Literature and the Writing Process / Edition 8

Literature and the Writing Process / Edition 8

by Elizabeth McMahan, Robert Funk, Susan X. Day
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0132248026

ISBN-13: 9780132248020

Pub. Date: 01/13/2007

Publisher: Prentice Hall

Literature and the Writing Process, Eighth Edition, reinforces the writing process in every chapter and is designed to guide you through the complementary processes of active reading and critical writing. Literary selections promote active reading and are used to help you read, analyze, and write about literature. Critical writing coverage, including responsive

Overview

Literature and the Writing Process, Eighth Edition, reinforces the writing process in every chapter and is designed to guide you through the complementary processes of active reading and critical writing. Literary selections promote active reading and are used to help you read, analyze, and write about literature. Critical writing coverage, including responsive writing topics, critical writing topics, and researched writing topics, is featured in every chapter. A "Handbook for Correcting Errors" rounds out the book and offers important grammatical pointers for writers.

New to this Edition: Chapter 4 features updated and expanded research coverage, including additional material on the use of quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. Chapter 18 on cultural analysis helps you understand and interpret literature. Discussion and writing questions follow all selections in the three anthologies, and at the end of the Portfolios, Casebooks, and the "Paired Poems for Comparison." Additional visuals include an updated color insert and several new photographs and images chosen to enhance the reader's understanding and appreciation of particular literary works. New Casebook on interpreting Troy Maxson, the lead character in August Wilson's Fences. Two new groupings of related works for thematic or genre study: a "Portfolio of Humorous Stories" and a "Portfolio of War Poetry."

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780132248020
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
01/13/2007
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
1200
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 8.98(h) x 1.36(d)

