Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing / Edition 10

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Overview

This anthology focuses on writing about literature which is integrated in every chapter. Each element (i.e. character, setting, tone) is covered by a sample student essay and commentary on the essay. 33 MLA —Format Demonstrative student essays serve as models for good student writing. Three NEW chapters on research–one each for fiction, poetry and dramafeature full MLA-style research papers annotated to point out research information specific to each genre. NEW-MLA document maps: These visual representations help students locate key information on frequently-cited sources such as books and websites. NEW "visualizing" sections on fiction, poetry and drama each feature a section devoted to images that represent key literary principles or visual-based media within the genre. Color insert—This insert features works of art and connects them to various pieces of literature throughout the book. These images help reinforce the themes found in the literature. Fifty short illustrative writing examples embody the strategies and methods described in the various chapters and appendices.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205000364
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 1/10/2011
  • Edition number: 10
  • Pages: 2048
  • Sales rank: 83,575
  • Product dimensions: 6.60 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 2.00 (d)

Meet the Author

About Edgar V. Roberts

Edgar V. Roberts, Emeritus Professor of English at Lehman College of The City University of New York, is a native of Minnesota. He graduated from the Minneapolis public schools in 1946, and received his Doctorate from the University of Minnesota in 1960. He taught English at Minnesota, the University of Maryland Overseas Division, Wayne State University, Hunter College, and Lehman College. From 1979 to 1988, He was Chair of the English Department of Lehman College.

He served in the U.S. Army in 1946 and 1947, seeing duty in Arkansas, the Philippine Islands, and Colorado.

He published articles about the plays of Henry Fielding, the subject of his Ph.D. dissertation. In 1968 he published a scholarly edition of John Gay's The Beggar's Opera (1728), and in 1969 he published a similar edition of Fielding's The Grub-Street Opera (1731), both with the University of Nebraska Press. He first published Writing About Literature (then named Writing Themes About Literature) in 1964, with Prentice Hall. Since then, this book has undergone eleven separate revisions, for a total of twelve editions. In 1986, with Henry E. Jacobs of the University of Alabama, he published the first edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing. After Professor Jacobs's untimely death in the summer of 1986, Professor Roberts continued working on changes and revisions to keep this text up to date. The Ninth Edition was published early in 2009, with Pearson Longman. The Fourth Compact Edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing was published in 2008.

Professor Roberts is an enthusiastic devoté of symphonic music and choral singing, having sung in local church choirs for forty years. Recently he has sung (bass) with the New Choral Society of Scarsdale, New York (where he lives), singing in classic works by Handel, Beethoven, Bruckner, Bach, Orff, Britten, Brahms, and others. He is a fan of both the New York Mets and the New York Yankees. When the two teams play in inter-league games, he is uneasy because he dislikes seeing either team lose. He also likes both the Giants and the Jets. He has been an avid jogger ever since the early 1960s, and he enjoys watching national and international track meets.

Professor Roberts encourages queries, comments, and suggestions from students who have been using any of the various books. Use the following email address: edgar.roberts@verizon.net.

About Robert Zweig

Robert Zweig is a tenured, full professor at Manhattan Community College of the City University of New York. He teaches courses in Literature and Writing and for many years was the Intensive Writing Coordinator for the college

He has a doctorate in English Literature from the City University of New York, a Masters from Queens College in creative writing and a bachelor’s degree from Queens College in English literature. Dr. Zweig has numerous peer-reviewed publications in journals, encyclopedias and books. In addition, he is currently writing two textbooks for McGraw-Hill on the writing process, due out in 2011, another textbook, Grammar in the Modern World (Pearson) due out in 2011 and is co-author of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, a bestselling introduction to literature textbook by Longman Publishers. His translations of the Italian poet and Nobel Laureate Eugentio Montale appear in this text.

Also, Dr. Zweig has lectured extensively throughout the United States and Italy on Victorian Literature, Poetics and contemporary culture. Some of the American universities he has addressed include Notre Dame, New York University, University of California, Harvard, University of Illinois, University of Delaware, Rutgers University and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.

He has received several scholarships and awards, including a Mellon Fellowship and the Phi Beta Kappa award for “Outstanding Teaching Skills” as one of the Top Ten Professors at Manhattan Community College.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface to the Sixth Edition

Like the past editions of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the sixth edition is a carefully chosen anthology. Most of the works here are by American, British, and Canadian authors, but classical writers from ancient Greece and Rome are also represented, along with more recent writers who lived in or came from Italy, Norway, Germany, Belgium, Ceylon, Indonesia, and Russia. In total, 281 authors are represented, not including anonymous writers. One hundred eighty of the authors—roughly sixty-five percent—were born after 1900. Interestingly, of the writers born since 1935, forty-one are women and thirty-five are men—a number that dramatizes the major importance of women in modern literature. The book includes a total of 491 separate works, not counting portions of critical essays. There are sixty-two stories, 410 poems, and nineteen dramatic works. Each work is suitable for discussion either alone or in comparison. Three plays, seven stories, and forty-one poems are new in this edition.

Readers will note that some of the new stories are classic, like those by Conrad, Forster, and Hardy, and some, such as those by Bambara, Gilchrist, and Oates, are well on their way to becoming classic. The new stories complement the other fifty-five stories, such as those by Atwood, Faulkner, Carver, Crane, Hawthorne, Hodgins, Joyce, Gaines, Gilman, Laurence, Porter, Twain, and Welty, that are retained from earlier editions.

The anthology includes representative poems from late medieval times to our own day, including poets such as Shakespeare, (Dray, Wordsworth, Byron, Keats,Tennyson, Rossetti, Pound, and Eliot. The forty-one new poems represent a wide variety of American, British, and Canadian poets. Most of these poets are widely recognized. Berry, Cowper, Queen Elizabeth I, Chief Dan George, Hardy, Jacobsen, Levertov, Longfellow, Lux, Mueller, Van Duyn, and Wilbur come readily to mind. More recent poets, most of them with multiple prizes and awards to their credit, are Collins, Francis, Gluck, Merwin, Momaday, and Schnackenberg. Even with the many new poems in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the book still retains 369 poems that were included in the fifth edition. A poet new in the fifth edition and' retained in the sixth is Michael Ondaatje, who achieved wide recognition because of the many Academy awards received by the film version (1996) of his novel The English Patient.

In the drama section, the plays newly included are the medieval Visitatio Sepulchri, Wilder's The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, and Kauffmann's The More the Merrier. As in the fifth edition, Ibsen's An Enemy of the People is included with A Dollhouse to make up a special dramatic career chapter (31) matching the careers chapters for fiction and poetry. Chapter 11, the fiction career chapter, now includes five short stories by Edgar Allan Poe, who is acknowledged as a pioneering theorist of the short story as a genre. Chapter 24, the poetic career chapter, contains Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost, as in the fifth edition. Of special note is the inclusion of selected critical essays for special case studies of Poe, Dickinson, and Ibsen. Instructors who choose to do so can use these essays for research-based essays on these writers, and they may wish to use the selected bibliographies for more comprehensive research assignments.

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE SIXTH EDITION

The sixth edition reaffirms a principle to which the book is dedicated—flexibility. Earlier editions have been used for introduction-to-literature courses, genre courses, and both composition and composition-and-literature courses. Adaptability and flexibility have been the keys to this variety. Instructors can use the book for classroom discussions, panel discussions, essay or paragraph-length assignments, and special topics not covered in class. Students will find incentives for understanding and writing about literature through questions, study and writing guides, and also through many suggestions for strengthening their own writing—both on essays and examinations.

FICTION. The fiction section consists of eleven chapters. Chapter 2 is a general introduction to fiction while Chapters 3-10—the "topical" chapters central to each section of the book—introduce students to such important topics as structure, character, point of view, and theme. Chapter 11 is the career chapter on Poe, and Chapter 12 consists of ten stories for additional study.

POETRY. The thirteen poetry chapters are arranged similarly to the fiction chapters. Chapter 13 is introductory. Chapters 14-23 deal with topics such as symbolism, imagery, symbolism, and myth. Chapter 24 is the poetic career chapter, consisting of selections by Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost. Chapter 25 contains one hundred thirty-nine poems for additional study. In Appendix II we include the biographies of each of the anthologized poets to make the poetry section parallel with the drama and fiction sections.

