Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, Compact / Edition 2

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Overview

  • Reference Modules contain Web Destinations and Net Search options that provide the opportunity to expand upon information presented in the text.
  • Study Guide Modules present a variety of exercises and features designed to help students with self-study for every fiction and drama selection and over half of the poetry. These modules include:
    • Essay questions
    • Multiple choices
    • Built-in e-mail routing options that give students the ability to forward essay responses and computer-graded quizzes to their instructors
  • Communication Modules include tools such as Live Chat and Message Board to facilitate online collaboration and communication.
  • A "Writing about Literature" section offers students prompts for setting up an outline.
  • A "Living Timeline" for literature gives students perspectives on historical, political, and cultural information.

The Companion Website™ makes integrating the Internet into your course exciting and easy.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130978028
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
  • Publication date: 6/13/2002
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1417
  • Product dimensions: 5.70 (w) x 9.50 (h) x 1.60 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface to the Sixth Edition

Like the past editions of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the sixth edition is a carefully chosen anthology. Most of the works here are by American, British, and Canadian authors, but classical writers from ancient Greece and Rome are also represented, along with more recent writers who lived in or came from Italy, Norway, Germany, Belgium, Ceylon, Indonesia, and Russia. In total, 281 authors are represented, not including anonymous writers. One hundred eighty of the authors—roughly sixty-five percent—were born after 1900. Interestingly, of the writers born since 1935, forty-one are women and thirty-five are men—a number that dramatizes the major importance of women in modern literature. The book includes a total of 491 separate works, not counting portions of critical essays. There are sixty-two stories, 410 poems, and nineteen dramatic works. Each work is suitable for discussion either alone or in comparison. Three plays, seven stories, and forty-one poems are new in this edition.

Readers will note that some of the new stories are classic, like those by Conrad, Forster, and Hardy, and some, such as those by Bambara, Gilchrist, and Oates, are well on their way to becoming classic. The new stories complement the other fifty-five stories, such as those by Atwood, Faulkner, Carver, Crane, Hawthorne, Hodgins, Joyce, Gaines, Gilman, Laurence, Porter, Twain, and Welty, that are retained from earlier editions.

The anthology includes representative poems from late medieval times to our own day, including poets such as Shakespeare, (Dray, Wordsworth, Byron, Keats,Tennyson, Rossetti, Pound, and Eliot. The forty-one new poems represent a wide variety of American, British, and Canadian poets. Most of these poets are widely recognized. Berry, Cowper, Queen Elizabeth I, Chief Dan George, Hardy, Jacobsen, Levertov, Longfellow, Lux, Mueller, Van Duyn, and Wilbur come readily to mind. More recent poets, most of them with multiple prizes and awards to their credit, are Collins, Francis, Gluck, Merwin, Momaday, and Schnackenberg. Even with the many new poems in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the book still retains 369 poems that were included in the fifth edition. A poet new in the fifth edition and' retained in the sixth is Michael Ondaatje, who achieved wide recognition because of the many Academy awards received by the film version (1996) of his novel The English Patient.

In the drama section, the plays newly included are the medieval Visitatio Sepulchri, Wilder's The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, and Kauffmann's The More the Merrier. As in the fifth edition, Ibsen's An Enemy of the People is included with A Dollhouse to make up a special dramatic career chapter (31) matching the careers chapters for fiction and poetry. Chapter 11, the fiction career chapter, now includes five short stories by Edgar Allan Poe, who is acknowledged as a pioneering theorist of the short story as a genre. Chapter 24, the poetic career chapter, contains Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost, as in the fifth edition. Of special note is the inclusion of selected critical essays for special case studies of Poe, Dickinson, and Ibsen. Instructors who choose to do so can use these essays for research-based essays on these writers, and they may wish to use the selected bibliographies for more comprehensive research assignments.

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE SIXTH EDITION

The sixth edition reaffirms a principle to which the book is dedicated—flexibility. Earlier editions have been used for introduction-to-literature courses, genre courses, and both composition and composition-and-literature courses. Adaptability and flexibility have been the keys to this variety. Instructors can use the book for classroom discussions, panel discussions, essay or paragraph-length assignments, and special topics not covered in class. Students will find incentives for understanding and writing about literature through questions, study and writing guides, and also through many suggestions for strengthening their own writing—both on essays and examinations.

FICTION. The fiction section consists of eleven chapters. Chapter 2 is a general introduction to fiction while Chapters 3-10—the "topical" chapters central to each section of the book—introduce students to such important topics as structure, character, point of view, and theme. Chapter 11 is the career chapter on Poe, and Chapter 12 consists of ten stories for additional study.

POETRY. The thirteen poetry chapters are arranged similarly to the fiction chapters. Chapter 13 is introductory. Chapters 14-23 deal with topics such as symbolism, imagery, symbolism, and myth. Chapter 24 is the poetic career chapter, consisting of selections by Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost. Chapter 25 contains one hundred thirty-nine poems for additional study. In Appendix II we include the biographies of each of the anthologized poets to make the poetry section parallel with the drama and fiction sections.

DRAMA. In the drama section Chapter 26 is introductory. Chapters 27 trough 29 concern tragedy, comedy, and realism and nonrealism. At the suggestion of a number of instructors who introduce film in their courses, a unique feature begun in the third edition—Chapter 30, on film—is retained, and the discussion matches those in the other chapters. We have kept the scenes from Citizen Kane, by Welles and Mankiewicz, and The Turning Point, by Laurents. Chapter 31 is the special chapter on Ibsen. There is no "plays for additional study" chapter to match Chapters 12 and 25 because most plays are quite long, and adding more would extend the book beyond reasonable limits.

