Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing / Edition 7

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Overview

How important is writing in your course?

 

When Edgar Roberts taught literature and composition, a large part of his courses involved essay-writing assignments.  He dedicated a substantial amount of his class time to explaining how students should prepare their writing assignments. He discovered that the more he described to his students what he wanted, and the more time he spent explaining things, the better the final essays turned out to be. There was a direct correlation between the way he made his assignments and the quality of student work he received. 

Professor Roberts started to hand out directions to his students, saving him valuable classroom and preparation time. Over the years, he tested each assignment in his own classes.  To meet the needs of the literature and composition course, Professor Roberts seamlessly integrated writing-about-literature instruction with a comprehensive literature anthology.  The result is the book you hold in your hands. 

Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing is founded on the principles of writing about literature.  It is not an afterthought and it is not treated as a separate chapter or appendix; but rather, it is the carefully integrated philosophy of Professor Roberts’ approach to teaching literature and composition. 

 

 

Also available in a briefer paperback version.

Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, Compact Third Edition

(c) 2006 1648 pp.

ISBN 0-13-153435-1

 

 

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130485847
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/18/2003
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 2112
  • Product dimensions: 6.60 (w) x 9.50 (h) x 2.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Edgar V. Roberts (b. 1928)

   Edgar V. Roberts is a native of Minneapolis, and he attended the Minneapolis public schools. After a tour of duty in the U.S. Army, he studied at the U of Minnesota, where  he earned his undergraduate and graduate degrees. He was a recipient of a Fulbright Scholarship and also a study fellowship from the American Council of Learned Societies.During his teaching career he taught at Minnesota, the U of Maryland Overseas Division, Wayne State U, Hunter College,

and Lehman College. In the 1980s he served as Chair of the Lehman English Department, and is now a Professor Emeritus there. Along with a number of articles on the drama of Henry Fielding, he edited two eighteenth-century plays: John Gay's The Beggar's Opera (1968) and Fielding's The Grub-Street Opera (1969).

   Professor Roberts's Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing-now going into its eighth edition-which he wrote and edited jointly with Henry E. Jacobs (dec'd) of the U of Alabama, was first published in 1986. In addition, Professor Roberts is the Prentice Hall author of Writing About Literature (1964), now in its eleventh edition, along with the brief eleventh edition. In the early 1990s, PBS created their "Introduction to Literature" television series, using as their accompanying text the third and later editions of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing.

   Professor Roberts lives in the Edgemont area of Greenburgh, New York. He loves music and singing, and he regularly attends New York's Metropolitan Opera. For years he has been a devoted and diligent jogger. One of his majoreducational principles is that the study of literature, music, and art should be directed toward the development of analytical thought, which is vital in every aspect of applied and theoretical knowledge.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface to the Sixth Edition

Like the past editions of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the sixth edition is a carefully chosen anthology. Most of the works here are by American, British, and Canadian authors, but classical writers from ancient Greece and Rome are also represented, along with more recent writers who lived in or came from Italy, Norway, Germany, Belgium, Ceylon, Indonesia, and Russia. In total, 281 authors are represented, not including anonymous writers. One hundred eighty of the authors—roughly sixty-five percent—were born after 1900. Interestingly, of the writers born since 1935, forty-one are women and thirty-five are men—a number that dramatizes the major importance of women in modern literature. The book includes a total of 491 separate works, not counting portions of critical essays. There are sixty-two stories, 410 poems, and nineteen dramatic works. Each work is suitable for discussion either alone or in comparison. Three plays, seven stories, and forty-one poems are new in this edition.

Readers will note that some of the new stories are classic, like those by Conrad, Forster, and Hardy, and some, such as those by Bambara, Gilchrist, and Oates, are well on their way to becoming classic. The new stories complement the other fifty-five stories, such as those by Atwood, Faulkner, Carver, Crane, Hawthorne, Hodgins, Joyce, Gaines, Gilman, Laurence, Porter, Twain, and Welty, that are retained from earlier editions.

The anthology includes representative poems from late medieval times to our own day, including poets such as Shakespeare, (Dray, Wordsworth, Byron, Keats,Tennyson, Rossetti, Pound, and Eliot. The forty-one new poems represent a wide variety of American, British, and Canadian poets. Most of these poets are widely recognized. Berry, Cowper, Queen Elizabeth I, Chief Dan George, Hardy, Jacobsen, Levertov, Longfellow, Lux, Mueller, Van Duyn, and Wilbur come readily to mind. More recent poets, most of them with multiple prizes and awards to their credit, are Collins, Francis, Gluck, Merwin, Momaday, and Schnackenberg. Even with the many new poems in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the book still retains 369 poems that were included in the fifth edition. A poet new in the fifth edition and' retained in the sixth is Michael Ondaatje, who achieved wide recognition because of the many Academy awards received by the film version (1996) of his novel The English Patient.

In the drama section, the plays newly included are the medieval Visitatio Sepulchri, Wilder's The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, and Kauffmann's The More the Merrier. As in the fifth edition, Ibsen's An Enemy of the People is included with A Dollhouse to make up a special dramatic career chapter (31) matching the careers chapters for fiction and poetry. Chapter 11, the fiction career chapter, now includes five short stories by Edgar Allan Poe, who is acknowledged as a pioneering theorist of the short story as a genre. Chapter 24, the poetic career chapter, contains Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost, as in the fifth edition. Of special note is the inclusion of selected critical essays for special case studies of Poe, Dickinson, and Ibsen. Instructors who choose to do so can use these essays for research-based essays on these writers, and they may wish to use the selected bibliographies for more comprehensive research assignments.

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE SIXTH EDITION

The sixth edition reaffirms a principle to which the book is dedicated—flexibility. Earlier editions have been used for introduction-to-literature courses, genre courses, and both composition and composition-and-literature courses. Adaptability and flexibility have been the keys to this variety. Instructors can use the book for classroom discussions, panel discussions, essay or paragraph-length assignments, and special topics not covered in class. Students will find incentives for understanding and writing about literature through questions, study and writing guides, and also through many suggestions for strengthening their own writing—both on essays and examinations.

FICTION. The fiction section consists of eleven chapters. Chapter 2 is a general introduction to fiction while Chapters 3-10—the "topical" chapters central to each section of the book—introduce students to such important topics as structure, character, point of view, and theme. Chapter 11 is the career chapter on Poe, and Chapter 12 consists of ten stories for additional study.

POETRY. The thirteen poetry chapters are arranged similarly to the fiction chapters. Chapter 13 is introductory. Chapters 14-23 deal with topics such as symbolism, imagery, symbolism, and myth. Chapter 24 is the poetic career chapter, consisting of selections by Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost. Chapter 25 contains one hundred thirty-nine poems for additional study. In Appendix II we include the biographies of each of the anthologized poets to make the poetry section parallel with the drama and fiction sections.

DRAMA. In the drama section Chapter 26 is introductory. Chapters 27 trough 29 concern tragedy, comedy, and realism and nonrealism. At the suggestion of a number of instructors who introduce film in their courses, a unique feature begun in the third edition—Chapter 30, on film—is retained, and the discussion matches those in the other chapters. We have kept the scenes from Citizen Kane, by Welles and Mankiewicz, and The Turning Point, by Laurents. Chapter 31 is the special chapter on Ibsen. There is no "plays for additional study" chapter to match Chapters 12 and 25 because most plays are quite long, and adding more would extend the book beyond reasonable limits.

Nine of the longer plays from the previous edition have been retained because they are important in an introductory study of drama (Oedipus the King, Hamlet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Love is the Doctor, Death of a Salesman, The Glass Menagerie, Mulatto, A Dollhouse, An Enemy of the People). In an anthology of this scope, the eight short plays (Am I Blue, The Bear, Before Breakfast, Tea Party, The Visitatio Sepulchre, The More the Merrier, The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, Trifles) are valuable because they may be covered in no more than one or two classroom hours, and also because they may be enlivened by having parts acted, out by students. Indeed, the Visitatio Sepulchri and Keller's Tea Party are brief enough to permit classroom reading and discussion in a single period.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES

SPECIAL WRITING TOPICS. In the sixth edition we have retained the section titled "Special Writing Topics about Literature," which follows the drama section. This section, new in the fifth edition, contains four chapters (32-35) that were formerly appendices, but on the advice of many readers they are now a main part of the book. These chapters, which contain general literary assignments, are newly arranged to place emphasis on research and recent critical theories.

THE GLOSSARY. In the discussions to the various chapters, key terms and concepts are boldfaced, and these are gathered alphabetically and explained briefly, with relevant page numbers in the text, in the comprehensive Glossary following Appendix II. The terms in the Glossary are also listed, with page numbers from the text, in the inside back cover. Because Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing may sometimes serve for reference purposes, the Glossary is intended for general use.