Table of Contents


Contents$dGenre     xxiii
Thematic Contents     xxix
Preface     xxxvii
Composing: An Overview     1
The Prewriting Process     3
Reading for Writing     3
"Eveline"     3
Who Are My Readers?     7
Analyze the Audience     7
Prewriting Exercise     8
Why Am I Writing?     8
Reasons for Writing     8
Prewriting, Exercise     9
What Ideas Should I Use?     9
Reading and Thinking Critically     9
Discovering and Developing Ideas     10
Self-Questioning     11
Directed Freewriting     12
Problem Solving     12
Directed Freewriting     13
Clustering     14
What Point Should I Make?     14
Relate a Part to the Whole     14
Clustering     15
How Do I Find the Theme?     16
Stating the Thesis     16
The Writing Process     18
How Should I Organize My Ideas?     18
Arguing Your Interpretation     18
The Elements of Good Argument     18
Building an EffectiveArgument     20
Arranging the Ideas     21
Checklist for Arguing an Interpretation     21
Developing with Details     22
Questions for Consideration     22
Maintaining a Critical Focus     23
Distinguishing Critical Comments from Plot Details     23
How Should I Begin?     23
Postpone If Nothing Comes     24
Write an Appealing Opening     24
State the Thesis     24
How Should I End?     25
Relate the Discussion to Theme     25
Postpone or Write Ahead     25
Write an Emphatic Final Sentence     25
Composing the First Draft     26
Pausing to Rescan     26
Quoting from Your Sources     26
Sample Student Paper: First Draft     27
Suggestions for Writing     31
Ideas for Writing     32
Ideas for Responsive Writing     32
Ideas for Critical Writing     32
The Rewriting Process     33
What Is Revision?     33
Getting Feedback: Peer Review     34
Revising in Peer Groups     34
Peer Evaluation Checklist for Revision     35
What Should I Add or Take Out?     36
Outlining After the First Draft     36
Making the Outline     36
Checking the Outline     36
Sample After-Writing Outline     37
Examining the Sample Outline     38
Outlining Exercise     38
What Should I Rearrange?     39
Does It Flow?     40
What Is Editing?     41
What Sentences Should I Combine?     41
Transitional Terms for All Occasions     42
Revising Checklist     42
Combining for Conciseness     42
Sentence-Combining Exercise     43
Rearranging for Emphasis and Variety     44
Varying the Pattern     44
Exercise on Style     45
Which Words Should I Change?     45
Check Your Verbs     45
Exercise on Word Choice     46
Use Active Voice Most of the Time     46
Use Passive Voice If Appropriate     47
Exercise on Passive Voice     47
Feel the Words     47
Attend to Tone     48
Use Formal Language     48
What Is Proofreading?     49
Try Reading It Backward     49
Look for Your Typical Errors     49
Read the Paper Aloud     50
Find a Friend to Help     50
Proofreading Checklist     50
Sample Student Paper: Final Draft     50
A Researched Writing     55
Using Library Sources in Your Writing     55
Conducting Your Research     56
Locating Sources     56
Using the Online Catalog     57
Using Indexes and Databases     57
Using the Internet     58
Selected Online Indexes and Databases     59
Internet Sources for Literature     61
Evaluating Online Sources     62
Using Reference Works in Print     62
Selected Reference Works in Literature     63
Working with Sources     64
Taking Notes     64
Using the Printout/Photocopy Option     64
Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting     65
Devising a Working Outline     66
Writing a First Draft     66
Organizing Your Notes     66
Using Quotations and Paraphrases     67
Integrating Sources     67
Quoting from Primary Sources     68
Avoiding Plagiarism      69
Rewriting and Editing     70
Documenting Your Sources     70
Revising the Draft     70
Checklist for Revising and Editing Researched Writing     71
Formatting Your Paper     71
Sample Documented Student Paper     72
Explanation of the MLA Documentation Style     80
In-Text Citations     80
Preparing the List of Works Cited     81
Sample Entries for a List of Works Cited     82
Citing Electronic Sources     86
Writing About Short Fiction     89
How Do I Read Short Fiction?     91
Notice the Structure     91
Subplots     92
Consider Point of View and Setting     92
Study the Characters     93
Foils     94
Look for Specialized Literary Techniques     94
Examine the Title     95
Investigate the Author's Life and Times     95
Continue Questioning to Discover Theme     95
Critical Questions for Reading the Short Story     95
Writing About Structure     97
What Is Structure?     97
How Do I Discover Structure     98
Looking at Structure     98
"The Things They Carried"     98
Prewriting     111
Finding Patterns     111
Writing     111
Grouping Details     112
Relating Details to Theme     112
Ideas for Writing     112
Ideas for Responsive Writing     112
Ideas for Critical Writing     113
Ideas for Researched Writing     113
Rewriting     113
Integrating Quotations Gracefully     113
Exercise on Integrating Quotations     114
Writing About Imagery and Symbolism     115
What Are Images?     115
What Are Symbols?     116
Archetypal Symbols     116
Phallic and Yonic Symbols     116
How Will I Recognize Symbols?     117
Reference Works on Symbols     117