Nine of the longer plays from the previous edition have been retained because they are important in an introductory study of drama (Oedipus the King, Hamlet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Love is the Doctor, Death of a Salesman, The Glass Menagerie, Mulatto, A Dollhouse, An Enemy of the People). In an anthology of this scope, the eight short plays (Am I Blue, The Bear, Before Breakfast, Tea Party, The Visitatio Sepulchre, The More the Merrier, The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, Trifles) are valuable because they may be covered in no more than one or two classroom hours, and also because they may be enlivened by having parts acted, out by students. Indeed, the Visitatio Sepulchri and Keller's Tea Party are brief enough to permit classroom reading and discussion in a single period.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES

SPECIAL WRITING TOPICS. In the sixth edition we have retained the section titled "Special Writing Topics about Literature," which follows the drama section. This section, new in the fifth edition, contains four chapters (32-35) that were formerly appendices, but on the advice of many readers they are now a main part of the book. These chapters, which contain general literary assignments, are newly arranged to place emphasis on research and recent critical theories.

THE GLOSSARY. In the discussions to the various chapters, key terms and concepts are boldfaced, and these are gathered alphabetically and explained briefly, with relevant page numbers in the text, in the comprehensive Glossary following Appendix II. The terms in the Glossary are also listed, with page numbers from the text, in the inside back cover. Because Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing may sometimes serve for reference purposes, the Glossary is intended for general use.

QUESTIONS. Following each anthologized selection in the detailed chapters are study questions designed to help students in their exploration and understanding of literature. Some questions are factual and may be answered quickly. Others provoke extended thought and classroom discussion and may also serve for both in-class and out-of-class writing assignments. At the ends of twenty-six chapters, we include a number of more general "Special Topics for Writing and Argument about (Character, Symbolism, Tragedy, etc.)." Many of these are comparison-contrast topics, and a number of them—at least one in each chapter—are assignments requiring creative writing (for example, "Write a poem" or "Compose a short scene"). What is unique about these topics is that students are asked not only to write creatively and argue cogently, but also to analyze their own creative processes. As already indicated, the sixth edition contains questions designed to add a research component to the study of the chapter topics.

DATES. To place the various works in historical context, we include the life dates for all authors. Along with the title of each anthologized work, we list the year of publication.

NUMBERING. For convenient reference, we have adopted a regular style of numbering the selections by fives:

  • Poems: every fifth paragraph
  • Stories: every fifth line
  • Poetic plays: every fifth line, starting at 1 with each new scene and act
  • Prose plays: every fifth speech, starting at 1 with each new scene and act

GLOSSES. For the poetry and poetic plays, we provide brief marginal glosses wherever they are needed. For all works, including poetry, we supply explanatory footnotes when necessary. Words and phrases that are glossed or footnoted are highlighted by a small degree sign. Footnotes are located according to line, paragraph, or speech numbers.

BOXED DISCUSSIONS WITHIN THE CHAPTERS. In some of the chapters, particularly Chapters 1, 19, 26, and 32, separately boxed sections contain brief discussions of a number of important and related matters. The topics chosen for this treatment—such as the use of tenses in discussing a work, the use of authorial names, and the concept of decorum—were based on the recommendations of instructors and students.

THEMATIC TABLE OF CONTENTS. To make Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing as flexible as possible, we have continued the Thematic Table of Contents that was first added in the fourth edition. In this table, which is located immediately following the organizational Contents, a number of thematic topics are provided, such as Women and Men; Conformity and Rebellion; Women and Their Roles; Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality; Endings and Beginnings; and Innocence and Experience. Under these topics, generous numbers of stories, poems, and plays are listed (many in a number of categories), so that entire thematic units may be created should instructors wish to use them.

PHOTOGRAPHS AND ART REPRODUCTIONS. We also include a number of art reproductions and photographs, some within the chapters and some in special ,colored inserts. We hope that these reproductions, together with others that instructors might add, will encourage comparison-and-contrast discussions and essays about the relationship of literature and art.

FICTION AND DRAMATIZATION. To strengthen the connection between fiction and dramatization, a number of stories are included that are available on videocassettes, which can be used as teaching tools for support and interpretation. A discussion of the videocassettes is included in the Instructor's Manual. In addition, we include two versions of the same subject matter for comparison—a short story and a one-act play—by the same author: Susan Glaspell's "A Jury of Her Peers" (Chapter 4) and Trifles (Chapter 26).

Revisions

There is little in the sixth edition that has not been reexamined, revised, or rewritten. Particularly noteworthy are the general introduction (Chapter 1), the introduction to poetry (Chapter 13), and the introduction to drama (Chapter 26), together with the introductory sections on Poe, Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost (Chapters 11 and 24), the chapters on figures of speech and prosody (17 and 19), and the chapters on research and taking examinations (32 and 34). Throughout, all subheads are no longer topics but have been fashioned into complete sentences. This change is made in the hope that pointed sentences will enable students to assimilate the following content more easily than before. The Glossary has been corrected and amended in a number of places. Of special importance in each of the main chapters are the sections "Questions for Discovering Ideas" and "Strategies for Organizing Ideas," which have been revised in the light of the continuing goal to help students concentrate on their writing assignments. In the sixth edition the MLA guidelines for the arrangement and dimensions of atypical essay are illustrated in Appendix I, along with the MLA recommendations for the handling of electronic references.

Wtiting and Reading

The sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, like all the previous editions, is dedicated throughout to the interlocking processes of writing and reading. There is no chapter in the book that does not contain essential information and guides for writing. Moreover, we do not simply say what can be done with a topic of literary study, but we also show ways in which it might be done. In most of the chapters there is a demonstrative student essay exemplifying the strategies and methods brought out in the chapter. Following each essay is an analytical commentary showing how the writing principles of the discussion have been carried out. The emphasis throughout these sections is the openness of the writing process along with the unique nature of writing for each topic—while fully acknowledging the need to produce more polished drafts.

Because writing is a major mode of thinking, it is an essential reinforcement of reading. Students who write about what they read learn twice, for as they plan and develop their writing they necessarily grow as thinkers. Such a combined approach is the bedrock idea of this book.

READING AND WRITING NOW AND IN THE FUTURE

A logical extension (and a major hope) of this combined approach is that the techniques students acquire in studying literature as a reading-writing undertaking will help them in every course they may ever take, and in whatever profession they follow. Students will always read—if not the authors contained here, then other authors, and certainly newspapers, legal documents, magazine articles, technical reports, business proposals, and much more. Although students may never again be required to write about topics like setting, structure, or prosody, they will certainly find a future need to write.