QUESTIONS. Following each anthologized selection in the detailed chapters are study questions designed to help students in their exploration and understanding of literature. Some questions are factual and may be answered quickly. Others provoke extended thought and classroom discussion and may also serve for both in-class and out-of-class writing assignments. At the ends of twenty-six chapters, we include a number of more general "Special Topics for Writing and Argument about (Character, Symbolism, Tragedy, etc.)." Many of these are comparison-contrast topics, and a number of them—at least one in each chapter—are assignments requiring creative writing (for example, "Write a poem" or "Compose a short scene"). What is unique about these topics is that students are asked not only to write creatively and argue cogently, but also to analyze their own creative processes. As already indicated, the sixth edition contains questions designed to add a research component to the study of the chapter topics.

DATES. To place the various works in historical context, we include the life dates for all authors. Along with the title of each anthologized work, we list the year of publication.

NUMBERING. For convenient reference, we have adopted a regular style of numbering the selections by fives:

  • Poems: every fifth paragraph
  • Stories: every fifth line
  • Poetic plays: every fifth line, starting at 1 with each new scene and act
  • Prose plays: every fifth speech, starting at 1 with each new scene and act

GLOSSES. For the poetry and poetic plays, we provide brief marginal glosses wherever they are needed. For all works, including poetry, we supply explanatory footnotes when necessary. Words and phrases that are glossed or footnoted are highlighted by a small degree sign. Footnotes are located according to line, paragraph, or speech numbers.

BOXED DISCUSSIONS WITHIN THE CHAPTERS. In some of the chapters, particularly Chapters 1, 19, 26, and 32, separately boxed sections contain brief discussions of a number of important and related matters. The topics chosen for this treatment—such as the use of tenses in discussing a work, the use of authorial names, and the concept of decorum—were based on the recommendations of instructors and students.

THEMATIC TABLE OF CONTENTS. To make Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing as flexible as possible, we have continued the Thematic Table of Contents that was first added in the fourth edition. In this table, which is located immediately following the organizational Contents, a number of thematic topics are provided, such as Women and Men; Conformity and Rebellion; Women and Their Roles; Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality; Endings and Beginnings; and Innocence and Experience. Under these topics, generous numbers of stories, poems, and plays are listed (many in a number of categories), so that entire thematic units may be created should instructors wish to use them.

PHOTOGRAPHS AND ART REPRODUCTIONS. We also include a number of art reproductions and photographs, some within the chapters and some in special ,colored inserts. We hope that these reproductions, together with others that instructors might add, will encourage comparison-and-contrast discussions and essays about the relationship of literature and art.

FICTION AND DRAMATIZATION. To strengthen the connection between fiction and dramatization, a number of stories are included that are available on videocassettes, which can be used as teaching tools for support and interpretation. A discussion of the videocassettes is included in the Instructor's Manual. In addition, we include two versions of the same subject matter for comparison—a short story and a one-act play—by the same author: Susan Glaspell's "A Jury of Her Peers" (Chapter 4) and Trifles (Chapter 26).

Revisions

There is little in the sixth edition that has not been reexamined, revised, or rewritten. Particularly noteworthy are the general introduction (Chapter 1), the introduction to poetry (Chapter 13), and the introduction to drama (Chapter 26), together with the introductory sections on Poe, Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost (Chapters 11 and 24), the chapters on figures of speech and prosody (17 and 19), and the chapters on research and taking examinations (32 and 34). Throughout, all subheads are no longer topics but have been fashioned into complete sentences. This change is made in the hope that pointed sentences will enable students to assimilate the following content more easily than before. The Glossary has been corrected and amended in a number of places. Of special importance in each of the main chapters are the sections "Questions for Discovering Ideas" and "Strategies for Organizing Ideas," which have been revised in the light of the continuing goal to help students concentrate on their writing assignments. In the sixth edition the MLA guidelines for the arrangement and dimensions of atypical essay are illustrated in Appendix I, along with the MLA recommendations for the handling of electronic references.

Wtiting and Reading

The sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, like all the previous editions, is dedicated throughout to the interlocking processes of writing and reading. There is no chapter in the book that does not contain essential information and guides for writing. Moreover, we do not simply say what can be done with a topic of literary study, but we also show ways in which it might be done. In most of the chapters there is a demonstrative student essay exemplifying the strategies and methods brought out in the chapter. Following each essay is an analytical commentary showing how the writing principles of the discussion have been carried out. The emphasis throughout these sections is the openness of the writing process along with the unique nature of writing for each topic—while fully acknowledging the need to produce more polished drafts.

Because writing is a major mode of thinking, it is an essential reinforcement of reading. Students who write about what they read learn twice, for as they plan and develop their writing they necessarily grow as thinkers. Such a combined approach is the bedrock idea of this book.

READING AND WRITING NOW AND IN THE FUTURE

A logical extension (and a major hope) of this combined approach is that the techniques students acquire in studying literature as a reading-writing undertaking will help them in every course they may ever take, and in whatever profession they follow. Students will always read—if not the authors contained here, then other authors, and certainly newspapers, legal documents, magazine articles, technical reports, business proposals, and much more. Although students may never again be required to write about topics like setting, structure, or prosody, they will certainly find a future need to write.

Indeed, the more effectively students learn to write about literature when taking their literature courses, the better they will be able to write later on—no matter what the topic. It is undeniable that the power to analyze problems and make convincing written and oral presentations is a major quality of leadership and success in all fields. To acquire the skills of disciplined reading and strong writing is therefore the best possible preparation that students can make for the future, whatever it may hold.

While we stress the value of our book as a teaching tool, we also emphasize that literature is to be enjoyed and loved. Sometimes we neglect the truth that study and delight are complementary, and that intellectual stimulation and emotional enjoyment develop not only from the immediate responses of pleasure, involvement, and sympathy, but also from the understanding, contemplation, and confidence generated by knowledge and developing skill. We therefore hope that the selections in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing will teach students about humanity, about their own perceptions, feelings, and lives, and about the timeless patterns of human existence. We hope they will take delight in such discoveries and grow as they make them. We see the book as a steppingstone to lifelong understanding and joy in great literature.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As the book goes into the sixth edition, I wish to acknowledge the many people who have offered helpful advice, information, and suggestions. To name them, as Dryden says in Absalom and Achitophel, is to praise them. They are Professors Eileen Allman, David Bady, Andrew Brilliant, Rex Butt, Stanley Coberly, Betty L. Dixon, Elizabeth Keats Flores, Alice Griffin, Robert Halli, Rebecca Heintz, Karen Holt, Claudia Johnson, Matthew Marino, Evan Matthews, Ruth Milberg-Kaye, Nancy Miller, JoAnna Stephens Mink, Ervin Nieves, Michael Paull, Bonnie Ronson, Dan Rubey, Margaret Ellen Sherwood, Beverly J. Slaughter, Keith Walters, Chloe Warner, Scott Westrem, Mardi Valgemae, Matthew Winston, and Ruth Zerner, and also Christel Bell, Linda Bridgers, Catherine Davis, Jim Freund, Edward Hoeppner, Anna F. Jacobs, Eleanor Tubbs, Nanette Roberts, April Roberts, David Roberts, and Eve Zarin. The skilled assistance of Jonathan Roberts has been essential and invaluable at every stage of all the editions.

A number of other people have provided sterling guidance for the preparation of the sixth edition. They are Professors Peggy Cole, Arapahoe Community College; Loren C. Gruber, Missouri Valley College; Edward Martin, Columbus State Community College; and Pearl McHaney, Georgia State University.

I wish especially to thank Carrie Brandon, Senior English Editor at Prentice Hall. Her understanding, creativity, cheerfulness, and helpfulness have made working with her an honor and a pleasure. I also thank Phil Miller, 'President, Humanities and Social Sciences; Leah Jewell, Editor in Chief, English; and Maggie Barbieri, Nancy Perry, Alison Reeves, Kate Morgan Jackson, Bill Oliver, and Paul O'Connell, earlier Prentice Hall English editors, for their imagination and foresight, and also for their patience with me and support of me over the years. Of major importance was the work of Ray Mullaney, former Editor in Chief, Development, for his pioneering work with the text and for his continued support. I am additionally grateful to Marlane Miriello, Viqi Wagner, Anne Marie Welsh, and (especially) Kathryn Graehl. Special words of thanks are reserved for Joan Foley of Prentice Hall, our Production Editor, who has devoted her knowledge, intelligence, diligence, and skill to the many tasks needed to bring a book of this size to fruition. Additional thanks are due to Fred Courtright for his work on securing permissions, and to Carolyn Gauntt for research into the various photographs and illustrations. I also extend my gratitude to Rachel Falk, Literature Marketing Manager, to her assistant, Chrissy Moodie, and to Literature Assistant, Sandy Hrasdzira. I give final thanks to Gina Sluss, Director of Marketing, of Prentice Hall for her constant support and enthusiasm.

My sorrow is undiminished for the loss of my associate, Professor Henry E. Jacobs (1946-1986) of the University of Alabama. His energy and creativity were essential in planning and writing the first edition, but Fate intervened before we could work together on the later editions, which are nevertheless, in effect, ,extended collaborations.

Edgar V. Roberts

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Reading, Responding to, and Writing about Literature.

What Is Literature, and Why do We Study It? Types of Literatures: The Genres. Reading Literature and Responding to It Actively.