Looking at Images and Symbols     117
"The Lottery"     117
Prewriting     123
Interpreting Symbols     123
Writing     124
Producing a Workable Thesis     124
Exercise on Thesis Statements     125
Ideas for Writing     125
Ideas for Responsive Writing     125
Ideas for Critical Writing      125
Ideas for Researched Writing     126
Rewriting     126
Sharpening the Introduction     126
Sample Student Paper: Second and Final Drafts     127
Writing About Point of View     138
What Is Point of View?     138
Describing Point of View     139
Looking at Point of View     140
"Everyday Use"     140
Prewriting     147
Analyzing Point of View     147
Writing     147
Relating Point of View to Theme     148
Ideas for Writing     148
Ideas for Responsive Writing     148
Ideas for Critical Writing     148
Ideas for Researched Writing     149
Rewriting     149
Sharpening the Conclusion     149
Writing About Setting and Atmosphere     151
What Are Setting and Atmosphere?     151
Looking at Setting and Atmosphere     152
"Hunters in the Snow"     152
Prewriting     162
Prewriting Exercise     162
Writing     163
Discovering an Organization     163
Ideas for Writing     164
Ideas for Responsive Writing      164
Ideas for Critical Writing     164
Ideas for Researched Writing     164
Rewriting     165
Checking Your Organization     165
Improving the Style: Balanced Sentences     165
Sentence Modeling Exercise     166
Writing About Theme     168
What Is theme?     168
Looking at Theme     169
Flannery O'Connor, "Good Country People"     169
Prewriting     182
Figuring Out the Theme     183
Stating the Theme     183
Writing     183
Choosing Supporting Details     184
Ideas for Writing     184
Ideas for Responsive Writing     184
Ideas for Critical Writing     185
Ideas for Researched Writing     185
Rewriting     185
Achieving Coherence     185
Checking for Coherence     186
Editing     186
Repeat Words and Synonyms     186
Try Parallel Structure     187
Casebook Joyce Carol Oates's Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?"     188
"Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?"     188
The Story's Origins      200
Five Critical Interpretations     201
Topics for Discussion and Writing     204
Idea for Researched Writing     205
Anthology of Short Fiction     206
"The Birthmark"     206
"The Cask of Amontillado"     217
"Desiree's Baby"     222
"The Story of an Hour"     227
"The Revolt of 'Mother'"     229
"The Open Boat"     240
"Paul's Case"     257
"Hands"     271
"A Jury of Her Peers"     275
"Araby"     290
"The Rocking-Horse Winner"     294
"The Grave"     305
"Spunk"     310
"A Rose for Emily"     314
"Hills Like White Elephants"     321
"The Chrysanthemums"     325
"The Man Who Was Almost a Man"     333
"I Stand Here Ironing"     342
"Seventeen Syllables"     348
"A Good Man Is Hard to Find"     357
"An Ounce of Cure"     368
"A & P"     376
"Life"     380
"What We Talk About When We Talk About Love"     388
"The Lesson"     397
"A Father"     403
"Speech Sounds"      410
"The Love of My Life"     420
"Love in L. A."     432
"Geraldo No Last Name"     434
"The Red Convertible"     436
"The Bridegroom"     442
"This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona"     456
A Portfolio of Humorous Stories     465
"The Catbird Seat"     465
"My Oedipus Complex"     471
"Why I Live at the P. O."     479
"What We Talk About When We Talk About Doughnuts"     488
Writing About Poetry     493
How Do I Read Poetry?     495
Get the Literal Meaning First: Paraphrase     495
Make Associations for Meaning     496
Critical Questions for Reading Poetry     497
Writing About Persona and Tone     499
Who Is Speaking?     499
What Is Tone?     500
Recognizing Verbal Irony     500
Describing Tone     500
Looking at Persona and Tone     501
"My Papa's Waltz"     501
"The Ruined Maid"     501
"The Unknown Citizen"     502
"Go, Lovely Rose"     503
"One Perfea Rose"     504
Prewriting      505
Asking Questions About the Speaker in "My Papa's Waltz"     505
Devising a Thesis     506
Describing the Tone in "The Ruined Maid"     507
Discovering a Thesis     507
Describing the Tone in "The Unknown Citizen"     508
Discovering a Thesis     508
Discovering Tone in "Go, Lovely Rose"     508
Discovering Tone in "One Perfect Rose"     509
Writing     509
Explicating and Analyzing     509
Ideas for Writing     510
Ideas for Responsive Writing     510
Ideas for Critical Writing     510
Ideas for Researched Writing     511
Editing     511
Quoting Poetry in Essays     511
Sample Student Response: Poetry     513
Analyzing the Student Response     516
Writing About Poetic Language     517
What Do the Words Suggest?     517
Connotation and Denotation     517
Figures of Speech     517
Metaphor and Simile     518
Personification     519
Imagery     519
Symbol     519
Paradox     520
Oxymoron     520
Looking at Poetic Language     520
"A Noiseless Patient Spider"     520
"Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?"     521
"Turtle"     521
"In the Long Hall"     522
"My Son My Executioner"     523
Prewriting     524
Examining Poetic Language     524
Writing     525
Comparing and Contrasting     525
Ideas for Writing     525
Ideas for Responsive Writing     525
