Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing / Edition 9

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Overview

Technology continues to play a major role with the success of Literature through the online study resource. This site is a comprehensive resource that is organized according to the chapters within the text and features a variety of learning and teaching modules.
  • Reference Modules contain Web Destinations and Net Search options that provide the opportunity to expand upon information presented in the text.
  • Study Guide Modules present a variety of exercises and features designed to help students with self-study for every fiction and drama selection and over half of the poetry. These modules include:
    • Essay questions
    • Multiple choices
    • Built-in e-mail routing options that give students the ability to forward essay responses and computer-graded quizzes to their instructors
  • Communication Modules include tools such as Live Chat and Message Board to facilitate online collaboration and communication.
  • A "Writing about Literature" section offers students prompts for setting up an outline.
  • A "Living Timeline" for literature gives students perspectives on historical, political, and cultural information.

The Companion Website™ makes integrating the Internet into your course exciting and easy.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136040996
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 11/29/2008
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 2080
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 2.50 (d)

Meet the Author

About Edgar V. Roberts

Edgar V. Roberts, Emeritus Professor of English at Lehman College of The City University of New York, is a native of Minnesota. He graduated from the Minneapolis public schools in 1946, and received his Doctorate from the University of Minnesota in 1960. He taught English at Minnesota, the University of Maryland Overseas Division, Wayne State University, Hunter College, and Lehman College. From 1979 to 1988, He was Chair of the English Department of Lehman College.

He served in the U.S. Army in 1946 and 1947, seeing duty in Arkansas, the Philippine Islands, and Colorado.

He published articles about the plays of Henry Fielding, the subject of his Ph.D. dissertation. In 1968 he published a scholarly edition of John Gay's The Beggar's Opera (1728), and in 1969 he published a similar edition of Fielding's The Grub-Street Opera (1731), both with the University of Nebraska Press. He first published Writing About Literature (then named Writing Themes About Literature) in 1964, with Prentice Hall. Since then, this book has undergone eleven separate revisions, for a total of twelve editions. In 1986, with Henry E. Jacobs of the University of Alabama, he published the first edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing. After Professor Jacobs's untimely death in the summer of 1986, Professor Roberts continued working on changes and revisions to keep this text up to date. The Ninth Edition was published early in 2009, with Pearson Longman. The Fourth Compact Edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing was published in 2008.

Professor Roberts is an enthusiastic devoté of symphonic music and choral singing, having sung in local church choirs for forty years. Recently he has sung (bass) with the New Choral Society of Scarsdale, New York (where he lives), singing in classic works by Handel, Beethoven, Bruckner, Bach, Orff, Britten, Brahms, and others. He is a fan of both the New York Mets and the New York Yankees. When the two teams play in inter-league games, he is uneasy because he dislikes seeing either team lose. He also likes both the Giants and the Jets. He has been an avid jogger ever since the early 1960s, and he enjoys watching national and international track meets.

Professor Roberts encourages queries, comments, and suggestions from students who have been using any of the various books. Use the following email address: edgar.roberts@verizon.net.

About Robert Zweig

Robert Zweig is a tenured, full professor at Manhattan Community College of the City University of New York. He teaches courses in Literature and Writing and for many years was the Intensive Writing Coordinator for the college

He has a doctorate in English Literature from the City University of New York, a Masters from Queens College in creative writing and a bachelor’s degree from Queens College in English literature. Dr. Zweig has numerous peer-reviewed publications in journals, encyclopedias and books. In addition, he is currently writing two textbooks for McGraw-Hill on the writing process, due out in 2011, another textbook, Grammar in the Modern World (Pearson) due out in 2011 and is co-author of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, a bestselling introduction to literature textbook by Longman Publishers. His translations of the Italian poet and Nobel Laureate Eugentio Montale appear in this text.

Also, Dr. Zweig has lectured extensively throughout the United States and Italy on Victorian Literature, Poetics and contemporary culture. Some of the American universities he has addressed include Notre Dame, New York University, University of California, Harvard, University of Illinois, University of Delaware, Rutgers University and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.

He has received several scholarships and awards, including a Mellon Fellowship and the Phi Beta Kappa award for “Outstanding Teaching Skills” as one of the Top Ten Professors at Manhattan Community College.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface to the Sixth Edition

Like the past editions of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the sixth edition is a carefully chosen anthology. Most of the works here are by American, British, and Canadian authors, but classical writers from ancient Greece and Rome are also represented, along with more recent writers who lived in or came from Italy, Norway, Germany, Belgium, Ceylon, Indonesia, and Russia. In total, 281 authors are represented, not including anonymous writers. One hundred eighty of the authors—roughly sixty-five percent—were born after 1900. Interestingly, of the writers born since 1935, forty-one are women and thirty-five are men—a number that dramatizes the major importance of women in modern literature. The book includes a total of 491 separate works, not counting portions of critical essays. There are sixty-two stories, 410 poems, and nineteen dramatic works. Each work is suitable for discussion either alone or in comparison. Three plays, seven stories, and forty-one poems are new in this edition.

Readers will note that some of the new stories are classic, like those by Conrad, Forster, and Hardy, and some, such as those by Bambara, Gilchrist, and Oates, are well on their way to becoming classic. The new stories complement the other fifty-five stories, such as those by Atwood, Faulkner, Carver, Crane, Hawthorne, Hodgins, Joyce, Gaines, Gilman, Laurence, Porter, Twain, and Welty, that are retained from earlier editions.

The anthology includes representative poems from late medieval times to our own day, including poets such as Shakespeare, (Dray, Wordsworth, Byron, Keats,Tennyson, Rossetti, Pound, and Eliot. The forty-one new poems represent a wide variety of American, British, and Canadian poets. Most of these poets are widely recognized. Berry, Cowper, Queen Elizabeth I, Chief Dan George, Hardy, Jacobsen, Levertov, Longfellow, Lux, Mueller, Van Duyn, and Wilbur come readily to mind. More recent poets, most of them with multiple prizes and awards to their credit, are Collins, Francis, Gluck, Merwin, Momaday, and Schnackenberg. Even with the many new poems in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the book still retains 369 poems that were included in the fifth edition. A poet new in the fifth edition and' retained in the sixth is Michael Ondaatje, who achieved wide recognition because of the many Academy awards received by the film version (1996) of his novel The English Patient.

In the drama section, the plays newly included are the medieval Visitatio Sepulchri, Wilder's The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, and Kauffmann's The More the Merrier. As in the fifth edition, Ibsen's An Enemy of the People is included with A Dollhouse to make up a special dramatic career chapter (31) matching the careers chapters for fiction and poetry. Chapter 11, the fiction career chapter, now includes five short stories by Edgar Allan Poe, who is acknowledged as a pioneering theorist of the short story as a genre. Chapter 24, the poetic career chapter, contains Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost, as in the fifth edition. Of special note is the inclusion of selected critical essays for special case studies of Poe, Dickinson, and Ibsen. Instructors who choose to do so can use these essays for research-based essays on these writers, and they may wish to use the selected bibliographies for more comprehensive research assignments.