DRAMA. In the drama section Chapter 26 is introductory. Chapters 27 trough 29 concern tragedy, comedy, and realism and nonrealism. At the suggestion of a number of instructors who introduce film in their courses, a unique feature begun in the third edition—Chapter 30, on film—is retained, and the discussion matches those in the other chapters. We have kept the scenes from Citizen Kane, by Welles and Mankiewicz, and The Turning Point, by Laurents. Chapter 31 is the special chapter on Ibsen. There is no "plays for additional study" chapter to match Chapters 12 and 25 because most plays are quite long, and adding more would extend the book beyond reasonable limits.

Nine of the longer plays from the previous edition have been retained because they are important in an introductory study of drama (Oedipus the King, Hamlet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Love is the Doctor, Death of a Salesman, The Glass Menagerie, Mulatto, A Dollhouse, An Enemy of the People). In an anthology of this scope, the eight short plays (Am I Blue, The Bear, Before Breakfast, Tea Party, The Visitatio Sepulchre, The More the Merrier, The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, Trifles) are valuable because they may be covered in no more than one or two classroom hours, and also because they may be enlivened by having parts acted, out by students. Indeed, the Visitatio Sepulchri and Keller's Tea Party are brief enough to permit classroom reading and discussion in a single period.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES

SPECIAL WRITING TOPICS. In the sixth edition we have retained the section titled "Special Writing Topics about Literature," which follows the drama section. This section, new in the fifth edition, contains four chapters (32-35) that were formerly appendices, but on the advice of many readers they are now a main part of the book. These chapters, which contain general literary assignments, are newly arranged to place emphasis on research and recent critical theories.

THE GLOSSARY. In the discussions to the various chapters, key terms and concepts are boldfaced, and these are gathered alphabetically and explained briefly, with relevant page numbers in the text, in the comprehensive Glossary following Appendix II. The terms in the Glossary are also listed, with page numbers from the text, in the inside back cover. Because Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing may sometimes serve for reference purposes, the Glossary is intended for general use.

QUESTIONS. Following each anthologized selection in the detailed chapters are study questions designed to help students in their exploration and understanding of literature. Some questions are factual and may be answered quickly. Others provoke extended thought and classroom discussion and may also serve for both in-class and out-of-class writing assignments. At the ends of twenty-six chapters, we include a number of more general "Special Topics for Writing and Argument about (Character, Symbolism, Tragedy, etc.)." Many of these are comparison-contrast topics, and a number of them—at least one in each chapter—are assignments requiring creative writing (for example, "Write a poem" or "Compose a short scene"). What is unique about these topics is that students are asked not only to write creatively and argue cogently, but also to analyze their own creative processes. As already indicated, the sixth edition contains questions designed to add a research component to the study of the chapter topics.

DATES. To place the various works in historical context, we include the life dates for all authors. Along with the title of each anthologized work, we list the year of publication.

NUMBERING. For convenient reference, we have adopted a regular style of numbering the selections by fives:

  • Poems: every fifth paragraph
  • Stories: every fifth line
  • Poetic plays: every fifth line, starting at 1 with each new scene and act
  • Prose plays: every fifth speech, starting at 1 with each new scene and act

GLOSSES. For the poetry and poetic plays, we provide brief marginal glosses wherever they are needed. For all works, including poetry, we supply explanatory footnotes when necessary. Words and phrases that are glossed or footnoted are highlighted by a small degree sign. Footnotes are located according to line, paragraph, or speech numbers.

BOXED DISCUSSIONS WITHIN THE CHAPTERS. In some of the chapters, particularly Chapters 1, 19, 26, and 32, separately boxed sections contain brief discussions of a number of important and related matters. The topics chosen for this treatment—such as the use of tenses in discussing a work, the use of authorial names, and the concept of decorum—were based on the recommendations of instructors and students.

THEMATIC TABLE OF CONTENTS. To make Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing as flexible as possible, we have continued the Thematic Table of Contents that was first added in the fourth edition. In this table, which is located immediately following the organizational Contents, a number of thematic topics are provided, such as Women and Men; Conformity and Rebellion; Women and Their Roles; Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality; Endings and Beginnings; and Innocence and Experience. Under these topics, generous numbers of stories, poems, and plays are listed (many in a number of categories), so that entire thematic units may be created should instructors wish to use them.

PHOTOGRAPHS AND ART REPRODUCTIONS. We also include a number of art reproductions and photographs, some within the chapters and some in special ,colored inserts. We hope that these reproductions, together with others that instructors might add, will encourage comparison-and-contrast discussions and essays about the relationship of literature and art.

FICTION AND DRAMATIZATION. To strengthen the connection between fiction and dramatization, a number of stories are included that are available on videocassettes, which can be used as teaching tools for support and interpretation. A discussion of the videocassettes is included in the Instructor's Manual. In addition, we include two versions of the same subject matter for comparison—a short story and a one-act play—by the same author: Susan Glaspell's "A Jury of Her Peers" (Chapter 4) and Trifles (Chapter 26).

Revisions

There is little in the sixth edition that has not been reexamined, revised, or rewritten. Particularly noteworthy are the general introduction (Chapter 1), the introduction to poetry (Chapter 13), and the introduction to drama (Chapter 26), together with the introductory sections on Poe, Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost (Chapters 11 and 24), the chapters on figures of speech and prosody (17 and 19), and the chapters on research and taking examinations (32 and 34). Throughout, all subheads are no longer topics but have been fashioned into complete sentences. This change is made in the hope that pointed sentences will enable students to assimilate the following content more easily than before. The Glossary has been corrected and amended in a number of places. Of special importance in each of the main chapters are the sections "Questions for Discovering Ideas" and "Strategies for Organizing Ideas," which have been revised in the light of the continuing goal to help students concentrate on their writing assignments. In the sixth edition the MLA guidelines for the arrangement and dimensions of atypical essay are illustrated in Appendix I, along with the MLA recommendations for the handling of electronic references.

Wtiting and Reading

The sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, like all the previous editions, is dedicated throughout to the interlocking processes of writing and reading. There is no chapter in the book that does not contain essential information and guides for writing. Moreover, we do not simply say what can be done with a topic of literary study, but we also show ways in which it might be done. In most of the chapters there is a demonstrative student essay exemplifying the strategies and methods brought out in the chapter. Following each essay is an analytical commentary showing how the writing principles of the discussion have been carried out. The emphasis throughout these sections is the openness of the writing process along with the unique nature of writing for each topic—while fully acknowledging the need to produce more polished drafts.

Because writing is a major mode of thinking, it is an essential reinforcement of reading. Students who write about what they read learn twice, for as they plan and develop their writing they necessarily grow as thinkers. Such a combined approach is the bedrock idea of this book.

READING AND WRITING NOW AND IN THE FUTURE

A logical extension (and a major hope) of this combined approach is that the techniques students acquire in studying literature as a reading-writing undertaking will help them in every course they may ever take, and in whatever profession they follow. Students will always read—if not the authors contained here, then other authors, and certainly newspapers, legal documents, magazine articles, technical reports, business proposals, and much more. Although students may never again be required to write about topics like setting, structure, or prosody, they will certainly find a future need to write.

Indeed, the more effectively students learn to write about literature when taking their literature courses, the better they will be able to write later on—no matter what the topic. It is undeniable that the power to analyze problems and make convincing written and oral presentations is a major quality of leadership and success in all fields. To acquire the skills of disciplined reading and strong writing is therefore the best possible preparation that students can make for the future, whatever it may hold.

