
Key Words     267
Early Romantic Music: Program Music     267
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)     268
Symphonic fantastique     269
The Real End of the Program     273
Listening Guide: Berlioz, Symphonie fantastique, 5th movement     273
Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)     275
Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream     276
Listening Guide: Mendelssohn Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream     277
Key Words     278
Early Romantic Music: Piano Music     278
Frederic Chopin (1810-1849)     279
Mazurka in B[Characters not reproducible] major, Opus 7, No. 1     280
Listening Guide: Chopin, Mazurka in B[Characters not reproducible] major, Opus 7, No. 1     280
Nocturne in C# minor, Opus 27, No. 1     281
Listening Guide: Chopin, Nocturne in C# minor, Opus 27, No. 1     282
Franz Liszt (1811-1886)     283
Transcendental Etude No. 8, "Wilde Jagd" ("Wild Hunt")     285
Listening Guide: Liszt, Transcendental Etude No. 8, "Wild Hunt"     286
Key Words     286
Romantic Opera: Italy     287
Italian Bel Canto Opera     287
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)     288
Verdi's Dramaturgy and Musical Style     290
La traviata (1853)     290
Listening Guide: Verdi, La traviata, Act I, Scene 4     291
Listening Guide: Verdi, La traviata, Act I, Scene 6     292
Key Words     294
Romantic Opera: Germany     295
Richard Wagner (1813-1883)     295
Wagner's "Music Dramas"     297
Tristan und Isolde (1865)     298
Leitmotifs in Star Wars     300
Listening Guide: Wagner, Liebestod, from Tristan und Isolde     300
Key Words     302
Nineteenth-Century Realistic Opera     303
Georges Bizet's Carmen (1875)     304
Carmen from Flop to Hip-Hop     305
Listening Guide: Bizet, Habanera from Carmen     305
Giacomo Puccini's La boheme (1896)     307
Listening Guide: Puccini, Aria from La boheme     308
Key Words     309
Music and Nationalism     309
Russian Nationalism: Modest Musorgsky (1839-1881)     310
Pictures at an Exhibition (1874)     310
Listening Guide: Musorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition     312
Czech Nationalism: Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904)     314
Listening Guide: Dvorak, Furiant from Slavonic Dances, Opus 46     316
Key Words     316
Late Romantic Orchestral Music     316
The Late Romantic Symphony     317
Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)     317
Symphony No. 2 in D major (1877)     319
Listening Guide: Brahms, Symphony No. 2 in D major, 3rd movement     319
The Symphonic Poem     320
Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)     320
Symphonic Poem, Romeo and Juliet (1869; revised 1880)     321
Listening Guide: Tchaikovsky, Romeo and Juliet     323
The Orchestral Song     324
Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)     324
Orchestral Song, I Am Lost to the World, from the Five Ruckert Songs (1901-1902)     326
Listening Guide: Mahler, I Am Lost to the World     327
Key Words      327
Checklist of Musical Style     328
Modern and Postmodern Art Music, 1880-Present     330
Impressionism     332
Impressionism in Painting and Music     332
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)     333
Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun (1894)     334
Listening Guide: Debussy, Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun     336
Preludes for Piano (1910, 1913)     338
Listening Guide: Debussy, Voiles, from Preludes, Book I     340
Key Words     341
Checklist of Musical Style     341
Exoticism     342
The Exotic of China: Puccini's Turandot (1924)     343
Listening Guide: Puccini, "People of Peking," from Turandot     344
Listening Guide: Puccini, "Lord, please listen!" from Turandot     345
Listening Guide: Puccini, "Hello, Pang! Hello, Pong!" from Turandot     346
The Exotic of Spain: Ravel's Bolero (1928)     347
Listening Guide: Ravel, Bolero     349
Key Words     350
Modernism in Music and the Arts     351
Modernism: An Anti-Romantic Movement     351
Early-Twentieth-Century Musical Style     353
Melody: More Angularity and Chromaticism     353
Harmony: The "Emancipation of Dissonance," New Chords, New Systems     354
Rhythm: New Asymmetrical Rhythms and Irregular Meters     355
Tone Color: New Sounds from New Sources     355
Key Words     356
Early-Twentieth-Century Modernism     357
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1974)     357
Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring, 1913)     358
Listening Guide: Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, Introduction and Scene 1     362
Arnold Schoenberg and the Second Viennese School     363
Expressionism and Atonality     364
Pierrot Lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot, 1912)     364
Listening Guide: Schoenberg, Moonstruck Pierrot, Number 6, Madonna     366
Schoenberg's Twelve-Tone Music     366
Trio from Suite for Piano (1924)     367
Listening Guide: Schoenberg, Trio from Suite for Piano     367
Key Words     368
Russian and Eastern European Modernism     369
Sergey Prokofiev (1891-1953)     370
Classical Symphony (1917)     370
Listening Guide: Prokofiev, Classical Symphony, 1st movement     371
Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975)     372
Symphony No. 5 (1937)     372
Listening Guide: Shostakovich, Symphony No. 5, 4th movement      373
Bela Bartok (1881-1945)     374
Concerto for Orchestra (1943)     375
Listening Guide: Bartok, Concerto for Orchestra, 4th movement     377
Key Words     377
Three American Voices     378
Charles Ives (1874-1954)     378
Ives's Music     379
Putnam's Camp, Redding, Connecticut from Three Places in New England (c1908-1914)     379
Listening Guide: Ives, Putnam's Camp, Redding, Connecticut, 2nd movement     381
Aaron Copland (1900-1990)     382
Copland's Music     383
Appalachian Spring (1944)     383
Listening Guide: Copland, Appalachian Spring, Sections 1, 2, and 7     385
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (1939-)     387
Listening Guide: Zwilich, Concerto Grosso 1985, 3rd movement     388
Key Words     389
Postmodernism     389
Edgard Varese and Electronic Music (1883-1965)     390
Poeme electronique (1958)     391
Electronic Music: From Varese to Radiohead     392
Listening Guide: Varese, Poeme electronique     392
John Cage (1912-1992) and Chance Music     393
4[prime]33[Prime] (1952)     395
Listening Guide: Cage, 4[prime]33[Prime]      395
John Adams (1947-) and Minimalism     395
Short Ride in a Fast Machine (1986)     397
Listening Guide Adams, Short Ride in a Fast Machine     397
Tan Dun (1957-) and Globalization     398
Marco Polo (1996)     399
Listening Guide: Tan, Marco Polo     399
Key Words     400
Checklist of Musical Style     400
Glossary     402
Index     411
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