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE SIXTH EDITION

The sixth edition reaffirms a principle to which the book is dedicated—flexibility. Earlier editions have been used for introduction-to-literature courses, genre courses, and both composition and composition-and-literature courses. Adaptability and flexibility have been the keys to this variety. Instructors can use the book for classroom discussions, panel discussions, essay or paragraph-length assignments, and special topics not covered in class. Students will find incentives for understanding and writing about literature through questions, study and writing guides, and also through many suggestions for strengthening their own writing—both on essays and examinations.

FICTION. The fiction section consists of eleven chapters. Chapter 2 is a general introduction to fiction while Chapters 3-10—the "topical" chapters central to each section of the book—introduce students to such important topics as structure, character, point of view, and theme. Chapter 11 is the career chapter on Poe, and Chapter 12 consists of ten stories for additional study.

POETRY. The thirteen poetry chapters are arranged similarly to the fiction chapters. Chapter 13 is introductory. Chapters 14-23 deal with topics such as symbolism, imagery, symbolism, and myth. Chapter 24 is the poetic career chapter, consisting of selections by Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost. Chapter 25 contains one hundred thirty-nine poems for additional study. In Appendix II we include the biographies of each of the anthologized poets to make the poetry section parallel with the drama and fiction sections.

DRAMA. In the drama section Chapter 26 is introductory. Chapters 27 trough 29 concern tragedy, comedy, and realism and nonrealism. At the suggestion of a number of instructors who introduce film in their courses, a unique feature begun in the third edition—Chapter 30, on film—is retained, and the discussion matches those in the other chapters. We have kept the scenes from Citizen Kane, by Welles and Mankiewicz, and The Turning Point, by Laurents. Chapter 31 is the special chapter on Ibsen. There is no "plays for additional study" chapter to match Chapters 12 and 25 because most plays are quite long, and adding more would extend the book beyond reasonable limits.

Nine of the longer plays from the previous edition have been retained because they are important in an introductory study of drama (Oedipus the King, Hamlet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Love is the Doctor, Death of a Salesman, The Glass Menagerie, Mulatto, A Dollhouse, An Enemy of the People). In an anthology of this scope, the eight short plays (Am I Blue, The Bear, Before Breakfast, Tea Party, The Visitatio Sepulchre, The More the Merrier, The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, Trifles) are valuable because they may be covered in no more than one or two classroom hours, and also because they may be enlivened by having parts acted, out by students. Indeed, the Visitatio Sepulchri and Keller's Tea Party are brief enough to permit classroom reading and discussion in a single period.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES

SPECIAL WRITING TOPICS. In the sixth edition we have retained the section titled "Special Writing Topics about Literature," which follows the drama section. This section, new in the fifth edition, contains four chapters (32-35) that were formerly appendices, but on the advice of many readers they are now a main part of the book. These chapters, which contain general literary assignments, are newly arranged to place emphasis on research and recent critical theories.

THE GLOSSARY. In the discussions to the various chapters, key terms and concepts are boldfaced, and these are gathered alphabetically and explained briefly, with relevant page numbers in the text, in the comprehensive Glossary following Appendix II. The terms in the Glossary are also listed, with page numbers from the text, in the inside back cover. Because Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing may sometimes serve for reference purposes, the Glossary is intended for general use.

QUESTIONS. Following each anthologized selection in the detailed chapters are study questions designed to help students in their exploration and understanding of literature. Some questions are factual and may be answered quickly. Others provoke extended thought and classroom discussion and may also serve for both in-class and out-of-class writing assignments. At the ends of twenty-six chapters, we include a number of more general "Special Topics for Writing and Argument about (Character, Symbolism, Tragedy, etc.)." Many of these are comparison-contrast topics, and a number of them—at least one in each chapter—are assignments requiring creative writing (for example, "Write a poem" or "Compose a short scene"). What is unique about these topics is that students are asked not only to write creatively and argue cogently, but also to analyze their own creative processes. As already indicated, the sixth edition contains questions designed to add a research component to the study of the chapter topics.

DATES. To place the various works in historical context, we include the life dates for all authors. Along with the title of each anthologized work, we list the year of publication.

NUMBERING. For convenient reference, we have adopted a regular style of numbering the selections by fives:

  • Poems: every fifth paragraph
  • Stories: every fifth line
  • Poetic plays: every fifth line, starting at 1 with each new scene and act
  • Prose plays: every fifth speech, starting at 1 with each new scene and act

GLOSSES. For the poetry and poetic plays, we provide brief marginal glosses wherever they are needed. For all works, including poetry, we supply explanatory footnotes when necessary. Words and phrases that are glossed or footnoted are highlighted by a small degree sign. Footnotes are located according to line, paragraph, or speech numbers.

BOXED DISCUSSIONS WITHIN THE CHAPTERS. In some of the chapters, particularly Chapters 1, 19, 26, and 32, separately boxed sections contain brief discussions of a number of important and related matters. The topics chosen for this treatment—such as the use of tenses in discussing a work, the use of authorial names, and the concept of decorum—were based on the recommendations of instructors and students.

THEMATIC TABLE OF CONTENTS. To make Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing as flexible as possible, we have continued the Thematic Table of Contents that was first added in the fourth edition. In this table, which is located immediately following the organizational Contents, a number of thematic topics are provided, such as Women and Men; Conformity and Rebellion; Women and Their Roles; Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality; Endings and Beginnings; and Innocence and Experience. Under these topics, generous numbers of stories, poems, and plays are listed (many in a number of categories), so that entire thematic units may be created should instructors wish to use them.

PHOTOGRAPHS AND ART REPRODUCTIONS. We also include a number of art reproductions and photographs, some within the chapters and some in special ,colored inserts. We hope that these reproductions, together with others that instructors might add, will encourage comparison-and-contrast discussions and essays about the relationship of literature and art.

FICTION AND DRAMATIZATION. To strengthen the connection between fiction and dramatization, a number of stories are included that are available on videocassettes, which can be used as teaching tools for support and interpretation. A discussion of the videocassettes is included in the Instructor's Manual. In addition, we include two versions of the same subject matter for comparison—a short story and a one-act play—by the same author: Susan Glaspell's "A Jury of Her Peers" (Chapter 4) and Trifles (Chapter 26).

Revisions

There is little in the sixth edition that has not been reexamined, revised, or rewritten. Particularly noteworthy are the general introduction (Chapter 1), the introduction to poetry (Chapter 13), and the introduction to drama (Chapter 26), together with the introductory sections on Poe, Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost (Chapters 11 and 24), the chapters on figures of speech and prosody (17 and 19), and the chapters on research and taking examinations (32 and 34). Throughout, all subheads are no longer topics but have been fashioned into complete sentences. This change is made in the hope that pointed sentences will enable students to assimilate the following content more easily than before. The Glossary has been corrected and amended in a number of places. Of special importance in each of the main chapters are the sections "Questions for Discovering Ideas" and "Strategies for Organizing Ideas," which have been revised in the light of the continuing goal to help students concentrate on their writing assignments. In the sixth edition the MLA guidelines for the arrangement and dimensions of atypical essay are illustrated in Appendix I, along with the MLA recommendations for the handling of electronic references.