Ideas for Critical Writing     526
Ideas for Researched Writing     526
Rewriting: Style     526
Choosing Vivid, Descriptive Terms     527
Sample Student Paper: Second and Final Drafts     527
Comparison Exercise     527
Writing About Poetic Form     535
What Are the Forms of Poetry?     535
Rhythm and Rhyme     535
Rhythm and Meter in Poetry     536
Alliteration, Assonance, and Consonance     537
Exercise on Poetic Form     537
Stanzas: Closed and Open Forms     537
Poetic Syntax     538
Visual Poetry     539
Looking at the Forms of Poetry     539
"We Real Cool"      539
"Eight O'Clock"     540
"Anyone lived in a pretty how town"     541
"Telephone Conversation"     542
"Nuns Fret Not"     543
"Sonnet"     544
"Love at First Sight"     545
"40-Love"     545
Prewriting     546
Experimenting with Poetic Forms     546
Writing     548
Relating Form to Meaning     548
Ideas for Writing     548
Ideas for Expressive Writing     548
Ideas for Critical Writing     549
Ideas for Researched Writing     550
Rewriting: Style     550
Finding the Exact Word     550
Sample Published Essay on Poetic Form     552
"The 'Banked Fire' of Robert Hayden's 'Those Winter Sundays'"     552
Casebook The Poetry and Prose of Langston Hughes     555
Langston Hughes: A Brief Biography     555
Poetry     557
"The Negro Speaks of Rivers"     557
"Mother to Son"     558
"The Weary Blues"     558
"Saturday Night"     559
"Trumpet Player"     560
"Harlem (A Dream Deferred)     561
"Theme for English B"     561
Considering the Poems     562
Prose     563
"Salvation"     563
"On the Road"     564
"Thank You, M'am"     567
Considering the Prose     570
Critical Gommentaries     570
"Hughes and the Black Controversy"     570
"A Poet for the People"     570
"Forerunner and Ambassador"     571
"Do Right to Write Right: Langston Hughes's Aesthetics of Simplicity"     572
"Jazz and Langston Hughes's Poetry"     573
"Harlem Rent Parties"     574
Ideas for Writing About Langston Hughes     575
Ideas for Researched Writing     575
Anthology of Poetry     576
"They Flee from Me"     576
"When in Disgrace with Fortune and Men's Eyes"     577
"Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds"     578
"That Time of Year Thou Mayst in Me Behold"     578
"My Mistress' Eyes Are Nothing Like the Sun"     579
"Death, Be Not Proud"     580
"The Flea"     580
"Easter Wings"     581
"The Lamb"     582
"The Tyger"     583
"The Sick Rose"      584
"London"     585
"The Garden of Love"     586
"The World Is Too Much with Us"     587
"Kubla Khan"     587
"She Walks in Beauty"     589
"Ozymandias"     590
"On First Looking into Chapman's Homer"     591
"Ode on a Grecian Urn"     592
"The Eagle"     594
"When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer"     594
"One's-Self I Sing"     595
"Song of Myself" (Section 11)     595
"Dover Beach"     596
"Faith Is a Fine Invention"     598
"I'm Nobody! Who Are You?"     598
"Safe in Their Alabaster Chambers"     599
"He Put the Belt Around My Life"     599
"Much Madness Is Divinest Sense"     600
"Because I Could Not Stop for Death"     601
"Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church"     601
"In an Artist's Studio"     602
"Pied Beauty"     603
"Spring and Fall"     604
"To an Athlete Dying Young"     604
"Loveliest of Trees"     605
"The Second Coming"     606
"Sailing to Byzantium"     607
"We Wear the Mask"     608
"Mending Wall"      609
"Birches"     611
"Out, Out-"     612
"Fire and Ice"     613
"Design"     614
"The lesson of the moth"     614
"Fog"     616
"Chicago"     616
"The Emperor of Ice-Cream"     617
"Danse Russe"     619
"The Red Wheelbarrow"     619
"Piano"     620
"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"     620
"America"     624
"Oh, Oh, You Will Be Sorry for That Word!"     625
"First Fig"     626
"in Just-"     626
"Pity this busy monster, manunkind"     628
"Reapers"     628
"Not Waving but Drowning"     629
"Incident"     630
"Sweetness, Always     631
"Funeral Blues"     633
"Dolor"     634
"I Knew a Woman"     634
"One Art"     635
"AIDS"     636
"Auto Wreck"     638
"The Street"     639
"To the Mercy Killers"     640
"The Force That Through the Green Fuse Drives the Flower"     641
"Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night"     642
"Sadie and Maud"     643
"The Bean Eaters"     644
"The Goose Fish"     644
"Love Calls Us to the Things of This World"     646
"Home Is So Sad"     647
"The Leap"     648
"Things"     650
"Woodchucks"     651
"Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio"     652
"You All Know the Story of the Other Woman"     653
"Aunt Jennifer's Tigers"     654
"Flower Feet"     655
"Mirorr"     656
"Ex-Basketball Player"     657
"Ethics"     659
"Marks"     660
"Biography"     661
"Hanging Fire"     662
"The Woman in the Ordinary"     663
"Digging"     664
"Sex Without Love"     666
"Dreams"     667
"My Mother Sews Blouses"     668
"Daystar"     669
"In Second Grade Miss Lee I Promised Never to Forget You and I Never Did"     670
"There Are Black"     671
"Latin Women Pray"     673
"What I Wouldn't Do"     674
"The Change"     675
"The Supremes"     678
"Indian Boarding School: The Runaways"      680
"Liberating a Pillar of Tortillas"     681