Indeed, the more effectively students learn to write about literature when taking their literature courses, the better they will be able to write later on—no matter what the topic. It is undeniable that the power to analyze problems and make convincing written and oral presentations is a major quality of leadership and success in all fields. To acquire the skills of disciplined reading and strong writing is therefore the best possible preparation that students can make for the future, whatever it may hold.

While we stress the value of our book as a teaching tool, we also emphasize that literature is to be enjoyed and loved. Sometimes we neglect the truth that study and delight are complementary, and that intellectual stimulation and emotional enjoyment develop not only from the immediate responses of pleasure, involvement, and sympathy, but also from the understanding, contemplation, and confidence generated by knowledge and developing skill. We therefore hope that the selections in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing will teach students about humanity, about their own perceptions, feelings, and lives, and about the timeless patterns of human existence. We hope they will take delight in such discoveries and grow as they make them. We see the book as a steppingstone to lifelong understanding and joy in great literature.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As the book goes into the sixth edition, I wish to acknowledge the many people who have offered helpful advice, information, and suggestions. To name them, as Dryden says in Absalom and Achitophel, is to praise them. They are Professors Eileen Allman, David Bady, Andrew Brilliant, Rex Butt, Stanley Coberly, Betty L. Dixon, Elizabeth Keats Flores, Alice Griffin, Robert Halli, Rebecca Heintz, Karen Holt, Claudia Johnson, Matthew Marino, Evan Matthews, Ruth Milberg-Kaye, Nancy Miller, JoAnna Stephens Mink, Ervin Nieves, Michael Paull, Bonnie Ronson, Dan Rubey, Margaret Ellen Sherwood, Beverly J. Slaughter, Keith Walters, Chloe Warner, Scott Westrem, Mardi Valgemae, Matthew Winston, and Ruth Zerner, and also Christel Bell, Linda Bridgers, Catherine Davis, Jim Freund, Edward Hoeppner, Anna F. Jacobs, Eleanor Tubbs, Nanette Roberts, April Roberts, David Roberts, and Eve Zarin. The skilled assistance of Jonathan Roberts has been essential and invaluable at every stage of all the editions.

A number of other people have provided sterling guidance for the preparation of the sixth edition. They are Professors Peggy Cole, Arapahoe Community College; Loren C. Gruber, Missouri Valley College; Edward Martin, Columbus State Community College; and Pearl McHaney, Georgia State University.

I wish especially to thank Carrie Brandon, Senior English Editor at Prentice Hall. Her understanding, creativity, cheerfulness, and helpfulness have made working with her an honor and a pleasure. I also thank Phil Miller, 'President, Humanities and Social Sciences; Leah Jewell, Editor in Chief, English; and Maggie Barbieri, Nancy Perry, Alison Reeves, Kate Morgan Jackson, Bill Oliver, and Paul O'Connell, earlier Prentice Hall English editors, for their imagination and foresight, and also for their patience with me and support of me over the years. Of major importance was the work of Ray Mullaney, former Editor in Chief, Development, for his pioneering work with the text and for his continued support. I am additionally grateful to Marlane Miriello, Viqi Wagner, Anne Marie Welsh, and (especially) Kathryn Graehl. Special words of thanks are reserved for Joan Foley of Prentice Hall, our Production Editor, who has devoted her knowledge, intelligence, diligence, and skill to the many tasks needed to bring a book of this size to fruition. Additional thanks are due to Fred Courtright for his work on securing permissions, and to Carolyn Gauntt for research into the various photographs and illustrations. I also extend my gratitude to Rachel Falk, Literature Marketing Manager, to her assistant, Chrissy Moodie, and to Literature Assistant, Sandy Hrasdzira. I give final thanks to Gina Sluss, Director of Marketing, of Prentice Hall for her constant support and enthusiasm.

My sorrow is undiminished for the loss of my associate, Professor Henry E. Jacobs (1946-1986) of the University of Alabama. His energy and creativity were essential in planning and writing the first edition, but Fate intervened before we could work together on the later editions, which are nevertheless, in effect, ,extended collaborations.

Edgar V. Roberts

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction.
The Necklace, Guy de Maupassant.

Responding to Literature: Likes and Dislikes.

I. READING AND WRITING ABOUT FICTION.

2. Fiction: An Overview.

Stories for Study: Neighbors, Raymond Carver. The Things They Carried, Tim O'Brien. Everyday Use, Alice Walker.
3. Plot and Structure: The Development and Organization of Stories.

Stories for Study: The Three Strangers, Thomas Hardy. What I Have Been Doing Lately, Jamaica Kincaid. Blue Winds Dancing, Tom Whitecloud.
4. Characters: The People in Fiction.

Stories for Study: Barn Burning, William Faulkner. A Jury of Her Peers, Susan Glaspell. Shopping, Joyce Carol Oates. Two Kinds, Amy Tan.
5. Point of View: The Position or Stance of the Narrator or Speaker.

Stories for Study: An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge, Ambrose Bierce. The Song of Songs, Ellen Gilchrist. The Lottery, Shirley Jackson. The Old Chief Mshlanga, Doris Lessing. How to Become a Writer, Lorrie Moore.
6. Setting: The Background of Place, Objects, and Culture in Stories.

Stories for Study: The Portable Phonograph, Walter Van Tilburg Clark. The Secret Sharer, Joseph Conrad. The Shawl, Cynthia Ozick. The Masque of the Red Death, Edgar Allan Poe.
7. Tone and Style: The Words That Convey Attitude in Fiction.

Stories for Study: The Story of an Hour, Kate Chopin. Soldier's Home, Ernest Hemingway. The Found Boat, Alice Munro. First Confession, Frank O'Connor. Luck, Mark Twain.
8. Symbolism and Allegory: Keys toExtended Meaning.

Stories for Study: The Fox and the Grapes, Aesop. The Myth of Atalanta, Anonymous. Unfinished Masterpieces, Anita Scott Coleman. Young Goodman Brown, Nathaniel Hawthorne. The Loons, Margaret Laurence. The Parable of the Prodigal Son, St. Luke. The Hammon and the Beans, Américo Paredes. The Chrysanthemums, John Steinbeck. The Thimble, Michel Tremblay.
9. Idea or Theme: The Meanings and the Messages in Fiction.