While we stress the value of our book as a teaching tool, we also emphasize that literature is to be enjoyed and loved. Sometimes we neglect the truth that study and delight are complementary, and that intellectual stimulation and emotional enjoyment develop not only from the immediate responses of pleasure, involvement, and sympathy, but also from the understanding, contemplation, and confidence generated by knowledge and developing skill. We therefore hope that the selections in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing will teach students about humanity, about their own perceptions, feelings, and lives, and about the timeless patterns of human existence. We hope they will take delight in such discoveries and grow as they make them. We see the book as a steppingstone to lifelong understanding and joy in great literature.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As the book goes into the sixth edition, I wish to acknowledge the many people who have offered helpful advice, information, and suggestions. To name them, as Dryden says in Absalom and Achitophel, is to praise them. They are Professors Eileen Allman, David Bady, Andrew Brilliant, Rex Butt, Stanley Coberly, Betty L. Dixon, Elizabeth Keats Flores, Alice Griffin, Robert Halli, Rebecca Heintz, Karen Holt, Claudia Johnson, Matthew Marino, Evan Matthews, Ruth Milberg-Kaye, Nancy Miller, JoAnna Stephens Mink, Ervin Nieves, Michael Paull, Bonnie Ronson, Dan Rubey, Margaret Ellen Sherwood, Beverly J. Slaughter, Keith Walters, Chloe Warner, Scott Westrem, Mardi Valgemae, Matthew Winston, and Ruth Zerner, and also Christel Bell, Linda Bridgers, Catherine Davis, Jim Freund, Edward Hoeppner, Anna F. Jacobs, Eleanor Tubbs, Nanette Roberts, April Roberts, David Roberts, and Eve Zarin. The skilled assistance of Jonathan Roberts has been essential and invaluable at every stage of all the editions.

A number of other people have provided sterling guidance for the preparation of the sixth edition. They are Professors Peggy Cole, Arapahoe Community College; Loren C. Gruber, Missouri Valley College; Edward Martin, Columbus State Community College; and Pearl McHaney, Georgia State University.

I wish especially to thank Carrie Brandon, Senior English Editor at Prentice Hall. Her understanding, creativity, cheerfulness, and helpfulness have made working with her an honor and a pleasure. I also thank Phil Miller, 'President, Humanities and Social Sciences; Leah Jewell, Editor in Chief, English; and Maggie Barbieri, Nancy Perry, Alison Reeves, Kate Morgan Jackson, Bill Oliver, and Paul O'Connell, earlier Prentice Hall English editors, for their imagination and foresight, and also for their patience with me and support of me over the years. Of major importance was the work of Ray Mullaney, former Editor in Chief, Development, for his pioneering work with the text and for his continued support. I am additionally grateful to Marlane Miriello, Viqi Wagner, Anne Marie Welsh, and (especially) Kathryn Graehl. Special words of thanks are reserved for Joan Foley of Prentice Hall, our Production Editor, who has devoted her knowledge, intelligence, diligence, and skill to the many tasks needed to bring a book of this size to fruition. Additional thanks are due to Fred Courtright for his work on securing permissions, and to Carolyn Gauntt for research into the various photographs and illustrations. I also extend my gratitude to Rachel Falk, Literature Marketing Manager, to her assistant, Chrissy Moodie, and to Literature Assistant, Sandy Hrasdzira. I give final thanks to Gina Sluss, Director of Marketing, of Prentice Hall for her constant support and enthusiasm.

My sorrow is undiminished for the loss of my associate, Professor Henry E. Jacobs (1946-1986) of the University of Alabama. His energy and creativity were essential in planning and writing the first edition, but Fate intervened before we could work together on the later editions, which are nevertheless, in effect, ,extended collaborations.

Edgar V. Roberts

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Table of Contents

***** NEW SECTIONS ARE INDICATED WITH "(NEW)" AT THE END OF THE LINE.

Detailed Contents

Topical and Thematic Contents

Preface

PART I The Process of Reading, Responding to, and Writing About Literature

What Is Literature, and Why Do We Study It?

Types of Literature: The Genres

Reading Literature and Responding to It Actively

Alice Walker Everyday Use

Mrs. Johnson, with her daughter Maggie, is visited by her citified daughter Dee, whose return home is accompanied by surprises.

Reading and Responding in a Computer File or Notebook

Sample Notebook Entries on Walker’s “Everyday Use”

Major Stages in Thinking and Writing about Literary Topics: Discovering Ideas, Preparing to Write, Making an Initial Draft of Your Essay, and Completing the Essay

Writing Does Not Come Easily–for Anyone

The Goal of Writing: To Show a Process of Thought

Discovering Ideas (“Brainstorming”)

Study the Characters in the Work

Determine the Work’s Historical Period and Background

Analyze the Work’s Economic and Social Conditions

Explain the Work’s Major Ideas

Describe the Work’s Artistic Qualities

Explain Any Other Approaches That Seem Important

Preparing to Write

Build Ideas from Your Original Notes

Trace Patterns of Action and Thought

The Need for the Actual Physical Process of Writing

Raise and Answer Your Own Questions

Put Ideas Together Using a Plus-Minus, Pro-Con, or Either-Or Method

Originate and Develop Your Thoughts Through Writing

Making an Initial Draft of Your Essay

Base Your Essay on a Central Idea, Argument, or Statement

The Need for a Sound Argument in Essays About Literature

Create a Thesis Sentence as Your Guide to Organization

Begin Each Paragraph with a Topic Sentence

Select Only One Topic–No More–for Each Paragraph

Referring to the Names of Authors

Use Your Topic Sentences as the Arguments for Your Paragraph Development

The Use of Verb Tenses in the Discussion of Literary Works

Develop an Outline as the Means of Organizing Your Essay

Basic Writing Types: Paragraphs and Essays

Paragraph Assignment

Illustrative Student Essay (First Draft): Mrs. Johnson’s Overly Self-Assured Daughter, Dee, in Walker’s “Everyday Use” (NEW)

Completing the Essay: Developing and Strengthening Your Essay Through Revision

Make Your Own Arrangement of Details and Ideas

Use Literary Material as Evidence to Support Your Argument

Always Keep to Your Point; Stick to It Tenaciously

Check Your Development and Organization

Try to Be Original

Write with Specific Readers as Your Intended Audience

Use Exact, Comprehensive, and Forceful Language

Illustrative Student Essay (Improved Draft): Mrs. Johnson’s Overly Self-Assured Daughter, Dee, in Walker’s “Everyday Use” (NEW)

Commentary on the Essay

Essay Commentaries

A Summary of Guidelines

Writing Topics About the Writing Process

A Short Guide to the Use of References and Quotations in Essays About Literature

Integrate Passages and Ideas into Your Essay

Distinguish Your Thoughts from Those of Your Author

Integrate Material by Using Quotation Marks

Blend Quotations into Your Own Sentences

Indent Long Quotations and Set Them in Block Format

Use an Ellipsis to Show Omissions

Use Square Brackets to Enclose Words That You Add Within Quotations

Be Careful Not to Overquote

Preserve the Spellings in Your Source

PART II Reading and Writing About Fiction

1 Fiction: An Overview

Modern Fiction

The Short Story

Elements of Fiction I: Verisimilitude and Donnée

Elements of Fiction II: Character, Plot, Structure, and Idea or Theme

Elements of Fiction III: The Writer’s Tools

Visualizing Fiction: Cartoons, Graphic Narratives, Graphic Novels

Dan Piraro, Bizarro • Art Spiegelman, from Maus (Expanded)

Stories for Study

AMBROSE BIERCE An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge

A condemned man dreams of escape, freedom, and family.

SANDRA CISNEROS ’Mericans (NEW)

Through an evil act, a man learns goodness.

WILLIAM FAULKNER A Rose for Emily

Even seemingly ordinary people hide deep and bizarre mysteries.

TIM O’BRIEN The Things They Carried

During the Vietnam War, American soldiers carry not only their weighty equipment but many memories.

LUIGI PIRANDELLO War

During World War I in Italy, the loss of a loved one outweighs all rationalizations for the conflict.

Plot: The Motivation and Causality of Fiction

Writing About the Plot of a Story

Illustrative Student Essay: Plot in William Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily" (NEW)

Writing Topics About Plot in Fiction

2 Point of View: The Position or Stance of the Work’s Narrator or Speaker

An Exercise in Point of View: Reporting an Accident

Conditions That Affect Point of View

Point of View and Opinions

Determining a Work’s Point of View

Mingling Points of View

Point of View and Verb Tense

Summary: Guidelines for Points of View

Stories for Study

SHERMAN ALEXIE This is What it Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona (NEW)

Two old acquaintances friends embark on a journey to recover the body of one of their fathers.

RAYMOND CARVER Neighbors

Bill and Arlene Miller are looking after the apartment of the Stones, their neighbors, whose life seems to be brighter and fuller than theirs.