Guy de Maupassant, The Necklace.

Reading and Responding in a Notebook or Computer File. Guidelines for Reading. Writing Essays on Literary Topics. The Goal of Writing: To Show a Process of Thought. Three Major Stages in Thinking and Writing: Discovering Ideas, Making Initial Drafts, and Completing the Essay. Discovering Ideas (“Brainstorming”). The Need to Present an Argument when Writing Essays about Literature. Assembling Materials and Beginning to Write. Drafting the Essay. Writing by Hand, Typewriter, or Word-Processor. Writing a First Draft. Using Verb Tenses in the Discussion of Literary Works. Developing an Outline. Using References and Quotations. Demonstrative Student Essay (First Draft): How Setting in “The Necklace” Is Related to the Character of Mathilde. Developing and Strengthening Essays through Revision. Checking Development and Organization. Using Exact, Comprehensive, and Forceful Language. Using the Names of Authors. Demonstrative Student Essay (Improved Draft): How Maupassant Uses Setting in “The Necklace” to Show the Character of Mathilde. Easy Commentaries. Specials Topics for Writing and Argument about the Writing Process.

READING AND WRITING ABOUT FICTION.

2. FICTION AN OVERVIEW.

Modern Fiction. The Short Story. Elements of Fiction I: Verisimilitude and Donnée. Elements of Fiction II: Character, Plot, Structure, and Idea or Theme. Elements of Fiction III: TheWriter's Tools.

Stories for Study:

Raymond Carver, Neighbors.

Edwidge Danticat, Night Talkers.

William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily.

Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried.

Alice Walker, Everyday Use.

Plot: The Motivation and Causation of Fiction. Writing about the Plot of a Story. Illustrative Student Essay: Plot in Faulkner’s“A Rose for Emily”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Plot in Fiction.

3. Structure: The Organization of Stories.

The Structure of Fiction. Formal Categories of Structure. Formal and Actual Structure.

Stories for Study:

Laurie Colwin, An Old-Fashioned Story.

Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal.

Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill.

Eudora Welty, A Worn Path.

Tom Whitecloud, Blue Winds Dancing.

Writing about Structure in a Story. Illustrative Student Essay: The Structure of Eudora Welty’s “A Worn Path.” Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Plot and Structure.

4. Characters: The People in Fiction.

Character Traits. How Authors Disclose Character in Literature. Types of Characters: Round and Flat. Reality and Probability: Verisimilitude.

Stories for Study:

Willa Cather, Paul's Case.

William Faulkner, Barn Burning.

Susan Glaspell, A Jury of Her Peers.

Joyce Carol Oates, Shopping.

Amy Tan, Two Kinds.

Writing about Character. Illustrative Student Essay: The Character of the Mother in Amy Tan's “Two Kinds”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Character.

5. Point of View: The Position or Stance of the Narrator or Speaker.

An Exercise in Point of View: Reporting an Accident. Conditions That Affect Point of View and Opinions. Determining a Work's Point of View. Mingling Points of View. Point of View and Verb Tense. Summary: Guidelines for Point of View.

Stories for Study:

Alice Adams The Last Lovely City.

Ambrose Bierce, An Occurrence at OwlCreekBridge.

Ellen Gilchrist, The Song of Songs.

Shirley Jackson, The Lottery.

Jamaica Kincaid, What I Have Been Doing Lately.

Lorrie Moore, How to Become a Writer.

Writing about Point of View. Illustrative Student Essay: Bierce’s Control Point of View in “An Occurrence at Owl Creek”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Point of View.

6. Setting: The Background of Place, Objects, and Culture in Stories.

What Is Setting? The Literary Uses of Setting.

Stories for Study:

Sandra Cisneros, The House on Mango Street.

Walter Van Tilburg Clark, The Portable Phonograph.

James Joyce, Araby.

Cynthia Ozick, The Shawl.

Irwin Shaw, Act of Faith

Stories for Study:

Writing About Setting. Illustrative Student Essay: The Interaction of Story and Setting in James Joyce's “Araby”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Setting.

7. Style: The Words That Tell the Story.

Diction: The Writer's Choice and Control of Words. Rhetoric: The Writer's Choices of Effective Arrangements and Forms. Style in General.

Stories for Study:

Ernest Hemingway, Soldier's Home.

Alice Munro, The Found Boat.

Frank O'Connor, First Confession.

Mark Twain, Luck.

John Updike, A & P.

 

Writing about Style. Illustrative Student Essay: Mark Twain’s Blending of Style and Purpose in Paragraphs 14 and 15 of “Luck.” Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Style.

8. Tone: The Expression of Attitude in Fiction.

Tone and Attitudes. Tone and Humor. Tone and Irony.

Stories for Study:

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour.

Leslie Marmon Silko, Lullaby.

Americo Paredes, The Hammon and the Beans.

Mary Yukari Waters, Aftermath.

Edith Wharton, The Other Two.

Writing about Tone. Illustrative Student Essay: Kate Chopin's Use of Irony in “The Story of an Hour”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Tone.

9. Symbolism and Allegory: Keys to Extended Meaning.

Symbolism. Allegory. Fable, Parable, and Myth. Allusion in Symbolism and Allegory.

Stories for Study:

Aesop, The Fox and the Grapes.

Anonymous, The Myth Of Atalanta.

Anita Scott Coleman, Unfinished Masterpieces.

Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown.

St. Luke, The Parable of the Prodigal Son.

Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall.

John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums.

Writing About Symbolism or Allegory. Illustrative Student Essay (Symbolism): Symbols of Light and Darkness in “The Jilting of Granny Weatherall”. Illustrative Student Essay (Allegory): The Allegory of Hawthorne's “Young Goodman Brown ”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Symbolism and Allegory.

10. Idea or Theme: The Meaning and the Message in Fiction.

Ideas and Assertions. Ideas and Issues. Ideas and Values. The Place of Ideas in Literature. How to Find Ideas.

Stories for Study:

Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson.

Anton Chekhov, Lady with Lapdog.

Ernest J. Gaines, The Sky Is Gray.

D.H. Lawrence, The Horse Dealer's Daughter.

Irene Zabytko, Home Soil.

Writing About a Major Idea in Fiction. Illustrative Student Essay: Toni Cade Bambara's Idea of Justice and Economic Equality in “The Lesson ”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Ideas.

11. A Career in Fiction: Four Stories by Edgar Allan Poe, with Critical Readings for Research.

Poe’s Life and Career. Poe’s Work as a Journalist and Writer of Fiction. Poe’s Reputation. Bibliographic Sources. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Poe.

Four of Poe’s Stories in Chronological Order:

The Fall of the House of Usher (1839).

The Masque of the Red Death (1842).

The Black Cat (1843).

The Cask of Amontillado (1846).

Selected Criticism of Poe’s Stories for Research:

 1. Poe’s Irony.

 2. The Narrators of ”The Cask of Amontillado” and “The Fall of the House of Usher.”

 3. “The Fall of the House of Usher.”

 4. “The Black Cat” and “The Tell-Tale Heart.”

 5. “The Masque of the Red Death.”

 6. Symbolism in “The Masque of the Red Death.”

 7. “The Masque of the Red Death” as Representative of a “Diseased Age.”

 8. Sources and Analoques of “The Cask of Amontillado.”

 9. Poe’s Idea of Unity and the “Fall of the House Usher.”

10. The Narrators of “The Cask of Amontillado” and “The Black Cat.”

11. Poe, Women, and “The Fall of the House of Usher.”

12. The Deceptive Narrator of “The Black Cat.”

12. Ten Stories for Additional Enjoyment and Study.

Robert Olen Butler, Snow.

John Chioles, Before the Firing Squad.

Stephen Crane, The Blue Hotel.

Stephen Dixon, All Gone.

Andre Dubus, The Curse.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper.

Flannery O’Connor, A Good Man is Had to Find.

Tillie Olson, I Stand Here Ironing.

Gaius Petronius Arbiter (Petronius), The Widow of Ephesus.

Joy Williams, Taking Care.

12A. Writing about Literature with the Aid of Research, 1.
Writing and Documenting the Research Essay on Fiction: Using Extra Resources for Understanding.

Selecting a Topic. Setting up a Bibliography. Online Library Services. Important Considerations about Computer-aided Research. Taking Notes and Paraphrasing Material. Documenting Your Work. Strategies for Organizing Ideas in Your Research Essay. Illustrative Research Essay: The Structure of Mansfield’s “Miss Brill”. Commentary on the Essay. Special Topics for Studying and Discussing How to Undertake Research Essays.

READING AND WRITING ABOUT POETRY.

13. Meeting Poetry: An Overview.

The Nature of Poetry.

Billy Collins, Schoolsville.

Lisel Mueller, Hope.

Robert Herrick, Here a Pretty Baby Lies.

Poetry of the English Language. How to Read a Poem. Studying Poetry.

Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spens.

Poems for Study:

Emily Dickinson, Because I Could Not Stop for Death.

Robert Francis, Catch.

Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.

Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed.

Joy Harjo, Eagle Poem.

Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner.

Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus.

Louis MacNeice, Snow.

Jim Northrup, Ogichidag.

Naomi Shihab Nye, Where Children Live.

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 55: Not Marble, Nor the Gilded Monument.

Elaine Terranova, Rush Hour.

Writing a Paraphrase of a Poem. Illustrative Student Paraphrase: A Paraphrase of Thomas Hardy's “The Man He Killed”. Writing an Explication of a Poem. Illustrative Student Essay: An Explication of Thomas Hardy's “The Man He Killed”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Meeting Poetry.

14. Words: The Building Blocks of Poetry.

Choice of Diction: Specific and Concrete, General and Abstract. Levels of Diction. Special Types of Diction. Decorum, the Matching of Subject and Word. Syntax. Denotation and Connotation.

Robert Graves, The Naked and the Nude.

Poems for Study:

William Blake, The Lamb.

Robert Burns, Green Grow the Rashes.

Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky.

Hayden Carruth, An Apology for Using the Word “Heart” in Too Many Poems.

E.E. Cummings, next to of course god america i.

John Donne, Holy Sonnet 14: Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God.

Richard Eberhart, The Fury of Aerial Bombardment.

Bart Edelman, Chemistry Experiment.

Thomas Gray, Sonnet on the Death of Richard West.

Jane Hirshfield, The Lives of the Heart.

A.E. Housman, Loveliest of Trees.

Carolyn Kizer, Night Sounds.

Maxine Kumin, Hello, Hello Henry.

Denise Levertov, Of Being.

Sylvia Plath, Tulips.

Henry Reed, Naming of Parts.

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory.

Theodore Roethke, Dolor.

Stephen Spender, I Think Continually of Those Who Were Truly Great.
Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock.

Mark Strand, Eating Poetry.

Writing about Diction and Syntax in Poetry. Illustrative Student Essay: Special Topics for Writing and Argument about the Words of Poetry.

15. Character and Setting: Who, What, Where, and When in Poetry.

Characters in Poetry.

Anonymous, Western Wind.

Anonymous, Bonny George Campbell.

Ben Jonson, Drink to Me, Only, with Thine Eyes.

Ben Jonson, To the Reader.

Setting and Character in Poetry.

Poems for Study:

Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach.

William Blake, London.

Elizabeth Brewster, Where I Come From.

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess.

William Cowper, The Poplar Field.

Louise Glück, Snowdrops.

Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.

Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid.

Dorianne Laux, The Life of Trees.

C. Day Lewis, Song.

Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love.

Lisel Mueller, Visiting My Native Country with My American-Born Husband.

Joyce Carol Oates, Loving.

Marge Piercy, Wellfleet Sabbath.

Al Purdy, Poem.

Sir Walter Raleigh, The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd.

Christina Rossetti, A Christmas Carol.

Jane Shore, A Letter Sent to Summer.

Maura Stanton, Childhood.

James Wright, A Blessing.

Writing about Character and Setting in Poetry. Illustrative Student Essay: The Character of the Duke in Browning's “My Last Duchess”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about the Character and Setting in Poetry.

16. Imagery: The Poem's Link to the Senses.

Responses and the Writer's Use of Detail. The Relationship of Imagery to Ideas and Attitudes. Types of Imagery.

John Masefield, Cargoes.

Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth.

Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish.

Poems for Study:

William Blake, The Tyger.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Sonnets from the Portugese, No. 14: If Thou Must Love Me.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan.

Ray Durem, I Know I'm Not Sufficiently Obscure.

T.S. Eliot, Preludes.

Susan Griffin, Love Should Grow Up Like a Wild Iris in the Fields.

Thomas Hardy, Channel Firing.

George Herbert, The Pulley.

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring.

A.E.Houseman, On Wenlock Edge.

Denise Levertov, A Time Past.

Thomas Lux, The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently.

Michael O'Siadhail, Abundance. 

Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro.

Friedrich Rückert, If You Love for the Sake of Beauty.

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 13: My Mistress' Eyes Are Nothing Like the Sun.

James Tate, Dream On.

Writing about Imagery. Illustrative Student Essay: Imagery in T.S. Eliot's “Preludes”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Imagery in Poetry.

17. Figures of Speech, or Metaphorical Language: A Source of Depth and Range in Poetry.

Metaphor and Simile: The Major Figures of Speech. Characteristics of Metaphorical Language.

John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer. Vehicle and Tenor. Other Figures of Speech.

John Keats, Bright Star.

John Gay, Let Us Take the Road.

Poems for Study:

Jack Agüeros, Sonnet for You, Familiar Famine.

Robert Burns, A Red, Red Rose.

John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning.

Abbie Huston Evans, The Iceberg Seven-Eighths Under.

Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain.

Joy Harjo, Remember.

Langston Hughes, Harlem.

John Keats, To Autumn.

Maurice Kenny, Legacy.

Jane Kenyon, Let Evening Come.

Henry King, Sic Vita.

Judith Minty, Conjoined.

Marge Piercy, A Work of Artifice.

Sylvia Plath, Metaphors.

Muriel Rukeyser, Looking at Each Other.

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18: Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day.

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 3: When to the Sessions of Sweet Silent Thought.

Elizabeth Tudor, Queen Elizabeth I, On Monsieur's Departure.

Mona Van Duyn, Earth Tremors Felt in Missouri.

Walt Whitman, Facing West from California's Shores.

William Wordsworth, London, 1802.

Sir Thomas Wyatt, I Find No Peace.

Writing about Figures of Speech. Illustrative Student Paragraph: Wordsworth's Use of Overstatement in “London, 1802”. Illustrative Student Essay: Personification in Hardy's “The Convergence of the Twain”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Figures of Speech in Poetry.

18. Tone: The Creation of Attitude in Poetry.

Tone, Choice, and Response.

Cornelius Whur, The First-Rate Wife.

Tone and the Need for Control.

Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est.

Tone and the Common Grounds of Assent.

Tone in Conversation and Poetry.

Tone and Irony.

Thomas Hardy, The Workbox.

Tone and Satire.

Alexander Pope, Epigram from the French.

Alexander Pope, Epigram, Engraved on the Collar of a Dog which I Gave to His Royal Highness.

Poems for Study:

William Blake, On Another’s Sorrow.

Jimmy Carter, I Wanted to Share My Father's World.

Lucille Clifton, Homage to my Hips.

Billy Collins, The Names.

E.E. Cummings, She being Brand-new.

Mari Evans, I Am a Black Woman.

Seamus Heany, Mid-term Break.

William Ernest Henley, When You Were Old.

Langston Hughes, Themes for English B.

X.J. Kennedy, John While Swimming in the Ocean.

Abraham Lincoln, My Childhood's Home.

Sharon Olds, The Planned Child.

Robert Pinsky, Dying.

Alexander Pope, From Epilogue to the Satires, Dialogue I.

Salvatore Quasímodo, Auschwitz.

Anne Ridler, Nothing Is Lost.

Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz.

Jonathan Swift, A Description of the Morning.

David Wagoner, My Physics Teacher.

C.K. Williams, Dimensions.

William Butler Yeats, When You Are Old.

Writing about Tone in Poetry. Illustrative Student Essay: The Tone of Confidence in “Themes for English B” by Langston Hughes. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Tone in Poetry.

19. Prosody: Sound, Rhythm, and Rhyme in Poetry.

Important Definitions for Studying Prosody. Segments: Individually Meaningful Sounds. Poetic Rhythm. The Major Metrical Feet. Special Meters. Substitution. Accentual, Strong-Stress, and “Sprung” Rhythms. The Caesura: The Pause Creating Variety and Natural Rhythms in Poetry. Segmental Poetic Devices. Rhyme: The Duplication and Similarity of Sounds. Rhyme and Meter. Rhyme Schemes.

Poems for Study:

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool.

Robert Browning, Porphyria's Lover.

Emily Dickinson, To Hear an Oriole Sing.

John Donne, The Sun Rising.

T.S. Eliot, Macavity: The Mystery Cat.

Ralph Waldo Emerson, Concord Hymn.

Isabella Gardner, At a Summer Hotel.

Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Voice.

Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur.

Langston Hughes, Let America Be America Again.

John Hall Ingham, George Washington.

Philip Levine, A Theory of Prosody.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Sound of the Sea.

Herman Melville, Shiloh: A Requiem.

Ogden Nash, Very Like a Whale.

Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee .

Edgar Allan Poe, The Bells.

Alexander Pope, From An Essay on Man, Epistle I, lines 17-90.

Wyatt Prunty, March.

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy.

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ode to the West Wind.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, From Idylls of the King: The Passing of Arthur, lines 344-393.

David Wagoner, March for a One-Man Band.

Writing about Prosody. Referring to Sounds in Poetry. Illustrative Student Essay: Rhyme, Rhythm, and Sound in Browning's “Porphyria's Lover”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Rhythm and Rhyme in Poetry.

20. Form: The Shape of the Poem.

Closed-Form Poetry.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle.

Anonymous, Spun in High, Dark Clouds.

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 116: Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds.