Wtiting and Reading

The sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, like all the previous editions, is dedicated throughout to the interlocking processes of writing and reading. There is no chapter in the book that does not contain essential information and guides for writing. Moreover, we do not simply say what can be done with a topic of literary study, but we also show ways in which it might be done. In most of the chapters there is a demonstrative student essay exemplifying the strategies and methods brought out in the chapter. Following each essay is an analytical commentary showing how the writing principles of the discussion have been carried out. The emphasis throughout these sections is the openness of the writing process along with the unique nature of writing for each topic—while fully acknowledging the need to produce more polished drafts.

Because writing is a major mode of thinking, it is an essential reinforcement of reading. Students who write about what they read learn twice, for as they plan and develop their writing they necessarily grow as thinkers. Such a combined approach is the bedrock idea of this book.

READING AND WRITING NOW AND IN THE FUTURE

A logical extension (and a major hope) of this combined approach is that the techniques students acquire in studying literature as a reading-writing undertaking will help them in every course they may ever take, and in whatever profession they follow. Students will always read—if not the authors contained here, then other authors, and certainly newspapers, legal documents, magazine articles, technical reports, business proposals, and much more. Although students may never again be required to write about topics like setting, structure, or prosody, they will certainly find a future need to write.

Indeed, the more effectively students learn to write about literature when taking their literature courses, the better they will be able to write later on—no matter what the topic. It is undeniable that the power to analyze problems and make convincing written and oral presentations is a major quality of leadership and success in all fields. To acquire the skills of disciplined reading and strong writing is therefore the best possible preparation that students can make for the future, whatever it may hold.

While we stress the value of our book as a teaching tool, we also emphasize that literature is to be enjoyed and loved. Sometimes we neglect the truth that study and delight are complementary, and that intellectual stimulation and emotional enjoyment develop not only from the immediate responses of pleasure, involvement, and sympathy, but also from the understanding, contemplation, and confidence generated by knowledge and developing skill. We therefore hope that the selections in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing will teach students about humanity, about their own perceptions, feelings, and lives, and about the timeless patterns of human existence. We hope they will take delight in such discoveries and grow as they make them. We see the book as a steppingstone to lifelong understanding and joy in great literature.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As the book goes into the sixth edition, I wish to acknowledge the many people who have offered helpful advice, information, and suggestions. To name them, as Dryden says in Absalom and Achitophel, is to praise them. They are Professors Eileen Allman, David Bady, Andrew Brilliant, Rex Butt, Stanley Coberly, Betty L. Dixon, Elizabeth Keats Flores, Alice Griffin, Robert Halli, Rebecca Heintz, Karen Holt, Claudia Johnson, Matthew Marino, Evan Matthews, Ruth Milberg-Kaye, Nancy Miller, JoAnna Stephens Mink, Ervin Nieves, Michael Paull, Bonnie Ronson, Dan Rubey, Margaret Ellen Sherwood, Beverly J. Slaughter, Keith Walters, Chloe Warner, Scott Westrem, Mardi Valgemae, Matthew Winston, and Ruth Zerner, and also Christel Bell, Linda Bridgers, Catherine Davis, Jim Freund, Edward Hoeppner, Anna F. Jacobs, Eleanor Tubbs, Nanette Roberts, April Roberts, David Roberts, and Eve Zarin. The skilled assistance of Jonathan Roberts has been essential and invaluable at every stage of all the editions.

A number of other people have provided sterling guidance for the preparation of the sixth edition. They are Professors Peggy Cole, Arapahoe Community College; Loren C. Gruber, Missouri Valley College; Edward Martin, Columbus State Community College; and Pearl McHaney, Georgia State University.

I wish especially to thank Carrie Brandon, Senior English Editor at Prentice Hall. Her understanding, creativity, cheerfulness, and helpfulness have made working with her an honor and a pleasure. I also thank Phil Miller, 'President, Humanities and Social Sciences; Leah Jewell, Editor in Chief, English; and Maggie Barbieri, Nancy Perry, Alison Reeves, Kate Morgan Jackson, Bill Oliver, and Paul O'Connell, earlier Prentice Hall English editors, for their imagination and foresight, and also for their patience with me and support of me over the years. Of major importance was the work of Ray Mullaney, former Editor in Chief, Development, for his pioneering work with the text and for his continued support. I am additionally grateful to Marlane Miriello, Viqi Wagner, Anne Marie Welsh, and (especially) Kathryn Graehl. Special words of thanks are reserved for Joan Foley of Prentice Hall, our Production Editor, who has devoted her knowledge, intelligence, diligence, and skill to the many tasks needed to bring a book of this size to fruition. Additional thanks are due to Fred Courtright for his work on securing permissions, and to Carolyn Gauntt for research into the various photographs and illustrations. I also extend my gratitude to Rachel Falk, Literature Marketing Manager, to her assistant, Chrissy Moodie, and to Literature Assistant, Sandy Hrasdzira. I give final thanks to Gina Sluss, Director of Marketing, of Prentice Hall for her constant support and enthusiasm.

My sorrow is undiminished for the loss of my associate, Professor Henry E. Jacobs (1946-1986) of the University of Alabama. His energy and creativity were essential in planning and writing the first edition, but Fate intervened before we could work together on the later editions, which are nevertheless, in effect, ,extended collaborations.

Edgar V. Roberts

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Reading, Responding to, and Writing about Literature.
Guy de Maupassant, The Necklace.

I. READING AND WRITING ABOUT FICTION.


2. Fiction: An Overview.

Stories for Study.

Raymond Carver, Neighbors. Laurie Colwin, An Old-Fashioned Story. Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried. Alice Walker, Everyday Use. Joy Williams, Taking Care.
3. Plot and Structure: The Development and Organization of Stories.

Stories for Study:

Stephen Crane, The Blue Hotel. Thomas Hardy, The Three Strangers. Jamaica Kincaid, What I Have Been Doing Lately. Eudora Welty, A Worn Path. Tom Whitecloud, Blue Winds Dancing.
4. Characters: The People in Fiction.

Stories for Study:

Willa Cather, Paul's Case. William Faulkner, Barn Burning. Susan Glaspell, A Jury of Her Peers. Joyce Carol Oates, Shopping. Amy Tan, Two Kinds.
5. Point of View: The Position or Stance of the Narrator or Speaker.

Stories for Study:

Sherwood Anderson, I'm a Fool. Ambrose Bierce, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge. Ellen Gilchrist, The Song of Songs. Shirley Jackson, The Lottery. Lorrie Moore, How to Become a Writer.
6. Setting: The Background of Place, Objects, andCulture in Stories.