Stories for Study: The Lesson, Tony Cade Bambara. Araby, James Joyce. The Horse Dealer's Daughter, D.H. Lawrence.
10. Five Stories for Additional Study and Enjoyment.
Snow, Robert Olen Butler. The Curse, Andre Dubus. The Point of It, E.M. Forster. The Yellow Wallpaper, Charlotte Perkins Gilman. The Jilting of Granny Weatherall, Katherine Anne Porter.

II. READING AND WRITING ABOUT POETRY.

11. Meeting Poetry: An Overview.
Schoolsville, Billy Collins. Hope, Lisel Mueller. Here a Pretty Baby Lies, Robert Herrick.
Sir Patrick Spens, Anonymous.

Poems for Study: My Last Duchess, Robert Browning. Because I Could Not Stop for Death, Emily Dickinson. Catch, Robert Francis. Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, Robert Frost. The Man He Killed, Thomas Hardy. Eagle Poem, Joy Harjo. The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner, Randall Jarrell. Ogichidag, Jim Northrup. Where Children Live, Naomi Shihab Nye. A Christmas Carol, Christina Rossetti. Sonnet 55: Not Marble, Nor the Gilded Monument, William Shakespeare. True Love, Judith Viorst. It Is a Beauteous Evening, Calm and Free, William Wordsworth.
12. Words: The Building Blocks of Poetry.
The Naked and the Nude, Robert Graves.

Poems for Study: The Lamb, William Blake. Green Grow the Rashes, O, Robert Burns. Jabberwocky, Lewis Carroll. next to of course god america i, E.E. Cummings. Holy Sonnet 14: Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God, John Donne. The Fury of Aerial Bombardment, Richard Eberhart. Sonnet on the Death of Richard West, Thomas Gray. Loveliest of Trees, A.E. Houseman. Of Being, Denise Levertov. Richard Cory, Edwin Arlington Robinson. Dolor, Theodore Roethke. I Think Continually of Those Who Were Truly Great, Stephen Spender. Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock, Wallace Stephens. Eating Poetry, Mark Strand. Daffodils, William Wordsworth.
13. Imagery: The Poem's Link to the Senses.
Cargoes, John Masefield. Anthem for Doomed Youth, Wilfred Owen. The Fish, Elizabeth Bishop.

Poems for Study: The Tyger, William Blake. Sonnets from the Portuguese, No. 14: If Thou Must Love Me, Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Kubla Khan, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. I Know I'm Not Sufficiently Obscure, Ray Durem. Preludes, T.S. Eliot. Channel Firing, Thomas Hardy. The Pulley, George Herbert. Spring, Gerard Manley Hopkins. A Time Past, Denise Levertov. The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently, Thomas Lux. Photos of a Salt Mine, P.K. Page. In a Station of the Metro, Ezra Pound. Sonnet 130: My Mistress' Eyes Are Nothing Like the Sun, William Shakespeare. Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802, William Wordsworth.
14. Figures of Speech, or Metaphorical Language: A Source of Depth and Range in Poetry.
On First Looking into Chapman's Homer, John Keats.
Bright Star, John Keats. Let Us Take the Road, John Gay.

Poems for Study: A Red, Red Rose, Robert Burns. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, John Donne. The Iceberg Seven-eighths Under, Abbie Huston Evans. Harlem, Langston Hughes. To Autumn, John Keats. Sic Vita, Henry King. Conjoined, Judith Minty. A Work of Artifice, Marge Piercy. Metaphors, Sylvia Plath. Looking at Each Other, Muriel Rukeyser. Sonnet 18: Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?, William Shakespeare. Sonnet 30: When to the Sessions of Sweet Silent Thought, William Shakespeare. On Monsieur s Departure, Elizabeth Tudor, Queen Elizabeth I. Earth's Tremors Felt in Missouri, Mona Van Duyn. Facing West from California's Shores, Walt Whitman. London, 1802 William Wordsworth. I Find No Peace, Sir Thomas Wyatt.
15. Tone: The Creation of Attitude in Poetry.
The First-Rate Wife, Cornelius Whur. Dulce et Decorum Est, Wilfred Owen.
The Workbox, Thomas Hardy.
Epigram from the French, Alexander Pope. Epigram, Engraved on the Collar of a Dog which I Gave to His Royal Highness, Alexander Pope.

Poems for Study: homage to my hips, Lucille Clifton. she being Brand, E.E. Cummings. I Am A Black Woman, Mari Evans. Theme for English B, Langston Hughes. The Planned Child, Sharon Olds. Late Movies with Skyler, Michael Ondaatje. Dying, Robert Pinsky. From Epilogue to the Satires, Dialogue I, Alexander Pope. Nothing Is Lost, Anne Ridler. My Papa's Waltz, Theodore Roethke. A Description of the Morning, Jonathan Swift. My Physics Teacher, David Wagoner. Dimensions, C.K. Williams.
16. Form: The Shape of the Poem.
The Eagle, Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Spun in High, Dark Clouds, Anonymous. Sonnet 116: Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds, William Shakespeare.
Reconciliation, Walt Whitman.
Easter Wings, George Herbert.

Poems for Study: One Art, Elizabeth Bishop. We Real Cool, Gwendolyn Brooks. Sonnet, Billy Collins. Buffalo Bill's, E.E. Cummings. To the Memory of Mr. Oldham, John Dryden. Desert Places, Robert Frost. Nikki-Rosa, Nikki Giovanni. Museum, Robert Hass. Virtue, George Herbert. Mantle, William Heyen. Swan and Shadow, John Hollander. God's Grandeur, Gerard Manley Hopkins. Ode to a Nightingale, John Keats. The Sound of the Sea, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. In Bondage, Claude McKay. When I Consider How My Light Is Spent, John Milton. Annabel Lee, Edgar Allan Poe. Ballad of Birmingham, Dudley Randall. The Waking, Theodore Roethke. Sonnet 73: That Time of Year Thou May'st in Me Behold, William Shakespeare. Ode to the West Wind, Percy Bysshe Shelley. Women, May Swenson. Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night, Dylan Thomas. Reapers, Jean Toomer. The Shape of History, Charles H. Webb. Poetics Against the Angel of Death, Phyllis Webb. The Dance, William Carlos Williams. The Solitary Reaper, William Wordsworth.
17. Symbolism and Allusion: Windows to Wide Expanses of Meaning.
Snow, Virginia Scott.