Open-Form Poetry.

Walt Whitman, Reconciliation.

Visual and Concrete Poetry.

George Herbert, Easter Wings.

Poems for Study:

Elizabeth Bishop, One Art.

Billy Collins, Sonnet.

E.E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill's.

John Dryden, To the Memory of Mr. Oldham.

Carolyn Forché, The Colonel.

Robert Frost, Desert Places.

Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California.

Nikki Giovanni, Nikki-Rosa.

Robert Hass, Museum.

George Herbert, Virtue.

William Heyen, Mantle.

John Hollander, Swan and Shadow, 867.

John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale.

Claude McKay, In Bondage.

John Milton, On His Blindness.

Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham.

Theodore Roethke, The Waking.

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 73: That Time of Year Thou May'st in Me Behold.

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias.

May Swenson, Women.

Dylan Thomas, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night.

Jean Toomer, Reapers.

Charles Harper Webb, The Shape of History.

Phyllis Webb, Poetics Against the Angel of Death.

William Carlos Williams, The Dance.

Writing about Form in Poetry. Illustrative Student Essay: Form and Meaning in George Herbert's “Virtue”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Poetic Form.

21. Symbolism and Allusion: Windows to Wide Expanses of Meaning.

Symbolism and Meanings.

Virginia Scott, Snow.

The Function of Symbolism in Poetry. Allusions and Meaning. Studying for Symbols and Allusions.

Poems for Study:

Emily Bronte, No Coward Soul Is Mine.

Amy Clampitt, Beach Glass.

Arthur Hugh Clough, Say Not the Struggle Nought Availeth.

Peter Davison, Delphi.

John Donne, The Canonization.

Stephen Dunn, Hawk.

Isabella Gardner, Collage of Echoes.

Louise Glück, Celestial Music.

Jorie Graham, The Geese.

Thomas Hardy, In Time of “The Breaking of Nations.”

George Herbert, The Collar.

Josephine Jacobsen, Tears.

Robinson Jeffers, The Purse-Seine.

John Keats, La Belle Dame Sans Merci.

X.J. Kennedy, Old Men Pitching Horseshoes.

Ted Kooser, Years End.

David Lehman, Venice is Sinking.

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress.

Mary Oliver, Wild Geese.

Judith Viorst, A Wedding Sonnet for the Next Generation.

Walt Whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider.

Richard Wilbur, Year's End.

William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming.

Writing about Symbolism and Allusion in Poetry. Illustrative Student Essay: Symbolism and Allusion in Yeats’ “The Second Coming”.  Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Symbolism and Allusion in Poetry.

22. Myth: Systems of Symbolic Allusion in Poetry.

Mythology as an Explanation of How Things Are. Mythology and Literature.

William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan.

Mona Van Duyn, Leda.

Six Poems Related to the Myth of Odesseus.

Poems for Study:

Louise Gluck, Penelope’s Song.

W.S.Merlin, Odysseus.

Dorothy Parker, Penelope.

Linda Pastan, The Suitor.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses.

Peter Ulisse, Odyssey: 2 Years Later.

Six Poems Related to the Myth of Icarus.

Poems for Study:

Brian Aldiss, Flight 63.

W.H.Auden, Musée des Beaux Arts.

Edward Field, Icarus.

Muriel Rukeyser, Waiting For Icarus.

Anne Sexton, To a Friend Whose Work Has Come to Triumph.

William Carlos Williams, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus.

Four Poems Related to the Myth of Orpheus.

Poems for Study:

Edward Hirsch, The Swimmers.

Rainer Maria Rilke, The Sonnets To Orpheus, XIX.

Mark Strand, Orpheus Alone.

Ellen Bryant Voight, Song and Story.

Three Poems Related to the Myth of Phoenix.

Poems for Study:

Amy Clampitt, Berceuse.

Denise Levertov, Hunting the Phoenix.

May Sarton, The Phoenix Again.

Two Poems Related to the Myth of Oedipus.

Poems for Study:

Muriel Rukeyser, Myth.

John Updike, On the Way to Delphi.

Two Poems Related to the Myth of Pan.

Poems for Study:

E.E.Cummings, in Just-.

John Chapman Farrar, Song for a Forgotten Shrine to Pan.

Writing about Myths in Poetry. Illustrative Student Essay: Myth and Meaning in Dorothy Parker’s “Penelope”. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Myths in Poetry.

23. Meaning: Idea and Theme in Poetry.

Meaning, Power, and Poetic Thought. Issues in Determining the Meaning of Poems. Meaning and Poetic Techniques.

Poems for Study:

Robert Creely, “Do you think...”

Carl Dennis, The God Who Loves You.

John Dryden, A Song for St. Cecilia's Day.

Donald Hall, Whip-poor-will.

Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time.

Langston Hughes, The Negro Speaks of Rivers.

Ben Jonson, To Celia.

Donald Justice, On the Death of Friends in Childhood.

John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn.

Philip Larkin, Next, Please.

Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica.

Eve Merriam, Reply to the Question: How Can You Become a Poet?

Lisel Mueller, Monet Refuses the Operation.

Sharon Olds, 35/10.

Linda Pastan, Ethics.

Molly Peacock, Desire.

Anne Stevenson, The Spirit Is Too Blunt an Instrument.

24. Three Poetic Careers: William Wordsworth, Emily Dickinson, and Robert Frost.

William Wordsworth.

Wordsworth and Romanticism.

William Wordsworth, My Heart Leaps Up.

Romanticism and Wordworth's Theory of Composition. Wordsworth's Poetic Diction. Bibliographic Sources. Special Topics for Writing and Arguments about the Poetry of William Wordsworth.

Fourteen Poems by William Wordsworth:
Blank Verse Poems.

From The Prelude, Book I, lines 301-474.

Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey.

Stanzaic Poems.

Daffodils (I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud).

Lines Written in Early Spring.

Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood. Expostulation and Reply.

The Tables Turned.

Stepping Westward.

The Solitary Reaper.

Sonnets.

Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3.

It Is a Beauteous Evening.

London, 1802 (in Chapter 17).

On the Extinction of the VenetianRepublic.

Scorn Not the Sonnet.

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886). Twenty-Five Poems, with Critical Readings for Research.

Life and Work. Poetic Characteristics. Poetic Subjects. Bibliographic Sources. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about the Poetry of Emily Dickinson.

Poems by Emily Dickinson:

After Great Pain, a Formal Feeling Comes (Poem J 341, F372).

Because I Could Not Stop for Death (J 712, F479), in Chapter 13.

The Bustle in a House (J 1078, F 118).

The Heart Is the Capital of the Mind (J1354, F1381).

I Cannot Live with You (J 64, F 76).

I Died for Beauty—but Was Scarce (J 449, F 448).

I Dwell in Possibility.

I Felt a Funeral in My Brain (J 28, F34).

I Heard a Fly Buzz—When I Died (J 465, F 491).

I Like to See It Lap the Miles (J 585, F 383).

I'm Nobody! Who Are You? (J 288, F 26).

I Never Lost as Much But Twice (J 49, F39).

I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed (J 214, F 27).

Much Madness Is Divinest Sense (J 435, D 62).

My Life Closed Twice Before Its Close (J 1732, F 1773).

My Triumph Lasted Till the Drums (J 1227, F 1212).

One Need Not Be a Chamber—To Be Haunted (J 67, F 47).

Safe in Their Alabaster Chambers (J 216, F 124).

Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church (J 324, F 236).

The Soul Selects Her Own Society (J 33, F 49).

Success Is Counted Sweetest (J 67, F 112).

Tell All the Truth but Tell it Slant (J 1129, F 1263).

There's a Certain Slant of Light (J 258, F 32).

To Hear an Oriole Sing (J 526, F 42), in Chapter 19.

Wild Nights—Wild Nights! (J 249, F 269).

Edited Selections from Criticism of Dickinson’s Poems, for Research.

Gelpi, Albert J. Emily Dickinson: The Mind of the Poet (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1966). From the section entitled “The Flower, The Bee, and the Spider.”

Porter, David. Dickinson: The Modern Idiom (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1981). From the section entitled “Orthodox Modernisms.”

Juhasz, Suzanne. “The Undiscovered Continent”: Emily Dickinson and the Space of the Mind” (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1983). From the chapter entitled “The Landscape of the Spirit.”

Miller, Cristanne. Emily Dickinson: A Poet’s Grammar (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1987). From the section entitled “The American Plain Style.”

Phillips, Elizabeth. Emily Dickinson: Personae and Performance (University Park:Penn State UP, 1988). From the chapter entitled “The Histrionic Imagination.”

Kirby, Joan. Emily Dickinson (New York: St.Martin’s, 1991). From the chapter entitled “The Gothic Mode:” ‘Tis so appalling-it exhilarates-‘,”

Robert Frost (1874-1963), Eighteen Poems.

Life and Work. Poetic Characteristics. Poetic Subjects. Bibliographic Sources. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about the Poetry of Robert Frost.

Eighteen Poems by Robert Frost (Chronologically Arranged):

A Line-Storm Song (1913).