Stories for Study:

Sandra Cisneros, The House on Mango Street. Walter Van Tilburg Clark, The Portable Phonograph. Joseph Conrad, The Secret Sharer. Joanne Greenberg, And Sarah Laughed. Cynthia Ozick, The Shawl.
7. Style: The Words That Tell the Story.

Stories for Study:

Ernest Hemingway, Soldier's Home. Alice Munro, The Found Boat. Frank O'Connor, First Confession. Mark Twain, Luck. John Updike, A & P.
8. Tone: The Expression of Attitude in Fiction.

Stories for Study:

Margaret Atwood, Rape Fantasies. Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour. Jack Hodgins, The Concert Stages of Europe. Margaret Laurence, The Loons. Américo Parédes, The Hammon and the Beans.
9. Symbolism and Allegory: Keys to Extended Meaning.

Stories for Study:

Aesop, The Fox and the Grapes. Anonymous, The Myth Of Atalanta. Anita Scott Coleman, Unfinished Masterpieces. Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown. St. Luke, The Parable of the Prodigal Son. John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums. Michel Tremblay, The Thimble.
10. Idea or Theme: The Meaning and the Message in Fiction.

Stories for Study:

Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson. Ernest J. Gaines, The Sky Is Gray. James Joyce, Araby. D.H. Lawrence, The Horse Dealer's Daughter. Irene Zabytko, Home Soil.
11. A Career in Fiction: A Collection of Stories by Edgar Allan Poe.

(Stories by Poe Arranged in Chronological Order.)

The Fall of the House of Usher (1839). The Masque of the Red Death (1842). The Black Cat (1843). The Purloined Letter (1844). The Cask of Amontillado (1846).
12. Stories for Additional Study.
Robert Olen Butler, Snow. Stephen Dixon, All Gone. Andre Dubus, The Curse. E.M. Forster, The Point of It. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper. Doris Lessing, The Old Chief Mshlanga. Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find. Tillie Olsen, I Stand Here Ironing. Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall.

II. READING AND WRITING ABOUT POETRY.

13. Meeting Poetry: An Overview.
Lisel Mueller, Hope. Billy Collins, Schoolsville. Robert Herrick, Here a Pretty Baby Lies.

Poems for Study:

Emily Dickinson, Because I Could Not Stop for Death. Robert Francis, Catch. Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed. Joy Harjo, Eagle Poem. A.E. Housman, Loveliest of Trees.Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner. Louis MacNeice, Snow. Jim Northrup, Ogichidag. Naomi Shihab Nye, Where Children Live. William Shakespeare, Sonnet 55: Not Marble, Nor the Gilded Monuments.
14. Character and Setting: Who, What, Where, and When in Poetry.
Anonymous, Western Wind. Anonymous, Bonny George Campbell. Ben Jonson, Drink to Me, Only, with Thine Eyes. Ben Jonson, To the Reader.

Poems for Study:

Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach. William Blake, London. Robert Browning, My Last Duchess. William Cowper, The Poplar Field. Louise Glück, Snowdrops. Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard. Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid. Thomas Hardy, Channel Firing. C. Day Lewis, Song. Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love. Marge Piercy, Wellfleet Sabbath. Al Purdy, Poem.Sir Walter Raleigh, The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd. Christina Rossetti, A Christmas Carol. Jane Shore, A Letter Sent to Summer. Maura Stanton, Childhood. James Wright, A Blessing.
15. Words: The Building Blocks of Poetry.
Robert Graves, The Naked and the Nude.

Poems for Study:

William Blake, The Lamb. Robert Burns, Green Grow the Rashes, O. Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky. John Donne, Holy Sonnet 14: Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God. Richard Eberhart The Fury of Aerial Bombardment. Thomas Gray, Sonnet on the Death of Richard West. Carolyn Kizer, Night Sounds Maxine Kumin, Hello, Hello Henry. Denise Levertov, Of Being. Henry Reed, Naming of Parts. Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory. Theodore Roethke, Dolor. Stephen Spender, I Think Continually of Those Who Were Truly Great.Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock. Mark Strand, Eating Poetry.
16. Imagery: The Poem's Link to the Senses.
John Masefield, Cargoes. Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth. Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish.

Poems for Study:

William Blake, The Tyger.Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Sonnets from the Portugese, No. 14: If Thou Must Love Me. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan. Richard Crashaw, On Our Crucified Lord, Naked and Bloody. Ray Durem, I Know I 'm Not Sufficiently Obscure. T.S. Eliot, Preludes. George Herbert, The Pulley. Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring. Denise Levertov, A Time Past. Thomas Lux, The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently. P.K. Page, Photos of a Salt Mine. Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro. Friedrich Rückert, If You Love for the Sake of Beauty. William Shakespeare, Sonnet 130: My Mistress' Eyes Are Nothing Like the Sun. David Wojahn, “It's Only Rock and Roll but I Like It:” The Fall of Saigon.
17. Figures of Speech, or Metaphorical Language: A Source of Depth and Range in Poetry.
John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer. John Keats, Bright Star. John Gay, Let Us Take the Road.

Poems for Study:

Robert Burns, A Red, Red Rose. John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning. T.S. Eliot, Eyes That Last I Saw in Tears. Abbie Huston Evans, The Iceberg Seven-eighths Under. Langston Hughes, Harlem. John Keats, To Autumn. Jane Kenyon, Portrait of a Figure Near Water. Henry King, Sic Vita. Judith Minty, Conjoined. Ogden Nash, Exit, Pursued by a Bear. Marge Piercy, A Work of Artifice. Sylvia Plath, Metaphors. Muriel Rukeyser, Looking at Each Other. William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18: Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day. William Shakespeare, Sonnet 30: When to the Sessions of Sweet Silent Thought. Elizabeth Tudor, Queen Elizabeth I, On Monsieur's Departure. Mona Van Duyn, Earth Tremors Felt in Missouri. Diane Wakoski, Inside Out. Walt Whitman, Facing West from California's Shores. William Wordsworth, London, 1802. Sir Thomas Wyatt, I Find No Peace.
18. Tone: The Creation of Attitude in Poetry.
Cornelius Whur, The First-Rate Wife. Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est. Thomas Hardy, The Workbox. Alexander Pope, Epigram from the French. Alexander Pope, Epigram, Engraved on the Collar of a Dog which I gave to his Royal Highness.

Poems for Study:

Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book. Lucille Clifton, homage to my hips. e.e. cummings, she being Brand/-new. Mari Evans, I Am a Black Woman. Langston Hughes, Theme for English B. X.J. Kennedy, John while swimming in the ocean. Sharon Olds, The Planned Child. Michael Ondaatje, Late Movies with Skyler. Robert Pinsky, Dying. Alexander Pope, from Epilogue to the Satires, Dialogue I. Salvatore Quasímodo, Auschwitz. Anne Ridler, Nothing Is Lost. Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz. Jonathan Swift, A Description of the Morning. David Wagoner, My Physics Teacher. C.K. Williams, Dimensions.
19. Prosody: Sound, Rhythm, and Rhyme in Poetry.