SHIRLEY JACKSON The Lottery

What would it be like if the prize at a community-sponsored lottery were not the cash that people ordinarily hope to win?

JAMAICA KINCAID What I Have Been Doing Lately

Life develops from the repetition and recirculation of dreams and fantasies.

LORRIE MOORE How to Become a Writer

There is more to becoming a writer than simply sitting down at a table and beginning to write.

Writing About Point of View

Illustrative Student Essay: Shirley Jackson’s Dramatic Point of View in “The Lottery”

Writing Topics About Point of View

3 Characters: The People in Fiction

Character Traits

How Authors Disclose Character in Literature

Types of Characters: Round and Flat

Reality and Probability: Verisimilitude

Stories for Study

T. C. BOYLE Greasy Lake (NEW)

Young men discover more than a way to kill time at this local hangout.

RAYMOND CARVER Cathedral

A husband and wife receive a blind visitor who affects the man’s way of seeing things.

SUSAN GLASPELL A Jury of Her Peers

In a small farmhouse kitchen, the wives of men investigating a murder discover significant evidence that forces them to make an urgent decision.

KATHERINE MANSFIELD Miss Brill

Miss Brill goes to the park for a pleasant afternoon, but she does not find what she was expecting.

GUY DE MAUPASSANT The Necklace

To go to a ball, Mathilde Loisel borrows a necklace from a rich friend, but her rhapsodic evening has unforeseen consequences.

AMY TAN Two Kinds

Jing-Mei leads her own kind of life despite the wishes and hopes of her mother.

MARK TWAIN Luck

A faithful follower describes an English general who was knighted for military brilliance.

Writing About Character

Illustrative Student Essay: The Character of Minnie Wright in Glaspell’s “A Jury of Her Peers”

Writing Topics About Character

4 Setting: The Background of Place, Objects, and Culture in Stories

What Is Setting?

The Literary Uses of Setting

Stories for Study

STEPHEN CRANE The Blue Hotel (NEW)

JAMES JOYCE Araby

An introspective boy learns much about himself when he tries to keep a promise.

LU HSUN My Old Home (NEW)

A man revisits his childhood home.

YUKIO MISHIMA Swaddling Clothes (NEW)

A young woman confronts the realities of life in the lower classes in turn of the century Japan.

CYNTHIA OZICK The Shawl

Can a mother in a Nazi concentration camp save her starving and crying baby?

Writing About Setting

Illustrative Student Essay: The Interaction of Story and Setting in James Joyce’s “Araby” (NEW)

Writing Topics About Setting

5 Structure: The Organization of Stories

Formal Categories of Structure

Formal and Actual Structure

STORIES FOR STUDY

RALPH ELLISON Battle Royal

An intelligent black student, filled with hopes and dreams, is treated with monstrous indignity.

HA JIN Saboteur (NEW)

Wrongfully detained, a man has revenge as a meal to celebrate his escape.

JHUMPA LAHIRI The Interpreter of Maladies (NEW)

A tour guide learns about a troubled American family on a visit to ruins.

JOYCE CAROL OATES Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?

A teenage girl is visited by an aggressive stranger who does not accept “no” for an answer.

EUDORA WELTY A Worn Path

Phoenix Jackson, a devoted grandmother, walks a worn path on a mission of great love.

TOM WHITECLOUD Blue Winds Dancing

A Native American student leaves college in California to spend Christmas in his hometown in Wisconsin.

Writing About Structure in a Story

Illustrative Student Essay:The Structure of Eudora Welty’s ”A Worn Path”

Writing Topics About Structure

6 Tone and Style: The Words That Convey Attitudes in Fiction

Diction: The Writer’s Choice and Control of Words

Tone, Irony, and Style

Tone, Humor, and Style

Stories For Study

KATE CHOPIN The Story of an Hour

Louise Mallard is shocked and grieved by news that her husband has been killed, but she is about to have an even greater shock.

WILLIAM FAULKNER Barn Burning

A young country boy grows in awareness, conscience, and individuality despite his hostile father.

ERNEST HEMINGWAY Hills Like White Elephants

While waiting for a train, a man and woman reluctantly discuss an urgent situation.

ALICE MUNRO The Found Boat

After winter snows have melted in a small Canadian community, young people start making discoveries about themselves.

FRANK O’CONNOR First Confession

Jackie as a young man tells about his first childhood experience with confession.

DANIEL OROZCO Orientation

A new employee is introduced to the rather unusual and surprising situations in the office.

JOHN UPDIKE A & P

As a checkout clerk at the A & P near the local beaches, Sammy learns about the consequences of a difficult choice.

Writing About Tone and Style

Illustrative Student Essay: Frank O’Connor’s Control of Tone and Style in “First Confession"

Writing Topics About Tone and Style

7 Symbolism and Allegory: Keys to Extended Meaning

Symbolism

Allegory

Fable, Parable, and Myth

Allusion in Symbolism and Allegory

Stories For Study

AESOP The Fox and the Grapes

What do people think about things that they can’t have?

ANONYMOUS The Myth of Atalanta

In ancient times, how could a superior woman maintain power and integrity?

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE Young Goodman Brown

In colonial Salem, Goodman Brown has a bewildering encounter that changes his outlook on life.

FRANZ KAFKA A Hunger Artist

Public interest wanes even in a unique person.

LUKE The Parable of the Prodigal Son

Is there any limit to what a person can do to make divine forgiveness impossible?

GABRIEL GARCÍA MARQUEZ A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings

How do simple villagers respond to a miraculous visitor who appears in their town?

KATHERINE ANNE PORTER The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

As the end nears, Granny Weatherall has her memories and is surrounded by her loving adult children.

JOHN STEINBECK The Chrysanthemums

As a housewife on a small ranch, Elisa Allen experiences changes to her sense of self-worth.

Writing About Symbolism and Allegory

Illustrative Student Essay (Symbolism): Symbols of Light and Darkness in Porter’s “The Jilting of Granny Weatherall” Second Illustrative Student Essay (Allegory): The Allegory of Hawthorne’s “Young Goodman Brown”

Writing Topics About Symbolism and Allegory

8 Idea or Theme: The Meaning and the Message in Fiction

Ideas and Assertions

Ideas and Issues

Ideas and Values

The Place of Ideas in Literature

How to Find Ideas

Stories for Study

JAMES BALDWIN Sonny’s Blues

A devoted brother describes how his brother, Sonny, is hurt by racial prejudice, and how Sonny finds fulfillment through love of music.

TONI CADE BAMBARA The Lesson

When a group of children visits a toy store for the wealthy, some of them draw conclusions about society and themselves.

ANTON CHEKHOV The Lady with the Dog

Bored with life, Dmitri Gurov meets Anna Sergeyevna and discovers previously unknown emotions and extremely new problems.

D. H. LAWRENCE The Horse Dealer’s Daughter

Dr. Jack Fergusson and Mabel Pervin find, in each other’s love, a new reason for being.

AMéRICO PAREDES The Hammon and the Beans

Is American liberty restricted to people of only one group, or is it for everyone?

Writing About a Major Idea in Fiction

Illustrative Student Essay: D. H. Lawrence’s “The Horse Dealer’s Daughter” as an Expression of the Idea that Loving Commitment is Essential in Life

Writing Topics About Ideas

9 A Career in Fiction: Four Stories by Edgar Allan Poe with Critical Readings for Research

Poe’s Life and Career

Poe’s Work as a Journalist and Writer of Fiction

Poe’s Reputation

Bibliographic Sources

Writing Topics About Poe

Four Stories by Edgar Allan POE (CHRONOLOGICALly arranged)

The Fall of the House of Usher (1839)

The Masque of the Red Death (1842)

The Black Cat (1843)

The Cask of Amontillado (1846)

Edited Selections from Criticism of Poe’s Stories

1. Poe’s Irony • 2. The Narrators of “The Cask of Amontillado” and “The Fall of the House of Usher” • 3. “The Fall of the House of Usher” • 4. “The Black Cat” and “The Tell-Tale Heart” • 5. “The Masque of the Red Death” • 6. Symbolism in “The Masque of the Red Death” • 7. “The Masque of the Red Death” as Representative of a “Diseased Age” • 8. Sources and Analogues of “The Cask of Amontillado” • 9. Poe’s Idea of Unity and “The Fall of the House of Usher” • 1. The Narrators of “The Cask of Amontillado” and “The Black Cat” • 11. Poe, Women, and “The Fall of the House of Usher” • 12. The Deceptive Narrator of “The Black Cat”

10 Ten Stories for Additional Enjoyment and Study

CHINUA ACHEBE Marriage is a Private Affair

A man and his young bride deal with the groom's father's disapproval.