The Tuft of Flowers (1913).

Mending Wall (1914).

Birches (1915).

The Road Not Taken (1915).

'Out, Out—' (1916).

The Oven Bird (1916).

Fire and Ice (1920).

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (1923), in Chapter 13.

Misgiving (1923).

Nothing Gold Can Stay (1923).

Acquainted with the Night (1928).

Desert Places (1936), in Chapter 2.

Design (1936).

The Silken Tent (1936).

The Gift Outright (1941).

A Considerable Speck (1942).

Choose Something like a Star (1943).

25. One Hundred Twenty-Four Poems for Additional Enjoyment and Study.

Maya Angelou, My Arkansas. Anonymous, Barbara Allan. Anonymous (Navajo), Healing Prayer from the Beautyway Chant. Anonymous, Lord Randal. Anonymous, The Three Ravens. Margaret Atwood, Variation on the Word Sleep. W.H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen. Wendell Berry, Another Descent. Louise Bogan, Women. Arna Bontemps, A Black Man Talks of Reaping. Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband. Gwendolyn Brooks, Primer for Blacks. Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Robert Browning, Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister. William Cullen Bryant, To Cole, the Painter, Departing for Europe. George Gordon, Lord Byron, The Destruction of Sennacherib. Lucille Clifton, this morning. Lucille Clifton, the poet. Leonard Cohen, 'The killers that run...'. Billy Collins, Days. Frances Cornford, From A Letter to America on a Visit to Sussex, Spring, 1942. Stephen Crane, Do Not Weep, Maiden, for War Is Kind. E.E. Cummings, if there are any heavens. James Dickey, Kudzu. James Dickey, The Lifeguard. James Dickey, The Performance. John Donne, The Good Morrow. John Donne, Holy Sonnet 1: Death Be Not Proud. John Donne, A Hymn to God the Father.  Paul Laurence Dunbar, Sympathy. T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. James Emanuel, The Negro. Lynn Emanuel, Like God. Chief Dan George, The Beauty of the Trees. Nikki Giovanni, Woman. Marilyn Hacker, Sonnet Ending with a Film Subtitle. John Haines, Little Cosmic Dust Poem. Donald Hall, Scenic View. Daniel Halpern, Snapshot of Hué. Daniel Halpern, Summer in the Middle Class. H.S. (Sam) Hamod, Leaves. Frances E.W. Harper, She's Free! Michael S. Harper, Called. Robert Hass, Spring Rain. Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays. George Herbert, Love (III). William Heyen, The Hair: Jacob Korman's Story. A.D Hope, Advice to Young Ladies. Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty. Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover. Carolina Hospital, Dear Tia. Julia Ward Howe, The Battle Hymn of the Republic. Langston Hughes, Negro. Robinson Jeffers, The Answer. Galway Kinnell, After Making Love We Hear Footsteps. Maxine Kumin, Woodchucks. Irving Layton, Rhine Boat Trip. Li-Young Lee, A Final Thing. Alan P. Lightman, In Computers. Liz Lochhead, The Choosing. Audre Lorde, Every Traveler Has One Vermont Poem. Amy Lowell, Patterns. Heather McHugh, Lines. Claude McKay, The WhiteCity. W.S. Merwin, Listen. Edna St. Vincent Millay, What Lips My Lips Have Kissed. N. Scott Momaday, The Bear. Lisel Mueller, Alive Together. Howard Nemerov, Life Cycle of Common Man. Jim Northrup, wahbegan. Mary Oliver, Ghosts. Simon Ortiz, A Story of How a Wall Stands. Linda Pastan, Marks. Marge Piercy, The Secretary Chant. Marge Piercy, Will We Work Together? Sylvia Plath, Mirror. Edgar Allan Poe, The Raven. Katha Pollitt, Archaeology. John Crowe Ransom, Bells for John Whiteside's Daughter. John Raven, Assailant. Adrienne Rich, Diving into the Wreck. Alberto Rios, The Vietnam Wall. Theodore Roethke, The Light Comes Brighter. Luis Omar Salinas, In a Farmhouse. Sonia Sanchez, rite on: white america. Carl Sandburg, Chicago. Siegfried Sassoon, Dreamers. Gjertrud Schnackenberg, The Paperweight. Alan Seeger, I Have a Rendezvous with Death. Brenda Serotte, My Mother's Face. William Shakespeare, Fear No More the Heat o' the Sun. William Shakespeare, Sonnet 29: When in Disgrace with Fortune and Men's Eyes. William Shakespeare, Sonnet 146: Poor Soul, the Center of My Sinful Earth. Karl Shapiro, Auto Wreck. Leslie Marmon Silko, Where Mountain Lion Lay Down with Deer. Dave Smith, Bluejays. Stevie Smith, Not Waving But Drowning. W.D. Snodgrass, These Trees Stand... Gary Soto, Oranges. Gary Soto, KearneyPark. William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark. Gerald Stern, Burying an Animal on the Way to New York. Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream. May Swenson, Question. Dylan Thomas, A Refusal to Mourn... Daniel Tobin, My Uncle’s Watch. Chase Twichell, Blurry Cow. John Updike, Perfection Wasted. Tino Villanueva, Day-Long Day. Shelly Wagner, The Boxes. Alice Walker, Revolutionary Petunias. Edmund Waller, Go, Lovely Rose. Robert Penn Warren, Heart of Autumn. Bruce Weigl, Song of Napalm. Phyllis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America. Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums! Walt Whitman, Dirge for Two Veterans. Walt Whitman, Full of Life Now. Walt Whitman, I Hear America Singing. John Greenleaf Whittier, The Bartholdi Statue, Richard Wilbur, April 5, 1974. William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow. William Butler Yeats, The Wild Swans at Coole. Paul Zimmer, The Day Zimmer Lost Religion.

25A. Writing about Literature with the Aid of Research, 2.

Writing Essays on Poetry: Using Extra Resources for Understanding.

Topics to discover in research. Illustrative student essay written with aid of research: “Beat! Beat! Drums!” and “I Hear America Singing”: Two Whitman poems spanning the Civil War.

READING AND WRITING ABOUT DRAMA.

26. The Dramatic Vision: An Overview.

Drama as Literature. Performance: The Unique Aspect of Drama. Drama from Ancient Times to Our Own: Tragedy, Comedy, and Additional Forms.

Anonymous, The Visit to the Sepulchre (Visitatio Sepulchri).

Reading Plays.

Plays for Study:

Edward Albee, The Sandbox.

Susan Glaspell, Trifles.  

Betty Keller, Tea Party.

Eugene O'Neill, Before Breakfast.

The “Wakefield Master”, The Second Shepherd's Play.

Writing about the Elements of Drama. Referring to Plays and Parts of Plays. Illustrative Student Essay: Eugene O'Neill's Use of Negative Descriptions and Stage Directions in “Before Breakfast” as a Means of Revealing Character. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about the Elements of Drama.

27. The Tragic Vision: Affirmation Through Loss.

The Origins of Tragedy. The Origin of Tragedy in Brief. The Ancient Competitions in Tragedy. Aristotle and the Nature of Tragedy. Aristotle's View of Tragedy in Brief. Irony in Tragedy. The Ancient Athenian Audience and Theater. Ancient Greek Tragic Actors and Their Costumes. Performance and the Formal Organization of Greek Tragedy.

Plays for Study:

Sophocles, Oedipus the King.

Renaissance Drama and Shakespeare's Theater.

William Shakespeare, Hamlet.

Tragedy from Shakespeare to Arthur Miller.

Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman.

Writing about Tragedy. An Essay about a Problem. Illustrative Student Essay: The Problem of Hamlet's Apparent Delay. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Tragedy.

28. The Comic Vision: Restoring the Balance.

The Origins of Comedy. Comedy from Roman Times to the Renaissance. The Patterns, Characters, and Language of Comedy. Types of Comedy.

Plays for Study:

William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream.

The Theater of Molière.

Molière, Love Is the Doctor (L'Amour Médecin).

Comedy from Molière to the Present.

Anton Chekhov, The Bear.

Beth Henley, Am I Blue.

Writing about Comedy. Illustrative Student Essay: Setting as Symbol and Comic Structure in A Midsummer's Night Dream. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Comedy.

29. Visions of Dramatic Reality and Nonreality: Varying the Idea of Drama as Imitation.

Realism and Nonrealism in Drama. Elements of Realistic and Nonrealistic Drama.

Plays for Study:

Langston Hughes, Mulatto.

Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie.

Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun.

Writing about Realistic and Nonrealistic Drama. Illustrative Student Essay: Realism and Nonrealism in Tom's Triple Role in The Glass Menagerie. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Dramatic Reality and Nonreality.

30. Dramatic Vision and the Motion Picture Camera: Drama on the Silver Screen, Television Set, and Computer Monitor, 1731.

A Thumbnail History of Film. Stage plays and film, DVD Technology and Film Study. The Aesthetics of Film, The Techniques of Film, Editing or montage.

Two film scenes for study:

Orson Welles and Herman J. Mankiewicz, Shot 71 from the Shooting Script of Citizen Kane.