Poems for Study:

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool. Emily Dickinson, To Hear an Oriole Sing. John Donne, The Sun Rising. T.S. Eliot, Macavity: The Mystery Cat. Isabella Gardner, At a Summer Hotel. Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Voice. Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur. Langston Hughes, Let America Be America Again. Philip Levine, A Theory of Prosody. William Wadsworth Longfellow, The Sound of the Sea. Ogden Nash, Very Like a Whale. Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee . Edgar Allan Poe, The Bells. Alexander Pope, from An Essay on Man, Epistle I, lines 17-90.Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy. William Shakespeare, Sonnet 73: That Time of Year Thou May'st in Me Behold. Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ode to the West Wind. Alfred, Lord Tennyson, from Idylls of the King: The Passing of Arthur, lines 344-393. David Wagoner, March for a One-Man Band.
20. Form: The Shape of the Poem.
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle. Anonymous, Spun in High, Dark Clouds. William Shakespeare, Sonnet 116: Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds. Walt Whitman, Reconciliation. George Herbert, Easter Wings.

Poems For Study.

Elizabeth Bishop, One Art. Billy Collins, Sonnet. e.e. cummings, Buffalo Bill's Defunct. John Dryden, To the Memory of Mr. Oldham. Robert Frost, Desert Places. Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California. Nikki Giovanni, Nikki-Rosa. Robert Haas, Museum. George Herbert, Virtue. William Heyen, Mantle. John Hollander, Swan and Shadow. John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale. Claude McKay, In Bondage. John Milton, When I Consider How My Light Is Spent. Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham. Theodore Roethke, The Waking. Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymadias. May Swenson, Women. Dylan Thomas, Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night. Jean Toomer, Reapers. Charles H. Webb, The Shape of History. Phyllis Webb, Poetics Against the Angel of Death. William Carlos Williams, The Dance.
21. Symbolism and Allusion: Windows to a Wide Expanse of Meaning.
Virginia Scott, Snow.

Poems for Study:

e.e. Cummings, in just-. John Donne, The Canonization. Isabella Gardner, Collage of Echoes. Jorie Graham, The Geese. Thomas Hardy, In Time of “The Breaking of Nations.” George Herbert, The Collar. Josephine Jacobsen, Tears. Robinson Jeffers, The Purse-Seine. John Keats, La Belle Dame Sans Merci. X.J. Kennedy, Old Men Pitching Horseshoes. Mary Oliver, Wild Geese. Walt Whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider. Richard Wilbur, Year's End. William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium. William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming.
22. Myth: Systems of Symbolic Allusion in Poetry.
William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan.

Poems for Study:

Poems Related to the Myth of Odysseus:

Margaret Atwood, Siren Song. Olga Broumas, Circe. Louise Glück, Penelope's Song. W.S. Merwin, Odysseus Dorothy Parker, Penelope. Linda Pastan, The Suitor. Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses. Peter Ulisse, Odyssey: 20 Years Later.

Poems Related to the Myth of Icarus.

Brian Aldiss, Flight 063.W.H. Auden, Musée des Beaux Arts. Edward Field, Icarus. Muriel Rukeyser, Waiting for Icarus. Anne Sexton, To a Friend Whose Work Has Come to Triumph. Stephen Spender, Icarus. William Carlos Williams, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus.

Poems Related to the Myth of Phoenix.

Amy Clampitt, Berceuse. Denise Levertov, Hunting the Phoenix. May Sarton, The Phoenix Again.

Poems Related to the Myth of Oedipus.

Muriel Rukeyser, Myth. John Updike, On the Way to Delphi.
23. Meaning: Idea and Theme in Poetry.
Judith Viorst, True Love.

Poems for Study:

Amy Clampitt, Beach Glass. e.e. cummings, next to of course god america i. John Dryden, A Song for St. Cecilia's Day. Donald Hall, Whip-poor-will. Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Langston Hughes, The Negro Speaks of Rivers. Ben Jonson, To Celia. Donald Justice, On the Death of Friends in Childhood. John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn. Philip Larkin, Next, Please. Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica. Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress. Sharon Olds, 35/10. Linda Pastan, Ethics.
24. Three Poetic Careers: William Wordsworth, Emily Dickinson, and Robert Frost.

William Wordsworth (1770-1850):

My Heart Leaps Up. From The Prelude, Book I, lines 301-474. Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey. Daffodils (I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud). Lines Written in Early Spring. Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood. Expostulation and Reply. The Tables Turned. Stepping Westward. The Solitary Reaper. Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802. I Grieved for Buonaparté with a Vain. It Is a Beauteous Evening. On the Extinction of the Venetian Republic. Scorn Not the Sonnet. To Toussaint L'Ouverture.

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886):

After Great Pain, a Formal Feeling Comes (Poem 341). The Bustle in a House (Poem 1078). “Faith” Is a Fine Invention (Poem 185). The Heart Is the Capital of the Mind (Poem 1354). I Cannot Live with You (Poem 640). I Died for Beauty—but Was Scarce (Poem 449). I Felt a Funeral in My Brain (Poem 280). I Heard a Fly Buzz—When I Died (Poem 465). I Like to See It Lap the Miles (Poem 585). I'm Nobody! Who Are You? (Poem 288). I Never Felt at Home—Below— (Poem 413). I Never Lost as Much But Twice (Poem 49). I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed (Poem 214). Much Madness Is Divinest Sense (Poem 435). My Life Closed Twice Before Its Close (Poem 1732). My Triumph Lasted Till the Drums (Poem 1227). One Need Not Be a Chamber—To Be Haunted (Poem 670). Safe in Their Alabaster Chambers (Poem 216). Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church (Poem 324). The Soul Selects Her Own Society (Poem 303). Success Is Counted Sweetest (Poem 67). Tell All the Truth, but Tell it Slant (Poem 1129). There's a Certain Slant of Light (Poem 258). This World Is not Conclusion (Poem 501). Wild Nights—Wild Nights! (Poem 249).