JOHN CHIOLES Before the Firing Squad

During World War II, in Nazi-occupied Greece, a young German soldier learns the importance of personal obligations.

ANDRE DUBUS The Curse

A man who has witnessed a gang attack on a defenseless woman experiences deep anguish and self-reproach.

DAGOBERTO GILB Love in L.A. (NEW)

Involved in a traffic accident, a young man tries to entice his victim into a date.

CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN The Yellow Wallpaper

Who is the woman who is trying to emerge from behind the yellow wallpaper?

FLANNERY O’CONNOR A Good Man Is Hard to Find

“The grandmother didn’t want to go to Florida. She wanted to visit some of her connections in east Tennessee. . . .”

TILLIE OLSEN I Stand Here Ironing

“My wisdom came too late.”

Z.Z. PACKER Brownies

A troop of young African American girl scouts take issue with a white troop at their summer camp.

PETRONIUS (Gaius Petronius Arbiter) The Widow of Ephesus

A young widow learns what it takes to save her newly found love.

TOBIAS WOOLF Powder

A young man and his father brave snowy roads hoping to meet an important deadline.

10A Writing a Research Essay on Fiction

Selecting a Topic

Setting Up a Working Bibliography (NEW)

Locating Sources (NEW)

Searching the Internet (NEW)

Evaluating Sources (box) (NEW)

Searching Library Resources (NEW)

Important Considerations About Computer-Aided Research (box)

Review the Bibliographies in Major Critical Studies on your Topic

Consult Bibliographical Guides

Gaining Access to Books and Articles Through Databases (NEW)

Taking Notes and Paraphrasing Material

Plagiarism: An Embarrassing but Vital Subject—and a Danger to be Overcome (box)

Being Creative and Original While Doing Research

Documenting Your Work (NEW)

Strategies for Organizing Ideas in Your Research Essay

Illustrative Student Essay Using Research: The Structure of Katherine Mansfield’s “Miss Brill

Writing Topics About How to Undertake a Research Essay

PART III Reading and Writing About Poetry

11 Meeting Poetry: An Overview

The Nature of Poetry

BILLY COLLINS Schoolsville

LISEL MUELLER Hope

ROBERT HERRICK Here a Pretty Baby Lies

Poetry of the English Language

How to Read a Poem

Studying Poetry

Anonymous Sir Patrick Spens

Poems for Study

GWENDOLYN BROOKS The Mother

EMILY DICKINSON Because I Could Not Stop for Death

ROBERT FRANCIS Catch

ROBERT FROST Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

THOMAS HARDY The Man He Killed

JOY HARJO Eagle Poem

RANDALL JARRELL The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner

BEN JONSON On My First Daughter

EMMA LAZARUS The New Colossus

LOUIS MACNEICE Snow

JIM NORTHRUP Ogichidag

NAOMI SHIHAB NYE Where Children Live

OCTAVIO PAZ Two Bodies (NEW)

PHIL RIZZUTO They Own the Wind (NEW)

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 55: Not Marble, Nor the Gilded Monuments

PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY To – [“Music, When Soft Voices Die”

ELAINE TERRANOVA Rush Hour

Writing a Paraphrase of a Poem

Illustrative Student Paraphrase: A Paraphrase of Thomas Hardy’s “The Man He Killed”

Writing an Explication of a Poem

Illustrative Student Essay: An Explication of Thomas Hardy’s “ Man He Killed”

Writing Topics About the Nature of Poetry

12 Words: The Building Blocks of Poetry

Choice of Diction: Specific and Concrete, General and Abstract

Levels of Diction

Special Types of Diction

Syntax

Decorum: The Matching of Subject and Word

Denotation and Connotation

Robert Graves The Naked and the Nude

Poems for Study

WILLIAM BLAKE The Lamb

ROBERT BURNS Green Grow the Rashes

LEWIS CARROLL Jabberwocky

HAYDEN CARRUTH An Apology for Using the Word “Heart” in Too Many Poems

E. E. CUMMINGS next to of course god america i

JOHN DONNE Holy Sonnet 14: Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God

RICHARD EBERHART The Fury of Aerial Bombardment

BART EDELMAN Chemistry Experiment

THOMAS GRAY Sonnet on the Death of Richard West

JANE HIRSHFIELD The Lives of the Heart

A. E. HOUSMAN Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now

CAROLYN KIZER Night Sounds

DENISE LEVERTOV Of Being

EUGENIO MONTALE English Horn (Corno Inglese)

JUDITH ORTIZ [COFER] Latin Women Pray

HENRY REED Naming of Parts

EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON Richard Cory

THEODORE ROETHKE Dolor

KAY RYAN Crib (NEW)

STEPHEN SPENDER I Think Continually of Those Who Were Truly Great

WALLACE STEVENS Disillusionment of Ten O’Clock

MARK STRAND Eating Poetry

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH Daffodils (I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud)

Writing About Diction and Syntax in Poetry

Illustrative Student Essay: Diction and Character in Robinson’s “Richard Cory”

Writing Topics About the Words of Poetry

13 Characters and Setting: Who, What, Where, and When in Poetry

Characters in Poetry

SHERMAN ALEXIE On the Amtrak from Boston to New York City (NEW)

ANONYMOUS Western Wind, When Wilt Thou Blow?

ANONYMOUS Bonny George Campbell

BEN JONSON Drink to Me, Only, with Thine Eyes

BEN JONSON To the Reader

Setting and Character in Poetry

LISEL MUELLER Alive Together

POEMS FOR STUDY

MATTHEW ARNOLD Dover Beach

WILLIAM BLAKE London

ELIZABETH BREWSTER Where I Come From

ROBERT BROWNING My Last Duchess

WILLIAM COWPER The Poplar Field

ALLEN GINSBERG A Further Proposal

LOUISE GLÜCK Snowdrops

THOMAS GRAY Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard

THOMAS HARDY The Ruined Maid

GARRETT HONGO The Legend (NEW)

DORIANNE LAUX The Life of Trees

C. DAY LEWIS Song

ROBERT LOWELL Memories of West Street and Lepke

CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE The Passionate Shepherd to His Love

JOYCE CAROL OATES Loving

SIR WALTER RALEGH The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd

CHRISTINA ROSSETTI A Christmas Carol

JANE SHORE A Letter Sent to Summer

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey

JAMES WRIGHT A Blessing

Writing About Character and Setting in Poetry

llustrative Student Essay: The Character of the Duke in Browning’s “My Last Duchess”

Writing Topics About Character and Setting in Poetry

14 Imagery: The Poem’s Link to the Senses

Responses and the Writer’s Use of Detail

The Relationship of Imagery to Ideas and Attitudes

Types of Imagery

JOHN MASEFIELD Cargoes

WILFRED OWEN Anthem for Doomed Youth

ELIZABETH BISHOP The Fish

POEMS FOR STUDY

ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING Sonnets from the Portuguese, Number 14: If Thou Must Love Me

SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE Kubla Khan

T. S. ELIOT Preludes

LOUISE ERDRICH Indian Boarding School : The Runaways (NEW)

SUSAN GRIFFIN Love Should Grow Up Like a Wild Iris in the Fields

THOMAS HARDY Channel Firing

GEORGE HERBERT The Pulley

GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS Spring

A. E. HOUSMAN On Wenlock Edge

DENISE LEVERTOV A Time Past

THOMAS LUX The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently

EUGENIO MONTALE Buffalo (Buffalo)

MARIANNE MOORE The Fish

PABLO NERUDA Every Day You Play

OCTAVIO PAZ The Street (NEW)

EZRA POUND In a Station of the Metro

MIKLÓS RADNÓTI Forced March

FRIEDRICH RÜCKERT If You Love for the Sake of Beauty

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 13: My Mistress’ Eyes Are Nothing Like the Sun