Paired Poems for Comparison     683
"The Passionate Shepherd to His Love"     683
"The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd"     684
"My Last Duchess"     685
"My Ex-Husband"     687
"The Convergence of the Twain"     689
"Titanic"     691
"Richard Cory"     693
"Richard Cory"     694
"The Road Not Taken"     695
"The Lover Not Taken"     696
"Traveling Through the Dark"     697
"The Black Snake"     698
"Those Winter Sundays"     700
"My Father's Love Letters"     701
A Portfolio of War Poetry     703
"To Lucasta, on Going to the Wars"     703
"Channel Firing"     703
"War Is Kind"     705
"Patterns"     706
"Grass"     708
"Dulce et Decorum Est"     709
"Next to of course god america i"     710
"The Death of the Ball Tutret Gunner"     711
"End and Beginning"     712
"Facing It"     713
"The Names"     715
A Portfolio of Love Poetry      717
"With His Venom"     717
"Western Wind"     717
"A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning"     718
"To My Dear and Loving Husband"     719
"To His Coy Mistress"     720
"How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways"     721
"Wild Nights-Wild Nights!"     721
"What Lips My Lips Have Kissed"     722
"Lullaby"     723
"Living in Sin"     724
"Topography"     725
"I Got Beat Up a Lot in High School"     726
Writing About Drama     729
How Do I Read a Play?     731
Listen to the Lines     731
Visualize the Scene     732
Envision the Action     733
Drama on Film     734
Critical Questions for Reading Plays     735
Writing About Dramatic Structure     736
"What Is Dramatic Structure?     736
Looking at Dramatic Structure     737
Antigone     738
Prewriting     774
Analyzing Dramatic Structure     774
Writing     775
Discovering a Workable Argumentative Thesis     775
Quoting from a Play     776
Ideas for Writing      777
Ideas for Responsive Writing     777
Ideas for Critical Writing     777
Ideas for Researched Writing     777
Rewriting     778
Avoiding Unclear Language     778
Sample Student Paper     779
Questions for Discussion     785
Writing About Character     786
What Is the Modern Hero?     786
The Classical Tragic Hero     786
The Modern Tragic Hero     787
Looking at the Modern Hero     787
Fences     787
Prewriting     834
Analyzing the Characters     834
Writing     835
Choosing a Structure     835
Ideas for Writing     836
Ideas for Responsive Writing     836
Ideas for Critical Writing     836
Ideas for Researched Writing     837
Rewriting     837
Developing Paragraphs Specifically     837
Exercise on Providing Quotations     838
Casebook Fences: Interpreting Troy     839
Six Critical Interpretations     839
"Family Ties in Wilson's Fences"     839
"Fences: No Barrier to Emotion"     840
"Talking About Fences"     841
"Death as a Fastballon the Outside Corner"     841
"August Wilson: Performing Black Masculinity"     842
"Fences"     842
Responding to the Critics     843
Idea for Researched Writing     843
Writing About Culture     845
What Is Cultural Analysis?     845
Looking at Cultural Issues     846
M. Butterfly     846
Prewriting     892
Reading Notes     893
Exploring Cultural Themes     894
Posing Yourself a Problem     895
Writing     895
Refining Your Thesis     896
Ideas for Writing     896
Ideas for Responsive Writing     896
Ideas for Critical Writing     896
Ideas for Research Writing     897
Rewriting     898
Coordinating Your Introduction and Conclusion     898
Sample Documented Student Paper     898
Anthology of Drama     908
Oedipus the King     908
Othello, the Moor of Venice     951
A Doll's House     1038
Trifles     1089
Overtones     1100
Los Vendidos      1109
Sure Thing     1117
Tender Offer     1126
The Cuban Swimmer     1132
The Editing Process     1145
Handbook for Correcting Errors     1147
Proofreading     1147
Correcting Sentence Boundary Errors     1147
Phrases and Clauses     1147
Fragments     1147
Examples of Phrases and Clauses     1148
Kinds of Phrases     1149
Kinds of Clauses     1150
Comma Splices     1151
Run-On Sentences     1153
Clearing Up Confused Sentences     1153
Solving Faulty Predication Problems     1153
Fixing Subject-Verb Agreement Errors     1154
Fixing Pronoun Errors     1156
Correcting Shifts in Person     1160
Correcting Shifts in Tense     1161
Finding Modifier Mistakes     1161
Coping with Irregular Verbs     1162
Getting Verbs Right     1163
Writing in Active Voice     1163
Solving Punctuation Problems     1164
Using Necessary Commas Only     1166
Using Apostrophes     1167
Distinguishing Hyphens from Dashes     1169
Integrating Quotations Gracefully     1169
Punctuating Quoted Material     1169
Writing Smooth Transitions     1172
Catching Careless Mistakes     1173
Critical Approaches for Interpreting Literature     1175
Formalism     1176
Historical Approaches     1176
Biographical     1176
Cultural     1177
Marxist     1177
Psychological Approaches     1177
Mythological and Archetypal Approaches     1178
Gender Focus     1178
Reader Response     1179
Deconstruction     1179
Where Do You Stand?     1180
Glossary: Literary and Rhetorical Terms     1181
Credits     1192
Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poetry     1200
Subject Index     1209

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