Robert Frost (1874-1963):

A Line-Storm Song (1913). Mending Wall (1914). Birches (1915). The Road Not Taken (1915). 'Out, Out—' (1916). The Oven Bird (1916). Fire and Ice (1920). Misgiving (1923). Nothing Gold Can Stay (1923). Acquainted with the Night (1928). Design (1936). The Silken Tent (1936). The Strong Are Saying Nothing (1937). A Considerable Speck (1942). Choose Something like a Star (1943).
25. Poems for Additional Study.
A.R. Ammons, 80-Proof. Maya Angelou, My Arkansas. Anonymous, Barbara Allan. Anonymous (Navajo), Healing Prayer from the Beautyway Chant. Anonymous, Lord Randal. Anonymous, The Three Ravens. Anonymous, Waly, Waly. Margaret Atwood, Variation on the Word Sleep. W.H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen. Imamu Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), Ka 'Ba. Wendell Berry, Through the Weeks of Deep Snow. Earle Birney, Can. Lit. Louise Bogan, Women. Arna Bontemps, A Black Man Talks of Reaping. Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband. Gwendolyn, Brooks, Primer for Blacks. Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Sonnets from the Portuguese: No. 43: How Do I Love Thee? Robert Browning , Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister. Lord Byron, The Destruction of Sennacherib. Thomas Campion, Cherry Ripe. Lucille Clifton, this morning (for the girls of eastern high school). Lucille Clifton, the poet. Leonard Cohen, 'The killers that run...'. Billy Collins, Days. Frances Cornford, From A Letter to America on a Visit to Sussex: Spring, 1942. Stephen Crane, Do Not Weep, Maiden, for War Is Kind. Countée Cullen, Yet Do I Marvel. e.e. cummings, if there are any heavens. James Dickey, Kudzu. James Dickey, The Lifeguard. James Dickey, The Performance. John Donne, The Good Morrow. John Donne, Holy Sonnet 6: This Is My Play's Last Scene. John Donne, Holy Sonnet 7: At the Round Earth's Imagined Corners. John Donne, Holy Sonnet 10: Death Be Not Proud. John Donne, A Hymn to God the Father. John Donne, Song: Go, And Catch a Falling Star. Michael Drayton, Since There's No Help. Paul Laurence Dunbar, Sympathy. T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. James Emanuel, The Negro. Lynn Emanuel, Like God. John Engels, Naming the Animals. Carolyn Forché, Because One Is Always Forgotten. Dan Georgakas, Hiroshima Crewman. Chief Dan George, The Beauty of the Trees. Nikki Giovanni, Woman. Marilyn Hacker, Sonnet Ending with a Film Subtitle. John Haines, Little Cosmic Dust Poem. Donald Hall, Scenic View. Daniel Halpern, Snapshot of Hué. Daniel Halpern, Summer in the Middle Class. H.S. (Sam) Hamod, Leaves. Frances E.W. Harper, She's Free! Michael S. Harper, Called. Robert Hass, Spring Rain. Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays. Seamus Heaney, The Otter. George Herbert, Love (III). William Heyen, The Hair: Jacob Korman's Story. A.D Hope, Advice to Young Ladies. Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty. Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover. Julia Ward Howe, Battle Hymn of the Republic. Langston Hughes, Negro. Robinson Jeffers, The Answer. Etheridge Knight, Haiku. Maxine Kumin, Woodchucks. Irving Layton, Rhine Boat Trip. Li -Young Lee, A Final Thing. Alan P. Lightman, In Computers. Liz Lochhead, The Choosing. Audre Lorde, Every Traveler Has One Vermont Poem. Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta, Going to the Wars. Amy Lowell, Patterns. Gwendolyn McEwen, Dark Pines under Water. Heather McHugh, Lines. Claude McKay, The White City. W.S. Merwin, Listen. Edna St. Vincent Millay, What Lips My Lips Have Kissed, and Where, and Why. N. Scott Momaday, The Bear. Howard Nemerov, Life Cycle of Common Man. Jim Northrup, wahbegan. Frank O'Hara, Poem. Mary Oliver, Ghosts. Simon Ortiz, A Story of How a Wall Stands. Dorothy Parker, Résumé. Linda Pastan, Marks. Marge Piercy, The Secretary Chant. Marge Piercy, Will We Work Together? Sylvia Plath, Last Words. Sylvia Plath, Mirror. Katha Pollitt, Archaeology. Ezra Pound, The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter. John Crowe Ransom, Bells for John Whiteside's Daughter. John Raven, Assailant. Adrienne Rich, Diving into the Wreck. Theodore Roethke, The Waking. Luis Omar Salinas, In a Farmhouse. Sonia Sanchez, right on: white america. Carl Sandburg, Chicago. Siegfried Sassoon, Dreamers. Gjertrude Schnackenberg, The Paperweight. Alan Seeger, I Have a Rendezvous with Death. Brenda Serotte, My Mother's Face. William Shakespeare, Fear No More the Heat o' the Sun. William Shakespeare, Sonnet 29: When in Disgrace with Fortune and Men's Eyes. William Shakespeare, Sonnet 146: Poor Soul, the Center of My Sinful Earth. Karl Shapiro, Auto Wreck. Leslie Marmon Silko, Where Mountain Lion Lay Down with Deer. Dave Smith, Blujays. Stevie Smith, Not Waving But Drowning. W.D. Snodgrass, These Trees Stand... Cathy Song, Lost Sister. Gary Soto, Oranges. Gary Soto, Kearney Park. William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark. Gerald Stern, Burying an Animal on the Way to New York. Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream. May Swenson, Question . Jonathan Swift, A Riddle (The Vowels). James Tate, The Blue Booby. Dylan Thomas, A Refusal to Mourn the Death, by Fire, of a Child in London. Chase Twichell, Blurry Cow. John Updike, Perfection Wasted. Tino Villanueva, Day-Long Day. S helly Wagner, The Boxes. Alice Walker, Revolutionary Petunias. Edmund Waller, Go, Lovely Rose. Robert Penn Warren, Heart of Autumn. Bruce Weigl, Song of Napalm. Phyllis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America.Walt Whitman, Full of Life Now. Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums! Walt Whitman, Dirge for Two Veterans. Richard Wilbur, April 5, 1974. William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow. William Butler Yeats, The Wild Swans at Coole. Paul Zimmer, The Day Zimmer Lost Religion.
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Preface

Preface to the Sixth Edition

Like the past editions of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the sixth edition is a carefully chosen anthology. Most of the works here are by American, British, and Canadian authors, but classical writers from ancient Greece and Rome are also represented, along with more recent writers who lived in or came from Italy, Norway, Germany, Belgium, Ceylon, Indonesia, and Russia. In total, 281 authors are represented, not including anonymous writers. One hundred eighty of the authors—roughly sixty-five percent—were born after 1900. Interestingly, of the writers born since 1935, forty-one are women and thirty-five are men—a number that dramatizes the major importance of women in modern literature. The book includes a total of 491 separate works, not counting portions of critical essays. There are sixty-two stories, 410 poems, and nineteen dramatic works. Each work is suitable for discussion either alone or in comparison. Three plays, seven stories, and forty-one poems are new in this edition.

Readers will note that some of the new stories are classic, like those by Conrad, Forster, and Hardy, and some, such as those by Bambara, Gilchrist, and Oates, are well on their way to becoming classic. The new stories complement the other fifty-five stories, such as those by Atwood, Faulkner, Carver, Crane, Hawthorne, Hodgins, Joyce, Gaines, Gilman, Laurence, Porter, Twain, and Welty, that are retained from earlier editions.