STEPHEN STEPANCHEV Seven Horizons (NEW)

JAMES TATE Dream On

DAVID WOJAHN “It’s Only Rock and Roll, but I Like It”: The Fall of Saigon

Writing About Imagery

Illustrative Student Essay: Imagery in T. S. Eliot’s “Preludes”

Writing Topics About Imagery in Poetry

15 Figures of Speech, or Metaphorical Language: A Source of Depth and Range in Poetry

Metaphors and Similes: The Major Figures of Speech

Characteristics of Metaphorical Language

JOHN KEATS On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer

Vehicle and Tenor

Other Figures of Speech

JOHN KEATS Bright Star

JOHN GAY Let Us Take the Road

POEMS FOR STUDY

JACK AGÜEROS Sonnet for You, Familiar Famine

WILLIAM BLAKE The Tyger

ROBERT BURNS A Red, Red Rose

JOHN DONNE A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning

ABBIE HUSTON EVANS The Iceberg Seven-Eighths Under

THOMAS HARDY The Convergence of the Twain

JOY HARJO Remember

JOHN KEATS To Autumn

MAURICE KENNY Legacy

JANE KENYON Let Evening Come

HENRY KING Sic Vita

ROBERT LOWELL Skunk Hour

JUDITH MINTY Conjoined

PABLO NERUDA If You Forget Me

MARY OLIVER Showing the Birds (NEW)

MARGE PIERCY A Work of Artifice

MURIEL RUKEYSER Looking at Each Other

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 18: Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 3: When to the Sessions of Sweet Silent Thought

ELIZABETH TUDOR, QUEEN ELIZABETH I On Monsieur’s Departure

MONA VAN DUYN Earth Tremors Felt in Missouri

DEBORAH WARREN Clay and Flame (NEW)

WALT WHITMAN Facing West from California’s Shores

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH London, 1820

SIR THOMAS WYATT I Find No Peace

Writing About Figures of Speech

Illustrative Student Paragraph: Wordsworth’s Use of Overstatement in “London, 1820”

Illustrative Student Essay: A Study of Shakespeare’s Metaphors in Sonnet 3: “When to the Sessions of Sweet Silent Thought”

Writing Topics About Figures of Speech in Poetry

16 Tone: The Creation of Attitude in Poetry

Tone, Choice, and Response

CORNELIUS WHUR The First-Rate Wife

Tone and the Need for Control

WILFRED OWEN Dulce et Decorum Est

Tone and Common Grounds of Assent

Tone in Conversation and Poetry

Tone and Irony

THOMAS HARDY The Workbox

Tone and Satire

ALEXANDER POPE Epigram from the French

ALEXANDER POPE Epigram, Engraved on the Collar of a Dog Which I Gave to His Royal Highness

POEMS FOR STUDY

WILLIAM BLAKE On Another’s Sorrow

JIMMY CARTER I Wanted to Share My Father’s World

LUCILLE CLIFTON homage to my hips

BILLY COLLINS The Names

E. E. CUMMINGS she being Brand /-new

BART EDELMAN Trouble

MARTIN ESPADA Bully (NEW)

MARI EVANS I Am a Black Woman

SEAMUS HEANEY Mid-Term Break

WILLIAM ERNEST HENLEY When You Are Old

DAVID IGNATOW The Bagel

YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA Facing It

ABRAHAM LINCOLN My Childhood’s Home

PAT MORA La Migra

SHARON OLDS The Planned Child

ROBERT PINSKY Dying

ALEXANDER POPEfrom Epilogue to the Satires Dialogue I

SALVATORE QUASÍMODO Auschwitz

ANNE RIDLER Nothing Is Lost

THEODORE ROETHKE My Papa’s Waltz

JANE SHORE A Letter Sent to Summer

CATHY SONG Lost Sister (NEW)

JONATHAN SWIFT A Description of the Morning

DAVID WAGONER My Physics Teacher

C. K. WILLIAMS Dimensions

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH The Solitary Reaper

WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS When You Are Old

Writing About Tone in Poetry

Illustrative Student Essay: The Speaker’s Attitudes in Sharon Olds’s “The Planned Child”

Writing Topics About Tone in Poetry

17 Prosody: Sound, Rhythm, and Rhyme in Poetry

Important Definitions for Studying Prosody

Segments: Individually Meaningful Sounds

Poetic Rhythm

The Major Metrical Feet

Special Meters

Substitution

Accentual Strong-Stress, and “Sprung” Rhythms

The Caesura: The Pause Creating Variety and Natural Rhythms in Poetry

Segmental Poetic Devices

Rhyme: The Duplication and Similarity of Sounds

Rhyme and Meter

Rhyme Schemes

POEMS FOR STUDY

GWENDOLYN BROOKS We Real Cool

ROBERT BROWNING Porphyria’s Lover

EMILY DICKINSON To Hear an Oriole Sing

JOHN DONNE The Sun Rising

RALPH WALDO EMERSON Concord Hymn

ISABELLA GARDNER At a Summer Hotel

ROBERT HERRICK Upon Julia’s Voice

GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS God’s Grandeur

JOHN HALL INGHAM George Washington

PHILIP LEVINE A Theory of Prosody

HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW The Sound of the Sea

HERMAN MELVILLE Shiloh : A Requiem

OGDEN NASH Very Like a Whale

EDGAR ALLAN POE Annabel Lee

EDGAR ALLAN POE The Bells

ALEXANDER POPE From An Essay on Man Epistle I

WYATT PRUNTY March

EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON Miniver Cheevy

CHRISTINA ROSSETTI Echo

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 73: That Time of Year Thou May’st in Me Behold

PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY Ode to the West Wind

ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON From Idylls of the King: The Passing of Arthur

DAVID WAGONER March for a One-Man Band

Writing About Prosody

Referring to Sounds in Poetry

First Illustrative Student Essay: Rhyme, Rhythm, and Sound in Browning’s “Porphyria’s Lover”

Second Illustrative Student Essay: The Rhymes and Repeated Words in Christina Rossetti’s “Echo”

Writing Topics About Rhythm and Rhyme in Poetry

18 Form: The Shape of Poems

Closed-Form Poetry

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH Fragment from The Prelude

ALEXANDER POPE Fragment from The Rape of the Locke

ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON The Eagle

JOHN MILTON Fragment from Lycidas

ANONYMOUS Spun in High, Dark Clouds

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 116: Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds

Open-Form Poetry

WALT WHITMAN Reconciliation

Visualizing Poetry: Poetry and Artistic Expression: Visual Poetry, Concrete Poetry, and Prose Poems

E. E. CUMMINGS Buffalo Bill’s Defunct

GEORGE HERBERT Colossians 3:3 (Our Life is Hid With Christ in God)

GEORGE HERBERT Easter Wings

CHARLES HARPER WEBB The Shape of History

JOHN HOLLANDER Swan and Shadow

WILLIAM HEYEN Mantle

MAY SWENSON Women

CAROLYN FORCHÉ The Colonel

POEMS FOR STUDY

ELIZABETH BISHOP One Art

BILLY COLLINS Sonnet

JOHN DRYDEN To the Memory of Mr. Oldham

ROBERT FROST Desert Places

ALLEN GINSBERG A Supermarket in California

ROBERT HASS Museum

GEORGE HERBERT Virtue

JOHN KEATS Ode to a Nightingale

YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA Grenade (NEW)

MAGUS MAGNUS Empirical/Imperial Demonstration (NEW)

CLAUDE McKAY In Bondage

JOHN MILTON On His Blindness (When I Consider How My Light Is Spent)

DUDLEY RANDALL Ballad of Birmingham

THEODORE ROETHKE The Waking

GEORGE WILLIAM RUSSELL (Æ) Continuity

PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY Ozymandias

DYLAN THOMAS Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night

JEAN TOOMER Reapers

PHYLLIS WEBB Poetics Aga the Angel of Death

WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS The Dance

Writing About Form in Poetry

Illustrative Student Essay: Form and Meaning in George Herbert’s “Virtue”