Poems for Study: Dover Beach, Matthew Arnold. Beach Glass, Amy Clampitt. The Poplar Field, William Cowper. in Just-, E.E. Cummings. The Canonization, John Donne. Collage of Echoes, Isabella Gardner. The Geese, Jorie Graham. In Time of "The Breaking of Nations" , Thomas Hardy. The Collar, George Herbert. Tears, Josephine Jacobsen. The Purse-Seine, Robinson Jeffers. La Belle Dame Sans Merci, John Keats. To His Coy Mistress, Andrew Marvell. Wild Geese, Mary Oliver. A Noiseless Patient Spider, Walt Whitman. Year's End, Richard Wilbur. Lines Written in Early Spring, William Wordsworth. The Second Coming, William Butler Yeats.
18. Myths: Systems of Symbolic Allusion in Poetry.
Leda and the Swan, William Butler Yeats.

Poems for Study: Penelope's Song, Louise Glück. Odysseus, W.S. Merwin. Penelope, Dorothy Parker. The Suitor, Linda Pastan. Ulysses, Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Odyssey: 20 Years Later, Peter Ulisse. Flight 063, Brian Aldiss. Musée des Beaux Arts, W.H. Auden. Icarus, Edward Field. Waiting for Icarus, Muriel Rukeyser. To a Friend Whose Work Has Come to Triumph, Anne Sexton. Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, William Carlos Williams. Berceuse, Amy Clampitt. Hunting the Phoenix, Denise Levertov. The Phoenix Again, May Sarton. Myth, Muriel Rukeyser. On the Way to Delphi, John Updike.
19. Two Poetic Careers: Emily Dickinson and Robert Frost.

Poems by Emily Dickinson: After Great Pain, a Formal Feeling Comes (Poem 341). Because I Could Not Stop for Death (Poem 712). The Bustle in a House (Poem 1078). The Heart Is the Capital of the Mind (Poem 1354). I Cannot Live with You (Poem 640). I Died for Beauty-but Was Scarce (Poem 449). I Felt a Funeral in My Brain (Poem 280). I Heard a Fly Buzz-When I Died (Poem 465). I Like to See It Lap the Miles (Poem 585). I'm Nobody! Who Are You? (Poem 288). I Never Lost as Much But Twice (Poem 49). I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed (Poem 214). Much Madness Is Divinest Sense (Poem 435). My Life Closed Twice Before Its Close (Poem 1732). My Triumph Lasted Till the Drums (Poem 1227). One Need Not Be a Chamber-To Be Haunted (Poem 670). Safe in Their Alabaster Chambers (Poem 216). Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church (Poem 324). The Soul Selects Her Own Society (Poem 303). Success Is Counted Sweetest (Poem 67). Tell All the Truth but Tell It Slant (Poem 1129). There's a Certain Slant of Light (Poem 258). This World Is Not Conclusion (Poem 501). Wild Nights-Wild Nights! (Poem 249).

Selected Poems by Robert Frost: Mending Wall (1914). Birches (1915) The Road Not Taken (1915). 'Out, Out -' (1916). Fire and Ice (1920). Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (1923). Misgiving (1923). Nothing Gold Can Stay (1923). Acquainted with the Night (1928). Desert Places (1936). Design (1936). The Silken Tent (1936). The Strong Are Saying Nothing (1937). A Considerable Speck (1942). Choose Something like a Star (1943).
20. Eighty-Six Poems for Additional Study and Enjoyment.
Healing Prayer from the Beautyway Chant, Anonymous (Navajo). Variation on the Word Sleep, Margaret Atwood. Ka 'Ba, Imamu Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones). Another Descent, Wendell Berry. Women, Louise Bogan. A Black Man Talks of Reaping, Arna Bontemps. Sonnets from the Portuguese, No.43: How Do I Love Thee?, Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister, Robert Browning. 'The killers that run...', Leonard Cohen. Days, Billy Collins. From A Letter to America on a Visit to Sussex, Spring 1942, Frances Cornford. Do Not Weep, Maiden, for War Is Kind, Stephen Crane. if there are any heavens, E.E. Cummings. The Lifeguard, James Dickey. The Good Morrow, John Donne. Holy Sonnet 10: Death Be Not Proud, John Donne. Sympathy, Paul Laurence Dunbar. The Negro, James Emanuel. Like God, Lynn Emanuel. The Beauty of the Trees, Chief Dan George. Woman, Nikki Giovanni. Sonnet Ending with a Film Subtitle, Marilyn Hacker. Little Cosmic Dust Poem, John Haines. Snapshot of Hué, Daniel Halpern. Leaves, H.S.(Sam) Hamod. She's Free!, Frances E.W. Harper. Called, Michael S. Harper. Spring Rain, Robert Hass. Those Winter Sundays, Robert Hayden. The Hair: Jacob Korman's Story, William Heyen. Advice to Young Ladies, A.D. Hope. Pied Beauty, Gerard Manley Hopkins. Negro, Langston Hughes. The Negro Speaks of Rivers, Langston Hughes. The Answer, Robinson Jeffers. Ode on a Grecian Urn, John Keats. Rhine Boat Trip, Irving Layton. A Final Thing, Li-Young Lee. In Computers, Alan P. Lightman. The Choosing, Liz Lochhead. Every Traveler Has One Vermont Poem, Audre Lorde. Patterns, Amy Lowell. The White City, Claude McKay. Listen, W.S. Merwin. The Bear, N. Scott Momaday. Life Cycle of Common Man, Howard Nemerov. wahbegan, Jim Northrup. Ghosts, Mary Oliver. Marks, Linda Pastan. The Secretary Chant, Marge Piercy. Last Words, Sylvia Plath. Mirror, Sylvia Plath. Bells for John Whiteside's Daughter, John Crowe Ransom. Assailant, John Raven. rite on: white america, Sonia Sanchez. Chicago, Carl Sandburg. Dreamers, Sigfried Sassoon. The Paperweight, Gjertrud Schnackenberg. I Have a Rendezvous with Death, Alan Seeger. My Mother's Face, Brenda Serotte. Fear No More the Heat o' the Sun, William Shakespeare. Sonnet 29: When in Disgrace with Fortune and Men's Eyes, William Shakespeare. Sonnet 146: Poor Soul, the Center of My Sinful Earth, William Shakespeare. Auto Wreck, Karl Shapiro. Where Mountain Lion Lay Down with Deer, Leslie Marmon Silko. Bluejays, Dave Smith. Not Waving But Drowning, Stevie Smith. Oranges, Gary Soto. Traveling Through the Dark, William Stafford. Burying an Animal on the Way to New York, Gerald Stern. The Emperor of Ice-Cream, Wallace Stevens. Question, May Swenson. The Blue Booby, James Tate. Perfection Wasted, John Updike. The Boxes, Shelly Wagner. Revolutionary Petunias, Alice Walker. Go, Lovely Rose, Edmund Waller. Song of Napalm, Bruce Weigl. On Being Brought from Africa to America, Phillis Wheatley. Full of Life Now, Walt Whitman. Dirge for Two Veterans, Walt Whitman. April 5, 1974, Richard Wilbur. The Red Wheelbarrow, William Carlos Williams. The Wild Swans at Coole, William Butler Yeats. The Day Zimmer Lost Religion, Paul Zimmer.