The anthology includes representative poems from late medieval times to our own day, including poets such as Shakespeare, (Dray, Wordsworth, Byron, Keats, Tennyson, Rossetti, Pound, andEliot. The forty-one new poems represent a wide variety of American, British, and Canadian poets. Most of these poets are widely recognized. Berry, Cowper, Queen Elizabeth I, Chief Dan George, Hardy, Jacobsen, Levertov, Longfellow, Lux, Mueller, Van Duyn, and Wilbur come readily to mind. More recent poets, most of them with multiple prizes and awards to their credit, are Collins, Francis, Gluck, Merwin, Momaday, and Schnackenberg. Even with the many new poems in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, the book still retains 369 poems that were included in the fifth edition. A poet new in the fifth edition and' retained in the sixth is Michael Ondaatje, who achieved wide recognition because of the many Academy awards received by the film version (1996) of his novel The English Patient.

In the drama section, the plays newly included are the medieval Visitatio Sepulchri, Wilder's The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, and Kauffmann's The More the Merrier. As in the fifth edition, Ibsen's An Enemy of the People is included with A Dollhouse to make up a special dramatic career chapter (31) matching the careers chapters for fiction and poetry. Chapter 11, the fiction career chapter, now includes five short stories by Edgar Allan Poe, who is acknowledged as a pioneering theorist of the short story as a genre. Chapter 24, the poetic career chapter, contains Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost, as in the fifth edition. Of special note is the inclusion of selected critical essays for special case studies of Poe, Dickinson, and Ibsen. Instructors who choose to do so can use these essays for research-based essays on these writers, and they may wish to use the selected bibliographies for more comprehensive research assignments.

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE SIXTH EDITION

The sixth edition reaffirms a principle to which the book is dedicated—flexibility. Earlier editions have been used for introduction-to-literature courses, genre courses, and both composition and composition-and-literature courses. Adaptability and flexibility have been the keys to this variety. Instructors can use the book for classroom discussions, panel discussions, essay or paragraph-length assignments, and special topics not covered in class. Students will find incentives for understanding and writing about literature through questions, study and writing guides, and also through many suggestions for strengthening their own writing—both on essays and examinations.

FICTION. The fiction section consists of eleven chapters. Chapter 2 is a general introduction to fiction while Chapters 3-10—the "topical" chapters central to each section of the book—introduce students to such important topics as structure, character, point of view, and theme. Chapter 11 is the career chapter on Poe, and Chapter 12 consists of ten stories for additional study.

POETRY. The thirteen poetry chapters are arranged similarly to the fiction chapters. Chapter 13 is introductory. Chapters 14-23 deal with topics such as symbolism, imagery, symbolism, and myth. Chapter 24 is the poetic career chapter, consisting of selections by Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost. Chapter 25 contains one hundred thirty-nine poems for additional study. In Appendix II we include the biographies of each of the anthologized poets to make the poetry section parallel with the drama and fiction sections.

DRAMA. In the drama section Chapter 26 is introductory. Chapters 27 trough 29 concern tragedy, comedy, and realism and nonrealism. At the suggestion of a number of instructors who introduce film in their courses, a unique feature begun in the third edition—Chapter 30, on film—is retained, and the discussion matches those in the other chapters. We have kept the scenes from Citizen Kane, by Welles and Mankiewicz, and The Turning Point, by Laurents. Chapter 31 is the special chapter on Ibsen. There is no "plays for additional study" chapter to match Chapters 12 and 25 because most plays are quite long, and adding more would extend the book beyond reasonable limits.

Nine of the longer plays from the previous edition have been retained because they are important in an introductory study of drama (Oedipus the King, Hamlet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Love is the Doctor, Death of a Salesman, The Glass Menagerie, Mulatto, A Dollhouse, An Enemy of the People). In an anthology of this scope, the eight short plays (Am I Blue, The Bear, Before Breakfast, Tea Party, The Visitatio Sepulchre, The More the Merrier, The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden, Trifles) are valuable because they may be covered in no more than one or two classroom hours, and also because they may be enlivened by having parts acted, out by students. Indeed, the Visitatio Sepulchri and Keller's Tea Party are brief enough to permit classroom reading and discussion in a single period.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES

SPECIAL WRITING TOPICS. In the sixth edition we have retained the section titled "Special Writing Topics about Literature," which follows the drama section. This section, new in the fifth edition, contains four chapters (32-35) that were formerly appendices, but on the advice of many readers they are now a main part of the book. These chapters, which contain general literary assignments, are newly arranged to place emphasis on research and recent critical theories.

THE GLOSSARY. In the discussions to the various chapters, key terms and concepts are boldfaced, and these are gathered alphabetically and explained briefly, with relevant page numbers in the text, in the comprehensive Glossary following Appendix II. The terms in the Glossary are also listed, with page numbers from the text, in the inside back cover. Because Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing may sometimes serve for reference purposes, the Glossary is intended for general use.

QUESTIONS. Following each anthologized selection in the detailed chapters are study questions designed to help students in their exploration and understanding of literature. Some questions are factual and may be answered quickly. Others provoke extended thought and classroom discussion and may also serve for both in-class and out-of-class writing assignments. At the ends of twenty-six chapters, we include a number of more general "Special Topics for Writing and Argument about (Character, Symbolism, Tragedy, etc.)." Many of these are comparison-contrast topics, and a number of them—at least one in each chapter—are assignments requiring creative writing (for example, "Write a poem" or "Compose a short scene"). What is unique about these topics is that students are asked not only to write creatively and argue cogently, but also to analyze their own creative processes. As already indicated, the sixth edition contains questions designed to add a research component to the study of the chapter topics.

DATES. To place the various works in historical context, we include the life dates for all authors. Along with the title of each anthologized work, we list the year of publication.

NUMBERING. For convenient reference, we have adopted a regular style of numbering the selections by fives:

  • Poems: every fifth paragraph
  • Stories: every fifth line
  • Poetic plays: every fifth line, starting at 1 with each new scene and act
  • Prose plays: every fifth speech, starting at 1 with each new scene and act

GLOSSES. For the poetry and poetic plays, we provide brief marginal glosses wherever they are needed. For all works, including poetry, we supply explanatory footnotes when necessary. Words and phrases that are glossed or footnoted are highlighted by a small degree sign. Footnotes are located according to line, paragraph, or speech numbers.

BOXED DISCUSSIONS WITHIN THE CHAPTERS. In some of the chapters, particularly Chapters 1, 19, 26, and 32, separately boxed sections contain brief discussions of a number of important and related matters. The topics chosen for this treatment—such as the use of tenses in discussing a work, the use of authorial names, and the concept of decorum—were based on the recommendations of instructors and students.

THEMATIC TABLE OF CONTENTS. To make Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing as flexible as possible, we have continued the Thematic Table of Contents that was first added in the fourth edition. In this table, which is located immediately following the organizational Contents, a number of thematic topics are provided, such as Women and Men; Conformity and Rebellion; Women and Their Roles; Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality; Endings and Beginnings; and Innocence and Experience. Under these topics, generous numbers of stories, poems, and plays are listed (many in a number of categories), so that entire thematic units may be created should instructors wish to use them.