Arthur Laurents, A Scene from The Turning Point.

Writing about a Film. Demonstrative Student Essay: Welle's Citizen Kane: Whittling a Giant Down to Size. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Film.

31. A Career in Drama: Henrik Ibsen’s A Dollhouse and An Enemy Of The People, with critical readings for research,

Ibsen's Life and Early Work. Ibsen's Prose Plays. Two of Ibsen’s most significant realistic prose plays. Ibsen and the “Well-Made Play.” Ibsen's Timeliness and Dramatic Power. Bibliographic Studies.

Henrik Ibsen, A Dollhouse (Et Dukkehjem).

Henrik Ibsen, An Enemy of the People (En Folkenfiende).

Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Ibsen.

Edited Selections from Criticism of Ibsen's Drama, for research.

Bjorn Hemmer, “Ibsen and the Realistic Problem Drama,” ; Michael Meyer, Henrik Ibsen: The Farewell to Poetry 1864-1882, ; Joan Templeton, “The Doll House Backlash: Criticism, Feminism, and Ibsen,” ; Barry Witman and John Lutterbie, “A Marxist approach to A Doll House,” ; James Hurt,“Cataline’s Dream: An essay on Ibsen’s plays”.

31A. Writing about Literature with the Aid of Research, 3.
Writing Essays on Drama: Using Extra Resources for Understanding.

Topics to Discover in Research. Illustrative Student Essay Written with the Aid of Research: The Ghost in Hamlet.

SPECIAL WRITING TOPICS ABOUT LITERATURE.

 

32. Critical Approaches Important in the Study of Literature.

Moral/Intellectual. Topical/Historical. New Critical/Formalist. Structuralist. Feminist. Economic Determinist/Marxist. Psychological/Psychoanalytic. Archetypal/Symbolic/Mythic. Deconstructionist, Reader-Response.

33. Taking Examinations on Literature.

Answer the Questions That Are Asked. Systematic Preparation. Two Basic Types of Questions about Literature.

34. Comparison-Contrast and Extended Comparison-Contrast: Learning by Seeing Literary Works Together.

Guidelines for the Comparison-Contrast Method. The Extended Comparison-Contrast Essay. Citing References in a Longer Comparison-Contrast Essay. Writing a Comparison-Contrast Essay. Illustrative Student Essay (Two Works): The Treatment of Responses to War in Amy Lowell's “Patterns” and Wilfred Owen's “Anthem for Doomed Youth.” Illustrative Student Essay (Extended Comparison-Contrast): Literary Treatments of the Conflicts Between Private and Public Life. Special Topics for Writing and Argument about Comparison and Contrast.

 

Appendix I: MLA Recommendations for Documenting Electronic Sources.

Appendix II: Brief Biographies of the Poets in Part III.

Glossary of Literary Terms.

Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines.

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Preface

Preface to the Sixth Edition

Like the past editions of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the sixth edition is a carefully chosen anthology. Most of the works here are by American, British, and Canadian authors, but classical writers from ancient Greece and Rome are also represented, along with more recent writers who lived in or came from Italy, Norway, Germany, Belgium, Ceylon, Indonesia, and Russia. In total, 281 authors are represented, not including anonymous writers. One hundred eighty of the authors—roughly sixty-five percent—were born after 1900. Interestingly, of the writers born since 1935, forty-one are women and thirty-five are men—a number that dramatizes the major importance of women in modern literature. The book includes a total of 491 separate works, not counting portions of critical essays. There are sixty-two stories, 410 poems, and nineteen dramatic works. Each work is suitable for discussion either alone or in comparison. Three plays, seven stories, and forty-one poems are new in this edition.

Readers will note that some of the new stories are classic, like those by Conrad, Forster, and Hardy, and some, such as those by Bambara, Gilchrist, and Oates, are well on their way to becoming classic. The new stories complement the other fifty-five stories, such as those by Atwood, Faulkner, Carver, Crane, Hawthorne, Hodgins, Joyce, Gaines, Gilman, Laurence, Porter, Twain, and Welty, that are retained from earlier editions.

The anthology includes representative poems from late medieval times to our own day, including poets such as Shakespeare, (Dray, Wordsworth, Byron, Keats, Tennyson, Rossetti, Pound, andEliot. The forty-one new poems represent a wide variety of American, British, and Canadian poets. Most of these poets are widely recognized. Berry, Cowper, Queen Elizabeth I, Chief Dan George, Hardy, Jacobsen, Levertov, Longfellow, Lux, Mueller, Van Duyn, and Wilbur come readily to mind. More recent poets, most of them with multiple prizes and awards to their credit, are Collins, Francis, Gluck, Merwin, Momaday, and Schnackenberg. Even with the many new poems in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the book still retains 369 poems that were included in the fifth edition. A poet new in the fifth edition and' retained in the sixth is Michael Ondaatje, who achieved wide recognition because of the many Academy awards received by the film version (1996) of his novel The English Patient.

In the drama section, the plays newly included are the medieval Visitatio Sepulchri, Wilder's The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, and Kauffmann's The More the Merrier. As in the fifth edition, Ibsen's An Enemy of the People is included with A Dollhouse to make up a special dramatic career chapter (31) matching the careers chapters for fiction and poetry. Chapter 11, the fiction career chapter, now includes five short stories by Edgar Allan Poe, who is acknowledged as a pioneering theorist of the short story as a genre. Chapter 24, the poetic career chapter, contains Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost, as in the fifth edition. Of special note is the inclusion of selected critical essays for special case studies of Poe, Dickinson, and Ibsen. Instructors who choose to do so can use these essays for research-based essays on these writers, and they may wish to use the selected bibliographies for more comprehensive research assignments.

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE SIXTH EDITION

The sixth edition reaffirms a principle to which the book is dedicated—flexibility. Earlier editions have been used for introduction-to-literature courses, genre courses, and both composition and composition-and-literature courses. Adaptability and flexibility have been the keys to this variety. Instructors can use the book for classroom discussions, panel discussions, essay or paragraph-length assignments, and special topics not covered in class. Students will find incentives for understanding and writing about literature through questions, study and writing guides, and also through many suggestions for strengthening their own writing—both on essays and examinations.

FICTION. The fiction section consists of eleven chapters. Chapter 2 is a general introduction to fiction while Chapters 3-10—the "topical" chapters central to each section of the book—introduce students to such important topics as structure, character, point of view, and theme. Chapter 11 is the career chapter on Poe, and Chapter 12 consists of ten stories for additional study.

POETRY. The thirteen poetry chapters are arranged similarly to the fiction chapters. Chapter 13 is introductory. Chapters 14-23 deal with topics such as symbolism, imagery, symbolism, and myth. Chapter 24 is the poetic career chapter, consisting of selections by Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost. Chapter 25 contains one hundred thirty-nine poems for additional study. In Appendix II we include the biographies of each of the anthologized poets to make the poetry section parallel with the drama and fiction sections.

DRAMA. In the drama section Chapter 26 is introductory. Chapters 27 trough 29 concern tragedy, comedy, and realism and nonrealism. At the suggestion of a number of instructors who introduce film in their courses, a unique feature begun in the third edition—Chapter 30, on film—is retained, and the discussion matches those in the other chapters. We have kept the scenes from Citizen Kane, by Welles and Mankiewicz, and The Turning Point, by Laurents. Chapter 31 is the special chapter on Ibsen. There is no "plays for additional study" chapter to match Chapters 12 and 25 because most plays are quite long, and adding more would extend the book beyond reasonable limits.

Nine of the longer plays from the previous edition have been retained because they are important in an introductory study of drama (Oedipus the King, Hamlet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Love is the Doctor, Death of a Salesman, The Glass Menagerie, Mulatto, A Dollhouse, An Enemy of the People). In an anthology of this scope, the eight short plays (Am I Blue, The Bear, Before Breakfast, Tea Party, The Visitatio Sepulchre, The More the Merrier, The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, Trifles) are valuable because they may be covered in no more than one or two classroom hours, and also because they may be enlivened by having parts acted, out by students. Indeed, the Visitatio Sepulchri and Keller's Tea Party are brief enough to permit classroom reading and discussion in a single period.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES

SPECIAL WRITING TOPICS. In the sixth edition we have retained the section titled "Special Writing Topics about Literature," which follows the drama section. This section, new in the fifth edition, contains four chapters (32-35) that were formerly appendices, but on the advice of many readers they are now a main part of the book. These chapters, which contain general literary assignments, are newly arranged to place emphasis on research and recent critical theories.

THE GLOSSARY. In the discussions to the various chapters, key terms and concepts are boldfaced, and these are gathered alphabetically and explained briefly, with relevant page numbers in the text, in the comprehensive Glossary following Appendix II. The terms in the Glossary are also listed, with page numbers from the text, in the inside back cover. Because Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing may sometimes serve for reference purposes, the Glossary is intended for general use.