Writing Topics About Poetic Form

19. Symbolism and Allusion: Windows to Wide Expanses of Meaning

Symbolism and Meanings

VIRGINIA SCOTT Snow

The Function of Symbolism in Poetry

Allusions and Meaning

Studying for Symbols and Allusions POEMS FOR STUDY
EMILY BRONTË No Coward Soul Is Mine
AMY CLAMPITT Beach Glass
ARTHUR HUGH CLOUGH Say Not the Struggle Nought Availeth
PETER DAVISON Delphi
JOHN DONNE The Canonization
STEPHEN DUNN Hawk
ISABELLA GARDNER Collage of Echoes
DAN GEORGAKIS Hiroshima Crewman
JORIE GRAHAM The Geese
THOMAS HARDY In Time of “The Breaking of Nations”
GEORGE HERBERT The Collar
JOSEPHINE JACOBSEN Tears
ROBINSON JEFFERS The Purse-Seine
JOHN KEATS La Belle Dame Sans Merci: A Ballad
X. J. KENNEDY Old Men Pitching Horseshoes
TED KOOSER Year’s End

20. Myths: Systems of Symbolic Allusion in Poetry

Mythology as an Explanation of How Things Are

Mythology and Literature

WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS Leda and the Swan

MONA VAN DUYN Leda

Six Poems Related to the Myth of Odysseus

POEMS FOR STUDY&

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Preface

Preface to the Sixth Edition

Like the past editions of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the sixth edition is a carefully chosen anthology. Most of the works here are by American, British, and Canadian authors, but classical writers from ancient Greece and Rome are also represented, along with more recent writers who lived in or came from Italy, Norway, Germany, Belgium, Ceylon, Indonesia, and Russia. In total, 281 authors are represented, not including anonymous writers. One hundred eighty of the authors—roughly sixty-five percent—were born after 1900. Interestingly, of the writers born since 1935, forty-one are women and thirty-five are men—a number that dramatizes the major importance of women in modern literature. The book includes a total of 491 separate works, not counting portions of critical essays. There are sixty-two stories, 410 poems, and nineteen dramatic works. Each work is suitable for discussion either alone or in comparison. Three plays, seven stories, and forty-one poems are new in this edition.

Readers will note that some of the new stories are classic, like those by Conrad, Forster, and Hardy, and some, such as those by Bambara, Gilchrist, and Oates, are well on their way to becoming classic. The new stories complement the other fifty-five stories, such as those by Atwood, Faulkner, Carver, Crane, Hawthorne, Hodgins, Joyce, Gaines, Gilman, Laurence, Porter, Twain, and Welty, that are retained from earlier editions.

The anthology includes representative poems from late medieval times to our own day, including poets such as Shakespeare, (Dray, Wordsworth, Byron, Keats, Tennyson, Rossetti, Pound, andEliot. The forty-one new poems represent a wide variety of American, British, and Canadian poets. Most of these poets are widely recognized. Berry, Cowper, Queen Elizabeth I, Chief Dan George, Hardy, Jacobsen, Levertov, Longfellow, Lux, Mueller, Van Duyn, and Wilbur come readily to mind. More recent poets, most of them with multiple prizes and awards to their credit, are Collins, Francis, Gluck, Merwin, Momaday, and Schnackenberg. Even with the many new poems in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the book still retains 369 poems that were included in the fifth edition. A poet new in the fifth edition and' retained in the sixth is Michael Ondaatje, who achieved wide recognition because of the many Academy awards received by the film version (1996) of his novel The English Patient.

In the drama section, the plays newly included are the medieval Visitatio Sepulchri, Wilder's The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, and Kauffmann's The More the Merrier. As in the fifth edition, Ibsen's An Enemy of the People is included with A Dollhouse to make up a special dramatic career chapter (31) matching the careers chapters for fiction and poetry. Chapter 11, the fiction career chapter, now includes five short stories by Edgar Allan Poe, who is acknowledged as a pioneering theorist of the short story as a genre. Chapter 24, the poetic career chapter, contains Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost, as in the fifth edition. Of special note is the inclusion of selected critical essays for special case studies of Poe, Dickinson, and Ibsen. Instructors who choose to do so can use these essays for research-based essays on these writers, and they may wish to use the selected bibliographies for more comprehensive research assignments.

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE SIXTH EDITION

The sixth edition reaffirms a principle to which the book is dedicated—flexibility. Earlier editions have been used for introduction-to-literature courses, genre courses, and both composition and composition-and-literature courses. Adaptability and flexibility have been the keys to this variety. Instructors can use the book for classroom discussions, panel discussions, essay or paragraph-length assignments, and special topics not covered in class. Students will find incentives for understanding and writing about literature through questions, study and writing guides, and also through many suggestions for strengthening their own writing—both on essays and examinations.

FICTION. The fiction section consists of eleven chapters. Chapter 2 is a general introduction to fiction while Chapters 3-10—the "topical" chapters central to each section of the book—introduce students to such important topics as structure, character, point of view, and theme. Chapter 11 is the career chapter on Poe, and Chapter 12 consists of ten stories for additional study.

POETRY. The thirteen poetry chapters are arranged similarly to the fiction chapters. Chapter 13 is introductory. Chapters 14-23 deal with topics such as symbolism, imagery, symbolism, and myth. Chapter 24 is the poetic career chapter, consisting of selections by Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost. Chapter 25 contains one hundred thirty-nine poems for additional study. In Appendix II we include the biographies of each of the anthologized poets to make the poetry section parallel with the drama and fiction sections.

DRAMA. In the drama section Chapter 26 is introductory. Chapters 27 trough 29 concern tragedy, comedy, and realism and nonrealism. At the suggestion of a number of instructors who introduce film in their courses, a unique feature begun in the third edition—Chapter 30, on film—is retained, and the discussion matches those in the other chapters. We have kept the scenes from Citizen Kane, by Welles and Mankiewicz, and The Turning Point, by Laurents. Chapter 31 is the special chapter on Ibsen. There is no "plays for additional study" chapter to match Chapters 12 and 25 because most plays are quite long, and adding more would extend the book beyond reasonable limits.

Nine of the longer plays from the previous edition have been retained because they are important in an introductory study of drama (Oedipus the King, Hamlet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Love is the Doctor, Death of a Salesman, The Glass Menagerie, Mulatto, A Dollhouse, An Enemy of the People). In an anthology of this scope, the eight short plays (Am I Blue, The Bear, Before Breakfast, Tea Party, The Visitatio Sepulchre, The More the Merrier, The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, Trifles) are valuable because they may be covered in no more than one or two classroom hours, and also because they may be enlivened by having parts acted, out by students. Indeed, the Visitatio Sepulchri and Keller's Tea Party are brief enough to permit classroom reading and discussion in a single period.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES

SPECIAL WRITING TOPICS. In the sixth edition we have retained the section titled "Special Writing Topics about Literature," which follows the drama section. This section, new in the fifth edition, contains four chapters (32-35) that were formerly appendices, but on the advice of many readers they are now a main part of the book. These chapters, which contain general literary assignments, are newly arranged to place emphasis on research and recent critical theories.

THE GLOSSARY. In the discussions to the various chapters, key terms and concepts are boldfaced, and these are gathered alphabetically and explained briefly, with relevant page numbers in the text, in the comprehensive Glossary following Appendix II. The terms in the Glossary are also listed, with page numbers from the text, in the inside back cover. Because Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing may sometimes serve for reference purposes, the Glossary is intended for general use.

QUESTIONS. Following each anthologized selection in the detailed chapters are study questions designed to help students in their exploration and understanding of literature. Some questions are factual and may be answered quickly. Others provoke extended thought and classroom discussion and may also serve for both in-class and out-of-class writing assignments. At the ends of twenty-six chapters, we include a number of more general "Special Topics for Writing and Argument about (Character, Symbolism, Tragedy, etc.)." Many of these are comparison-contrast topics, and a number of them—at least one in each chapter—are assignments requiring creative writing (for example, "Write a poem" or "Compose a short scene"). What is unique about these topics is that students are asked not only to write creatively and argue cogently, but also to analyze their own creative processes. As already indicated, the sixth edition contains questions designed to add a research component to the study of the chapter topics.

DATES. To place the various works in historical context, we include the life dates for all authors. Along with the title of each anthologized work, we list the year of publication.