III. READING AND WRITING ABOUT DRAMA.

21. The Dramatic Vision: An Overview.
The Visit to the Sepulchre (Visitatio Sepulchri), Anonymous.

Plays for Study: The More the Merrier, Stanley Kauffmann. Tea Party, Betty Keller. Before Breakfast, Eugene O'Neill.
22. The Tragic Vision: Affirmation Through Loss.

Plays for Study: Oedipus the King, Sophocles. Hamlet, William Shakespeare.
23. The Comic Vision: Restoring the Balance.

Plays for Study: A Midsummer Night's Dream, William Shakespeare. The Bear, Anton Chekhov. Am I Blue, Beth Henley.
24. Three Plays for Additional Study and Enjoyment.
A Dollhouse (Et Dukkehjem), Henrik Ibsen. Mulatto, Langston Hughes. Death of a Salesman, Arthur Miller.

IV. SPECIAL WRITING TOPICS ABOUT LITERATURE.

25. Writing and Documenting the Research Essay.
26. Critical Approaches Important in the Study of Literature.
27. Taking Examinations on Literature.
28. Comparison-Contrast and Extended Comparison-Contrast: Learning by Seeing Literary Works Together.
Appendix I: MLA Recommendations for Documenting Electronic Sources.
Appendix II: Brief Biographies of the Poets in Part III.
Glossary of Literary Terms.
Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines.

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Preface

Preface to the Sixth Edition

Like the past editions of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the sixth edition is a carefully chosen anthology. Most of the works here are by American, British, and Canadian authors, but classical writers from ancient Greece and Rome are also represented, along with more recent writers who lived in or came from Italy, Norway, Germany, Belgium, Ceylon, Indonesia, and Russia. In total, 281 authors are represented, not including anonymous writers. One hundred eighty of the authors—roughly sixty-five percent—were born after 1900. Interestingly, of the writers born since 1935, forty-one are women and thirty-five are men—a number that dramatizes the major importance of women in modern literature. The book includes a total of 491 separate works, not counting portions of critical essays. There are sixty-two stories, 410 poems, and nineteen dramatic works. Each work is suitable for discussion either alone or in comparison. Three plays, seven stories, and forty-one poems are new in this edition.

Readers will note that some of the new stories are classic, like those by Conrad, Forster, and Hardy, and some, such as those by Bambara, Gilchrist, and Oates, are well on their way to becoming classic. The new stories complement the other fifty-five stories, such as those by Atwood, Faulkner, Carver, Crane, Hawthorne, Hodgins, Joyce, Gaines, Gilman, Laurence, Porter, Twain, and Welty, that are retained from earlier editions.

The anthology includes representative poems from late medieval times to our own day, including poets such as Shakespeare, (Dray, Wordsworth, Byron, Keats, Tennyson,Rossetti, Pound, and Eliot. The forty-one new poems represent a wide variety of American, British, and Canadian poets. Most of these poets are widely recognized. Berry, Cowper, Queen Elizabeth I, Chief Dan George, Hardy, Jacobsen, Levertov, Longfellow, Lux, Mueller, Van Duyn, and Wilbur come readily to mind. More recent poets, most of them with multiple prizes and awards to their credit, are Collins, Francis, Gluck, Merwin, Momaday, and Schnackenberg. Even with the many new poems in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the book still retains 369 poems that were included in the fifth edition. A poet new in the fifth edition and' retained in the sixth is Michael Ondaatje, who achieved wide recognition because of the many Academy awards received by the film version (1996) of his novel The English Patient.

In the drama section, the plays newly included are the medieval Visitatio Sepulchri, Wilder's The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, and Kauffmann's The More the Merrier. As in the fifth edition, Ibsen's An Enemy of the People is included with A Dollhouse to make up a special dramatic career chapter (31) matching the careers chapters for fiction and poetry. Chapter 11, the fiction career chapter, now includes five short stories by Edgar Allan Poe, who is acknowledged as a pioneering theorist of the short story as a genre. Chapter 24, the poetic career chapter, contains Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost, as in the fifth edition. Of special note is the inclusion of selected critical essays for special case studies of Poe, Dickinson, and Ibsen. Instructors who choose to do so can use these essays for research-based essays on these writers, and they may wish to use the selected bibliographies for more comprehensive research assignments.

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE SIXTH EDITION

The sixth edition reaffirms a principle to which the book is dedicated—flexibility. Earlier editions have been used for introduction-to-literature courses, genre courses, and both composition and composition-and-literature courses. Adaptability and flexibility have been the keys to this variety. Instructors can use the book for classroom discussions, panel discussions, essay or paragraph-length assignments, and special topics not covered in class. Students will find incentives for understanding and writing about literature through questions, study and writing guides, and also through many suggestions for strengthening their own writing—both on essays and examinations.