QUESTIONS. Following each anthologized selection in the detailed chapters are study questions designed to help students in their exploration and understanding of literature. Some questions are factual and may be answered quickly. Others provoke extended thought and classroom discussion and may also serve for both in-class and out-of-class writing assignments. At the ends of twenty-six chapters, we include a number of more general "Special Topics for Writing and Argument about (Character, Symbolism, Tragedy, etc.)." Many of these are comparison-contrast topics, and a number of them—at least one in each chapter—are assignments requiring creative writing (for example, "Write a poem" or "Compose a short scene"). What is unique about these topics is that students are asked not only to write creatively and argue cogently, but also to analyze their own creative processes. As already indicated, the sixth edition contains questions designed to add a research component to the study of the chapter topics.

DATES. To place the various works in historical context, we include the life dates for all authors. Along with the title of each anthologized work, we list the year of publication.

NUMBERING. For convenient reference, we have adopted a regular style of numbering the selections by fives:

  • Poems: every fifth paragraph
  • Stories: every fifth line
  • Poetic plays: every fifth line, starting at 1 with each new scene and act
  • Prose plays: every fifth speech, starting at 1 with each new scene and act

GLOSSES. For the poetry and poetic plays, we provide brief marginal glosses wherever they are needed. For all works, including poetry, we supply explanatory footnotes when necessary. Words and phrases that are glossed or footnoted are highlighted by a small degree sign. Footnotes are located according to line, paragraph, or speech numbers.

BOXED DISCUSSIONS WITHIN THE CHAPTERS. In some of the chapters, particularly Chapters 1, 19, 26, and 32, separately boxed sections contain brief discussions of a number of important and related matters. The topics chosen for this treatment—such as the use of tenses in discussing a work, the use of authorial names, and the concept of decorum—were based on the recommendations of instructors and students.

THEMATIC TABLE OF CONTENTS. To make Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing as flexible as possible, we have continued the Thematic Table of Contents that was first added in the fourth edition. In this table, which is located immediately following the organizational Contents, a number of thematic topics are provided, such as Women and Men; Conformity and Rebellion; Women and Their Roles; Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality; Endings and Beginnings; and Innocence and Experience. Under these topics, generous numbers of stories, poems, and plays are listed (many in a number of categories), so that entire thematic units may be created should instructors wish to use them.

PHOTOGRAPHS AND ART REPRODUCTIONS. We also include a number of art reproductions and photographs, some within the chapters and some in special ,colored inserts. We hope that these reproductions, together with others that instructors might add, will encourage comparison-and-contrast discussions and essays about the relationship of literature and art.

FICTION AND DRAMATIZATION. To strengthen the connection between fiction and dramatization, a number of stories are included that are available on videocassettes, which can be used as teaching tools for support and interpretation. A discussion of the videocassettes is included in the Instructor's Manual. In addition, we include two versions of the same subject matter for comparison—a short story and a one-act play—by the same author: Susan Glaspell's "A Jury of Her Peers" (Chapter 4) and Trifles (Chapter 26). Revisions

There is little in the sixth edition that has not been reexamined, revised, or rewritten. Particularly noteworthy are the general introduction (Chapter 1), the introduction to poetry (Chapter 13), and the introduction to drama (Chapter 26), together with the introductory sections on Poe, Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost (Chapters 11 and 24), the chapters on figures of speech and prosody (17 and 19), and the chapters on research and taking examinations (32 and 34). Throughout, all subheads are no longer topics but have been fashioned into complete sentences. This change is made in the hope that pointed sentences will enable students to assimilate the following content more easily than before. The Glossary has been corrected and amended in a number of places. Of special importance in each of the main chapters are the sections "Questions for Discovering Ideas" and "Strategies for Organizing Ideas," which have been revised in the light of the continuing goal to help students concentrate on their writing assignments. In the sixth edition the MLA guidelines for the arrangement and dimensions of atypical essay are illustrated in Appendix I, along with the MLA recommendations for the handling of electronic references.

Wtiting and Reading

The sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, like all the previous editions, is dedicated throughout to the interlocking processes of writing and reading. There is no chapter in the book that does not contain essential information and guides for writing. Moreover, we do not simply say what can be done with a topic of literary study, but we also show ways in which it might be done. In most of the chapters there is a demonstrative student essay exemplifying the strategies and methods brought out in the chapter. Following each essay is an analytical commentary showing how the writing principles of the discussion have been carried out. The emphasis throughout these sections is the openness of the writing process along with the unique nature of writing for each topic—while fully acknowledging the need to produce more polished drafts.

Because writing is a major mode of thinking, it is an essential reinforcement of reading. Students who write about what they read learn twice, for as they plan and develop their writing they necessarily grow as thinkers. Such a combined approach is the bedrock idea of this book.

READING AND WRITING NOW AND IN THE FUTURE

A logical extension (and a major hope) of this combined approach is that the techniques students acquire in studying literature as a reading-writing undertaking will help them in every course they may ever take, and in whatever profession they follow. Students will always read—if not the authors contained here, then other authors, and certainly newspapers, legal documents, magazine articles, technical reports, business proposals, and much more. Although students may never again be required to write about topics like setting, structure, or prosody, they will certainly find a future need to write.

Indeed, the more effectively students learn to write about literature when taking their literature courses, the better they will be able to write later on—no matter what the topic. It is undeniable that the power to analyze problems and make convincing written and oral presentations is a major quality of leadership and success in all fields. To acquire the skills of disciplined reading and strong writing is therefore the best possible preparation that students can make for the future, whatever it may hold.

While we stress the value of our book as a teaching tool, we also emphasize that literature is to be enjoyed and loved. Sometimes we neglect the truth that study and delight are complementary, and that intellectual stimulation and emotional enjoyment develop not only from the immediate responses of pleasure, involvement, and sympathy, but also from the understanding, contemplation, and confidence generated by knowledge and developing skill. We therefore hope that the selections in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing will teach students about humanity, about their own perceptions, feelings, and lives, and about the timeless patterns of human existence. We hope they will take delight in such discoveries and grow as they make them. We see the book as a steppingstone to lifelong understanding and joy in great literature.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As the book goes into the sixth edition, I wish to acknowledge the many people who have offered helpful advice, information, and suggestions. To name them, as Dryden says in Absalom and Achitophel, is to praise them. They are Professors Eileen Allman, David Bady, Andrew Brilliant, Rex Butt, Stanley Coberly, Betty L. Dixon, Elizabeth Keats Flores, Alice Griffin, Robert Halli, Rebecca Heintz, Karen Holt, Claudia Johnson, Matthew Marino, Evan Matthews, Ruth Milberg-Kaye, Nancy Miller, JoAnna Stephens Mink, Ervin Nieves, Michael Paull, Bonnie Ronson, Dan Rubey, Margaret Ellen Sherwood, Beverly J. Slaughter, Keith Walters, Chloe Warner, Scott Westrem, Mardi Valgemae, Matthew Winston, and Ruth Zerner, and also Christel Bell, Linda Bridgers, Catherine Davis, Jim Freund, Edward Hoeppner, Anna F. Jacobs, Eleanor Tubbs, Nanette Roberts, April Roberts, David Roberts, and Eve Zarin. The skilled assistance of Jonathan Roberts has been essential and invaluable at every stage of all the editions.

A number of other people have provided sterling guidance for the preparation of the sixth edition. They are Professors Peggy Cole, Arapahoe Community College; Loren C. Gruber, Missouri Valley College; Edward Martin, Columbus State Community College; and Pearl McHaney, Georgia State University.

I wish especially to thank Carrie Brandon, Senior English Editor at Prentice Hall. Her understanding, creativity, cheerfulness, and helpfulness have made working with her an honor and a pleasure. I also thank Phil Miller, 'President, Humanities and Social Sciences; Leah Jewell, Editor in Chief, English; and Maggie Barbieri, Nancy Perry, Alison Reeves, Kate Morgan Jackson, Bill Oliver, and Paul O'Connell, earlier Prentice Hall English editors, for their imagination and foresight, and also for their patience with me and support of me over the years. Of major importance was the work of Ray Mullaney, former Editor in Chief, Development, for his pioneering work with the text and for his continued support. I am additionally grateful to Marlane Miriello, Viqi Wagner, Anne Marie Welsh, and (especially) Kathryn Graehl. Special words of thanks are reserved for Joan Foley of Prentice Hall, our Production Editor, who has devoted her knowledge, intelligence, diligence, and skill to the many tasks needed to bring a book of this size to fruition. Additional thanks are due to Fred Courtright for his work on securing permissions, and to Carolyn Gauntt for research into the various photographs and illustrations. I also extend my gratitude to Rachel Falk, Literature Marketing Manager, to her assistant, Chrissy Moodie, and to Literature Assistant, Sandy Hrasdzira. I give final thanks to Gina Sluss, Director of Marketing, of Prentice Hall for her constant support and enthusiasm.

My sorrow is undiminished for the loss of my associate, Professor Henry E. Jacobs (1946-1986) of the University of Alabama. His energy and creativity were essential in planning and writing the first edition, but Fate intervened before we could work together on the later editions, which are nevertheless, in effect, ,extended collaborations.

Edgar V. Roberts

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