NUMBERING. For convenient reference, we have adopted a regular style of numbering the selections by fives:

  • Poems: every fifth paragraph
  • Stories: every fifth line
  • Poetic plays: every fifth line, starting at 1 with each new scene and act
  • Prose plays: every fifth speech, starting at 1 with each new scene and act

GLOSSES. For the poetry and poetic plays, we provide brief marginal glosses wherever they are needed. For all works, including poetry, we supply explanatory footnotes when necessary. Words and phrases that are glossed or footnoted are highlighted by a small degree sign. Footnotes are located according to line, paragraph, or speech numbers.

BOXED DISCUSSIONS WITHIN THE CHAPTERS. In some of the chapters, particularly Chapters 1, 19, 26, and 32, separately boxed sections contain brief discussions of a number of important and related matters. The topics chosen for this treatment—such as the use of tenses in discussing a work, the use of authorial names, and the concept of decorum—were based on the recommendations of instructors and students.

THEMATIC TABLE OF CONTENTS. To make Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing as flexible as possible, we have continued the Thematic Table of Contents that was first added in the fourth edition. In this table, which is located immediately following the organizational Contents, a number of thematic topics are provided, such as Women and Men; Conformity and Rebellion; Women and Their Roles; Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality; Endings and Beginnings; and Innocence and Experience. Under these topics, generous numbers of stories, poems, and plays are listed (many in a number of categories), so that entire thematic units may be created should instructors wish to use them.

PHOTOGRAPHS AND ART REPRODUCTIONS. We also include a number of art reproductions and photographs, some within the chapters and some in special ,colored inserts. We hope that these reproductions, together with others that instructors might add, will encourage comparison-and-contrast discussions and essays about the relationship of literature and art.

FICTION AND DRAMATIZATION. To strengthen the connection between fiction and dramatization, a number of stories are included that are available on videocassettes, which can be used as teaching tools for support and interpretation. A discussion of the videocassettes is included in the Instructor's Manual. In addition, we include two versions of the same subject matter for comparison—a short story and a one-act play—by the same author: Susan Glaspell's "A Jury of Her Peers" (Chapter 4) and Trifles (Chapter 26). Revisions

There is little in the sixth edition that has not been reexamined, revised, or rewritten. Particularly noteworthy are the general introduction (Chapter 1), the introduction to poetry (Chapter 13), and the introduction to drama (Chapter 26), together with the introductory sections on Poe, Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost (Chapters 11 and 24), the chapters on figures of speech and prosody (17 and 19), and the chapters on research and taking examinations (32 and 34). Throughout, all subheads are no longer topics but have been fashioned into complete sentences. This change is made in the hope that pointed sentences will enable students to assimilate the following content more easily than before. The Glossary has been corrected and amended in a number of places. Of special importance in each of the main chapters are the sections "Questions for Discovering Ideas" and "Strategies for Organizing Ideas," which have been revised in the light of the continuing goal to help students concentrate on their writing assignments. In the sixth edition the MLA guidelines for the arrangement and dimensions of atypical essay are illustrated in Appendix I, along with the MLA recommendations for the handling of electronic references.

Wtiting and Reading

The sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, like all the previous editions, is dedicated throughout to the interlocking processes of writing and reading. There is no chapter in the book that does not contain essential information and guides for writing. Moreover, we do not simply say what can be done with a topic of literary study, but we also show ways in which it might be done. In most of the chapters there is a demonstrative student essay exemplifying the strategies and methods brought out in the chapter. Following each essay is an analytical commentary showing how the writing principles of the discussion have been carried out. The emphasis throughout these sections is the openness of the writing process along with the unique nature of writing for each topic—while fully acknowledging the need to produce more polished drafts.

Because writing is a major mode of thinking, it is an essential reinforcement of reading. Students who write about what they read learn twice, for as they plan and develop their writing they necessarily grow as thinkers. Such a combined approach is the bedrock idea of this book.

READING AND WRITING NOW AND IN THE FUTURE

A logical extension (and a major hope) of this combined approach is that the techniques students acquire in studying literature as a reading-writing undertaking will help them in every course they may ever take, and in whatever profession they follow. Students will always read—if not the authors contained here, then other authors, and certainly newspapers, legal documents, magazine articles, technical reports, business proposals, and much more. Although students may never again be required to write about topics like setting, structure, or prosody, they will certainly find a future need to write.

Indeed, the more effectively students learn to write about literature when taking their literature courses, the better they will be able to write later on—no matter what the topic. It is undeniable that the power to analyze problems and make convincing written and oral presentations is a major quality of leadership and success in all fields. To acquire the skills of disciplined reading and strong writing is therefore the best possible preparation that students can make for the future, whatever it may hold.

While we stress the value of our book as a teaching tool, we also emphasize that literature is to be enjoyed and loved. Sometimes we neglect the truth that study and delight are complementary, and that intellectual stimulation and emotional enjoyment develop not only from the immediate responses of pleasure, involvement, and sympathy, but also from the understanding, contemplation, and confidence generated by knowledge and developing skill. We therefore hope that the selections in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing will teach students about humanity, about their own perceptions, feelings, and lives, and about the timeless patterns of human existence. We hope they will take delight in such discoveries and grow as they make them. We see the book as a steppingstone to lifelong understanding and joy in great literature.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As the book goes into the sixth edition, I wish to acknowledge the many people who have offered helpful advice, information, and suggestions. To name them, as Dryden says in Absalom and Achitophel, is to praise them. They are Professors Eileen Allman, David Bady, Andrew Brilliant, Rex Butt, Stanley Coberly, Betty L. Dixon, Elizabeth Keats Flores, Alice Griffin, Robert Halli, Rebecca Heintz, Karen Holt, Claudia Johnson, Matthew Marino, Evan Matthews, Ruth Milberg-Kaye, Nancy Miller, JoAnna Stephens Mink, Ervin Nieves, Michael Paull, Bonnie Ronson, Dan Rubey, Margaret Ellen Sherwood, Beverly J. Slaughter, Keith Walters, Chloe Warner, Scott Westrem, Mardi Valgemae, Matthew Winston, and Ruth Zerner, and also Christel Bell, Linda Bridgers, Catherine Davis, Jim Freund, Edward Hoeppner, Anna F. Jacobs, Eleanor Tubbs, Nanette Roberts, April Roberts, David Roberts, and Eve Zarin. The skilled assistance of Jonathan Roberts has been essential and invaluable at every stage of all the editions.

A number of other people have provided sterling guidance for the preparation of the sixth edition. They are Professors Peggy Cole, Arapahoe Community College; Loren C. Gruber, Missouri Valley College; Edward Martin, Columbus State Community College; and Pearl McHaney, Georgia State University.

I wish especially to thank Carrie Brandon, Senior English Editor at Prentice Hall. Her understanding, creativity, cheerfulness, and helpfulness have made working with her an honor and a pleasure. I also thank Phil Miller, 'President, Humanities and Social Sciences; Leah Jewell, Editor in Chief, English; and Maggie Barbieri, Nancy Perry, Alison Reeves, Kate Morgan Jackson, Bill Oliver, and Paul O'Connell, earlier Prentice Hall English editors, for their imagination and foresight, and also for their patience with me and support of me over the years. Of major importance was the work of Ray Mullaney, former Editor in Chief, Development, for his pioneering work with the text and for his continued support. I am additionally grateful to Marlane Miriello, Viqi Wagner, Anne Marie Welsh, and (especially) Kathryn Graehl. Special words of thanks are reserved for Joan Foley of Prentice Hall, our Production Editor, who has devoted her knowledge, intelligence, diligence, and skill to the many tasks needed to bring a book of this size to fruition. Additional thanks are due to Fred Courtright for his work on securing permissions, and to Carolyn Gauntt for research into the various photographs and illustrations. I also extend my gratitude to Rachel Falk, Literature Marketing Manager, to her assistant, Chrissy Moodie, and to Literature Assistant, Sandy Hrasdzira. I give final thanks to Gina Sluss, Director of Marketing, of Prentice Hall for her constant support and enthusiasm.

My sorrow is undiminished for the loss of my associate, Professor Henry E. Jacobs (1946-1986) of the University of Alabama. His energy and creativity were essential in planning and writing the first edition, but Fate intervened before we could work together on the later editions, which are nevertheless, in effect, ,extended collaborations.

Edgar V. Roberts

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