FICTION. The fiction section consists of eleven chapters. Chapter 2 is a general introduction to fiction while Chapters 3-10—the "topical" chapters central to each section of the book—introduce students to such important topics as structure, character, point of view, and theme. Chapter 11 is the career chapter on Poe, and Chapter 12 consists of ten stories for additional study.

POETRY. The thirteen poetry chapters are arranged similarly to the fiction chapters. Chapter 13 is introductory. Chapters 14-23 deal with topics such as symbolism, imagery, symbolism, and myth. Chapter 24 is the poetic career chapter, consisting of selections by Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost. Chapter 25 contains one hundred thirty-nine poems for additional study. In Appendix II we include the biographies of each of the anthologized poets to make the poetry section parallel with the drama and fiction sections.

DRAMA. In the drama section Chapter 26 is introductory. Chapters 27 trough 29 concern tragedy, comedy, and realism and nonrealism. At the suggestion of a number of instructors who introduce film in their courses, a unique feature begun in the third edition—Chapter 30, on film—is retained, and the discussion matches those in the other chapters. We have kept the scenes from Citizen Kane, by Welles and Mankiewicz, and The Turning Point, by Laurents. Chapter 31 is the special chapter on Ibsen. There is no "plays for additional study" chapter to match Chapters 12 and 25 because most plays are quite long, and adding more would extend the book beyond reasonable limits.

Nine of the longer plays from the previous edition have been retained because they are important in an introductory study of drama (Oedipus the King, Hamlet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Love is the Doctor, Death of a Salesman, The Glass Menagerie, Mulatto, A Dollhouse, An Enemy of the People). In an anthology of this scope, the eight short plays (Am I Blue, The Bear, Before Breakfast, Tea Party, The Visitatio Sepulchre, The More the Merrier, The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, Trifles) are valuable because they may be covered in no more than one or two classroom hours, and also because they may be enlivened by having parts acted, out by students. Indeed, the Visitatio Sepulchri and Keller's Tea Party are brief enough to permit classroom reading and discussion in a single period.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES

SPECIAL WRITING TOPICS. In the sixth edition we have retained the section titled "Special Writing Topics about Literature," which follows the drama section. This section, new in the fifth edition, contains four chapters (32-35) that were formerly appendices, but on the advice of many readers they are now a main part of the book. These chapters, which contain general literary assignments, are newly arranged to place emphasis on research and recent critical theories.

THE GLOSSARY. In the discussions to the various chapters, key terms and concepts are boldfaced, and these are gathered alphabetically and explained briefly, with relevant page numbers in the text, in the comprehensive Glossary following Appendix II. The terms in the Glossary are also listed, with page numbers from the text, in the inside back cover. Because Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing may sometimes serve for reference purposes, the Glossary is intended for general use.

QUESTIONS. Following each anthologized selection in the detailed chapters are study questions designed to help students in their exploration and understanding of literature. Some questions are factual and may be answered quickly. Others provoke extended thought and classroom discussion and may also serve for both in-class and out-of-class writing assignments. At the ends of twenty-six chapters, we include a number of more general "Special Topics for Writing and Argument about (Character, Symbolism, Tragedy, etc.)." Many of these are comparison-contrast topics, and a number of them—at least one in each chapter—are assignments requiring creative writing (for example, "Write a poem" or "Compose a short scene"). What is unique about these topics is that students are asked not only to write creatively and argue cogently, but also to analyze their own creative processes. As already indicated, the sixth edition contains questions designed to add a research component to the study of the chapter topics.

DATES. To place the various works in historical context, we include the life dates for all authors. Along with the title of each anthologized work, we list the year of publication.

NUMBERING. For convenient reference, we have adopted a regular style of numbering the selections by fives:

  • Poems: every fifth paragraph
  • Stories: every fifth line
  • Poetic plays: every fifth line, starting at 1 with each new scene and act
  • Prose plays: every fifth speech, starting at 1 with each new scene and act

GLOSSES. For the poetry and poetic plays, we provide brief marginal glosses wherever they are needed. For all works, including poetry, we supply explanatory footnotes when necessary. Words and phrases that are glossed or footnoted are highlighted by a small degree sign. Footnotes are located according to line, paragraph, or speech numbers.

BOXED DISCUSSIONS WITHIN THE CHAPTERS. In some of the chapters, particularly Chapters 1, 19, 26, and 32, separately boxed sections contain brief discussions of a number of important and related matters. The topics chosen for this treatment—such as the use of tenses in discussing a work, the use of authorial names, and the concept of decorum—were based on the recommendations of instructors and students.

THEMATIC TABLE OF CONTENTS. To make Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing as flexible as possible, we have continued the Thematic Table of Contents that was first added in the fourth edition. In this table, which is located immediately following the organizational Contents, a number of thematic topics are provided, such as Women and Men; Conformity and Rebellion; Women and Their Roles; Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality; Endings and Beginnings; and Innocence and Experience. Under these topics, generous numbers of stories, poems, and plays are listed (many in a number of categories), so that entire thematic units may be created should instructors wish to use them.

PHOTOGRAPHS AND ART REPRODUCTIONS. We also include a number of art reproductions and photographs, some within the chapters and some in special ,colored inserts. We hope that these reproductions, together with others that instructors might add, will encourage comparison-and-contrast discussions and essays about the relationship of literature and art.

FICTION AND DRAMATIZATION. To strengthen the connection between fiction and dramatization, a number of stories are included that are available on videocassettes, which can be used as teaching tools for support and interpretation. A discussion of the videocassettes is included in the Instructor's Manual. In addition, we include two versions of the same subject matter for comparison—a short story and a one-act play—by the same author: Susan Glaspell's "A Jury of Her Peers" (Chapter 4) and Trifles (Chapter 26).