PHOTOGRAPHS AND ART REPRODUCTIONS. We also include a number of art reproductions and photographs, some within the chapters and some in special ,colored inserts. We hope that these reproductions, together with others that instructors might add, will encourage comparison-and-contrast discussions and essays about the relationship of literature and art.

FICTION AND DRAMATIZATION. To strengthen the connection between fiction and dramatization, a number of stories are included that are available on videocassettes, which can be used as teaching tools for support and interpretation. A discussion of the videocassettes is included in the Instructor's Manual. In addition, we include two versions of the same subject matter for comparison—a short story and a one-act play—by the same author: Susan Glaspell's "A Jury of Her Peers" (Chapter 4) and Trifles (Chapter 26). Revisions

There is little in the sixth edition that has not been reexamined, revised, or rewritten. Particularly noteworthy are the general introduction (Chapter 1), the introduction to poetry (Chapter 13), and the introduction to drama (Chapter 26), together with the introductory sections on Poe, Wordsworth, Dickinson, and Frost (Chapters 11 and 24), the chapters on figures of speech and prosody (17 and 19), and the chapters on research and taking examinations (32 and 34). Throughout, all subheads are no longer topics but have been fashioned into complete sentences. This change is made in the hope that pointed sentences will enable students to assimilate the following content more easily than before. The Glossary has been corrected and amended in a number of places. Of special importance in each of the main chapters are the sections "Questions for Discovering Ideas" and "Strategies for Organizing Ideas," which have been revised in the light of the continuing goal to help students concentrate on their writing assignments. In the sixth edition the MLA guidelines for the arrangement and dimensions of atypical essay are illustrated in Appendix I, along with the MLA recommendations for the handling of electronic references.

Wtiting and Reading

The sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, like all the previous editions, is dedicated throughout to the interlocking processes of writing and reading. There is no chapter in the book that does not contain essential information and guides for writing. Moreover, we do not simply say what can be done with a topic of literary study, but we also show ways in which it might be done. In most of the chapters there is a demonstrative student essay exemplifying the strategies and methods brought out in the chapter. Following each essay is an analytical commentary showing how the writing principles of the discussion have been carried out. The emphasis throughout these sections is the openness of the writing process along with the unique nature of writing for each topic—while fully acknowledging the need to produce more polished drafts.

Because writing is a major mode of thinking, it is an essential reinforcement of reading. Students who write about what they read learn twice, for as they plan and develop their writing they necessarily grow as thinkers. Such a combined approach is the bedrock idea of this book.

READING AND WRITING NOW AND IN THE FUTURE

A logical extension (and a major hope) of this combined approach is that the techniques students acquire in studying literature as a reading-writing undertaking will help them in every course they may ever take, and in whatever profession they follow. Students will always read—if not the authors contained here, then other authors, and certainly newspapers, legal documents, magazine articles, technical reports, business proposals, and much more. Although students may never again be required to write about topics like setting, structure, or prosody, they will certainly find a future need to write.

Indeed, the more effectively students learn to write about literature when taking their literature courses, the better they will be able to write later on—no matter what the topic. It is undeniable that the power to analyze problems and make convincing written and oral presentations is a major quality of leadership and success in all fields. To acquire the skills of disciplined reading and strong writing is therefore the best possible preparation that students can make for the future, whatever it may hold.

While we stress the value of our book as a teaching tool, we also emphasize that literature is to be enjoyed and loved. Sometimes we neglect the truth that study and delight are complementary, and that intellectual stimulation and emotional enjoyment develop not only from the immediate responses of pleasure, involvement, and sympathy, but also from the understanding, contemplation, and confidence generated by knowledge and developing skill. We therefore hope that the selections in the sixth edition of Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing will teach students about humanity, about their own perceptions, feelings, and lives, and about the timeless patterns of human existence. We hope they will take delight in such discoveries and grow as they make them. We see the book as a steppingstone to lifelong understanding and joy in great literature.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As the book goes into the sixth edition, I wish to acknowledge the many people who have offered helpful advice, information, and suggestions. To name them, as Dryden says in Absalom and Achitophel, is to praise them. They are Professors Eileen Allman, David Bady, Andrew Brilliant, Rex Butt, Stanley Coberly, Betty L. Dixon, Elizabeth Keats Flores, Alice Griffin, Robert Halli, Rebecca Heintz, Karen Holt, Claudia Johnson, Matthew Marino, Evan Matthews, Ruth Milberg-Kaye, Nancy Miller, JoAnna Stephens Mink, Ervin Nieves, Michael Paull, Bonnie Ronson, Dan Rubey, Margaret Ellen Sherwood, Beverly J. Slaughter, Keith Walters, Chloe Warner, Scott Westrem, Mardi Valgemae, Matthew Winston, and Ruth Zerner, and also Christel Bell, Linda Bridgers, Catherine Davis, Jim Freund, Edward Hoeppner, Anna F. Jacobs, Eleanor Tubbs, Nanette Roberts, April Roberts, David Roberts, and Eve Zarin. The skilled assistance of Jonathan Roberts has been essential and invaluable at every stage of all the editions.

A number of other people have provided sterling guidance for the preparation of the sixth edition. They are Professors Peggy Cole, Arapahoe Community College; Loren C. Gruber, Missouri Valley College; Edward Martin, Columbus State Community College; and Pearl McHaney, Georgia State University.

I wish especially to thank Carrie Brandon, Senior English Editor at Prentice Hall. Her understanding, creativity, cheerfulness, and helpfulness have made working with her an honor and a pleasure. I also thank Phil Miller, 'President, Humanities and Social Sciences; Leah Jewell, Editor in Chief, English; and Maggie Barbieri, Nancy Perry, Alison Reeves, Kate Morgan Jackson, Bill Oliver, and Paul O'Connell, earlier Prentice Hall English editors, for their imagination and foresight, and also for their patience with me and support of me over the years. Of major importance was the work of Ray Mullaney, former Editor in Chief, Development, for his pioneering work with the text and for his continued support. I am additionally grateful to Marlane Miriello, Viqi Wagner, Anne Marie Welsh, and (especially) Kathryn Graehl. Special words of thanks are reserved for Joan Foley of Prentice Hall, our Production Editor, who has devoted her knowledge, intelligence, diligence, and skill to the many tasks needed to bring a book of this size to fruition. Additional thanks are due to Fred Courtright for his work on securing permissions, and to Carolyn Gauntt for research into the various photographs and illustrations. I also extend my gratitude to Rachel Falk, Literature Marketing Manager, to her assistant, Chrissy Moodie, and to Literature Assistant, Sandy Hrasdzira. I give final thanks to Gina Sluss, Director of Marketing, of Prentice Hall for her constant support and enthusiasm.

My sorrow is undiminished for the loss of my associate, Professor Henry E. Jacobs (1946-1986) of the University of Alabama. His energy and creativity were essential in planning and writing the first edition, but Fate intervened before we could work together on the later editions, which are nevertheless, in effect, ,extended collaborations.

Edgar V. Roberts

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