Revisions

There is little in the sixth edition that has not been reexamined, revised, or rewritten. Particularly noteworthy are the general introduction (Chapter 1), the introduction to poetry (Chapter 13), and the introduction to drama (Chapter 26), together with the introductory sections on Poe, Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost (Chapters 11 and 24), the chapters on figures of speech and prosody (17 and 19), and the chapters on research and taking examinations (32 and 34). Throughout, all subheads are no longer topics but have been fashioned into complete sentences. This change is made in the hope that pointed sentences will enable students to assimilate the following content more easily than before. The Glossary has been corrected and amended in a number of places. Of special importance in each of the main chapters are the sections "Questions for Discovering Ideas" and "Strategies for Organizing Ideas," which have been revised in the light of the continuing goal to help students concentrate on their writing assignments. In the sixth edition the MLA guidelines for the arrangement and dimensions of atypical essay are illustrated in Appendix I, along with the MLA recommendations for the handling of electronic references.

Wtiting and Reading

The sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, like all the previous editions, is dedicated throughout to the interlocking processes of writing and reading. There is no chapter in the book that does not contain essential information and guides for writing. Moreover, we do not simply say what can be done with a topic of literary study, but we also show ways in which it might be done. In most of the chapters there is a demonstrative student essay exemplifying the strategies and methods brought out in the chapter. Following each essay is an analytical commentary showing how the writing principles of the discussion have been carried out. The emphasis throughout these sections is the openness of the writing process along with the unique nature of writing for each topic—while fully acknowledging the need to produce more polished drafts.

Because writing is a major mode of thinking, it is an essential reinforcement of reading. Students who write about what they read learn twice, for as they plan and develop their writing they necessarily grow as thinkers. Such a combined approach is the bedrock idea of this book.

READING AND WRITING NOW AND IN THE FUTURE

A logical extension (and a major hope) of this combined approach is that the techniques students acquire in studying literature as a reading-writing undertaking will help them in every course they may ever take, and in whatever profession they follow. Students will always read—if not the authors contained here, then other authors, and certainly newspapers, legal documents, magazine articles, technical reports, business proposals, and much more. Although students may never again be required to write about topics like setting, structure, or prosody, they will certainly find a future need to write.

Indeed, the more effectively students learn to write about literature when taking their literature courses, the better they will be able to write later on—no matter what the topic. It is undeniable that the power to analyze problems and make convincing written and oral presentations is a major quality of leadership and success in all fields. To acquire the skills of disciplined reading and strong writing is therefore the best possible preparation that students can make for the future, whatever it may hold.

While we stress the value of our book as a teaching tool, we also emphasize that literature is to be enjoyed and loved. Sometimes we neglect the truth that study and delight are complementary, and that intellectual stimulation and emotional enjoyment develop not only from the immediate responses of pleasure, involvement, and sympathy, but also from the understanding, contemplation, and confidence generated by knowledge and developing skill. We therefore hope that the selections in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing will teach students about humanity, about their own perceptions, feelings, and lives, and about the timeless patterns of human existence. We hope they will take delight in such discoveries and grow as they make them. We see the book as a steppingstone to lifelong understanding and joy in great literature.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As the book goes into the sixth edition, I wish to acknowledge the many people who have offered helpful advice, information, and suggestions. To name them, as Dryden says in Absalom and Achitophel, is to praise them. They are Professors Eileen Allman, David Bady, Andrew Brilliant, Rex Butt, Stanley Coberly, Betty L. Dixon, Elizabeth Keats Flores, Alice Griffin, Robert Halli, Rebecca Heintz, Karen Holt, Claudia Johnson, Matthew Marino, Evan Matthews, Ruth Milberg-Kaye, Nancy Miller, JoAnna Stephens Mink, Ervin Nieves, Michael Paull, Bonnie Ronson, Dan Rubey, Margaret Ellen Sherwood, Beverly J. Slaughter, Keith Walters, Chloe Warner, Scott Westrem, Mardi Valgemae, Matthew Winston, and Ruth Zerner, and also Christel Bell, Linda Bridgers, Catherine Davis, Jim Freund, Edward Hoeppner, Anna F. Jacobs, Eleanor Tubbs, Nanette Roberts, April Roberts, David Roberts, and Eve Zarin. The skilled assistance of Jonathan Roberts has been essential and invaluable at every stage of all the editions.

A number of other people have provided sterling guidance for the preparation of the sixth edition. They are Professors Peggy Cole, Arapahoe Community College; Loren C. Gruber, Missouri Valley College; Edward Martin, Columbus State Community College; and Pearl McHaney, Georgia State University.

I wish especially to thank Carrie Brandon, Senior English Editor at Prentice Hall. Her understanding, creativity, cheerfulness, and helpfulness have made working with her an honor and a pleasure. I also thank Phil Miller, 'President, Humanities and Social Sciences; Leah Jewell, Editor in Chief, English; and Maggie Barbieri, Nancy Perry, Alison Reeves, Kate Morgan Jackson, Bill Oliver, and Paul O'Connell, earlier Prentice Hall English editors, for their imagination and foresight, and also for their patience with me and support of me over the years. Of major importance was the work of Ray Mullaney, former Editor in Chief, Development, for his pioneering work with the text and for his continued support. I am additionally grateful to Marlane Miriello, Viqi Wagner, Anne Marie Welsh, and (especially) Kathryn Graehl. Special words of thanks are reserved for Joan Foley of Prentice Hall, our Production Editor, who has devoted her knowledge, intelligence, diligence, and skill to the many tasks needed to bring a book of this size to fruition. Additional thanks are due to Fred Courtright for his work on securing permissions, and to Carolyn Gauntt for research into the various photographs and illustrations. I also extend my gratitude to Rachel Falk, Literature Marketing Manager, to her assistant, Chrissy Moodie, and to Literature Assistant, Sandy Hrasdzira. I give final thanks to Gina Sluss, Director of Marketing, of Prentice Hall for her constant support and enthusiasm.

My sorrow is undiminished for the loss of my associate, Professor Henry E. Jacobs (1946-1986) of the University of Alabama. His energy and creativity were essential in planning and writing the first edition, but Fate intervened before we could work together on the later editions, which are nevertheless, in effect, ,extended collaborations.

Edgar V. Roberts

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