Literature for Composition: Essays, Fiction, Poetry, and Drama / Edition 8by Sylvan Barnet, William E. Cain, William E. Burto
Pub. Date: 01/05/2007
One of the first anthologies designed specifically for writing courses, Literature for Composition continues to offer superior coverage of reading, writing, and arguing about literature and a deep anthology of readings presented in Sylvan Barnet’s signature accessible style. Literature for Composition opens with several chapters that provide uniquely helpful
One of the first anthologies designed specifically for writing courses, Literature for Composition continues to offer superior coverage of reading, writing, and arguing about literature and a deep anthology of readings presented in Sylvan Barnet’s signature accessible style. Literature for Composition opens with several chapters that provide uniquely helpful strategies and models for reading, thinking, and writing critically about literature. The first text to link argument and literature, the eighth edition provides earlier discussions of arguing about literature as part of the writing process. A diverse anthology of selections is organized around seven engaging themes, and nine compelling case studies help launch research projects. The text's 200 images, a 4-color insert, and special chapters on visual literacy and literature on film add another appealing dimension to the study of literature.
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Table of Contents
Alternate Contents by Genre.
List of Illustrations.
Preface to Instructors.
Letter to Students
I. GETTING STARTED: FROM RESPONSE TO ARGUMENT.
1. The Writer as Reader.
Reading and Responding.
Reading as Re-Creation.
Making Reasonable Inferences.
Reading with Pen in Hand.
Recording Your First Responses.
Identifying Your Audience and Purpose.
Your Turn: A Writing Assignment.
Sample Essay by a Student: "Ripening".
The Argument Analyzed.
Other Possibilities for Writing.
2. The Reader as Writer.
Developing a Thesis, Drafting and Writing an Argument.
Pre-Writing: Getting Ideas.
Annotating the Text.
More about Getting Ideas: A Second Story by Kate Chopin.
Brainstorming for Ideas for Writing.
Focused Free Writing.
Keeping a Journal.
Arguing with Yourself: Critical Thinking.
Arguing a Thesis.
Drafting Your Argument.
Revising an Argument.
Outlining an Argument.
Soliciting Peer Review.
The Final Version of the Sample Essay: "Ironies of Life in Kate Chopin's 'The Story of an Hour.'"
A Brief Overview of the Final Version.
Writing with a Word Processor.
* Checklist: Writing with a Word Processor.
YourTurn: A Third Story by KATE CHOPIN *Disirie's Baby.
Note about Literary Evaluations.
3. Reading Literature Closely: Explication.
What is Literature?
Literature and Form.
Form and Meaning.
Reading in Slow Motion.
Working Toward an Explication.
Sample Essay by a Student: "Langston Hughes' 'Harlem."'
* Explication as Argument.
Checklist: Drafting an Explication.
Why Write? Purpose and Audience.
Your Turn: Poems for Explication.
BEN JONSON On My First Son.
WILLIAM BLAKE London.
EMILY BRONTE Spellbound.
LI-YOUNG LEE I Ask My Mother to Sing.
*ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON Ulysses.
4. Reading Literature Closely: Analysis.
Analyzing a Story from the Hebrew Bible: The Judgment of Solomon.
Analyzing the Story.
Other Possible Topics for Analysis.
Analyzing a Story from the New Testament: The Parable of the Prodigal Son.
Comparison: An Analytic Tool.
* Checklist: Revising a Comparison.
Evaluation in Explication and Analysis.
Choosing a Topic and Developing a Thesis in an Analytic Paper.
Analyzing a Story.
Working Toward a Thesis: Journal Entries.
Developing the Thesis: List Notes.
Sample Essay by a Student: "Walter Mitty Is No Joke."
Developing an Argument.
* Coherence in Paragraphs: Using Transitions.
* Checklist: Revising Paragraphs.
Review: Writing an Analysis.
Note on Technical Terminology.
A Lyric and a Sample Student Essay.
* Checklist: Editing a Draft.
Your Turn: Short Stories and Poems for Analysis.
*VIRGINIA WOOLF A Haunted House.
*GUY DE MAUPASSANT The Necklace.
*JOSE ARMAS El Tonto del Barrio.
LESLIE MARMON SILKO The Man to Send Rain Clouds.
ELIZABETH BISHOP Filling Station.
ELIZABETH BISHOP The Fish.
*ELIZABETH BISHOP One Art.
5. Other Kinds of Writing About Literature.
What Paraphrase Is.
The Value of Paraphrase.
Writing a Literary Response.
A Poem Based on a Poem.
X. J. KENNEDY For Allen Ginsberg.
Rewriting a Poem (SB?).
*WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS Leda and the Swan 1924.
*WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS Leda and the Swan 1933.
*MONA VAN DUYN Leda.
*KENNETH KOCH Variations on a Theme by William Carlos Williams.
Reviewing a Dramatic Production 142.
The Review Reviewed.
6. Reading and Writing about Visual Culture.
*The Language of Pictures.
*Analyzing a Picture: Navajo Dancers Entertaining a Tourist Train.
*Notes and a Sample Essay by a Student.
*The Analysis Analyzed.
*Thinking about Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California.
*Sample Documented Essay by a Student.
*Photographers on Photography.
*AN AMERICAN PICTURE ALBUM: Ten Images.
II. UP CLOSE: THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT LITERARY WORKS AND LITERARY FORMS.
7. Critical Thinking: Asking Questions, Making Comparisons.
What is Critical Thinking?
Asking and Answering Questions.
Comparing and Contrasting.
Analyzing and Evaluating Evidence.
Thinking Critically: Asking Questions and Comparing.
*Emily Dickinson: Three Versions of a Poem, and More.
*EMILY DICKINSON I felt a Funeral, in my Brain.
*EMILY DICKINSON I felt a Cleaving in my Mind.
*EMILY DICKINSON The Dust Behind I Strove to Join.
*Imaginative Play: Thinking about Three Poems.
*GWENDOLYN BROOKS We Real Cool.
*ANDREW HUDGINS The Wild Swans Skip School.
8. Reading and Writing about Essays.
Types of Essays.
The Essayist's Persona.
* Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing About Essays.
Your Turn: Essays for Analysis.
LOUIS OWENS The American Indian Wilderness.
* MAY SARTON The Rewards of Living a Solitary Life.
*ANTHONY LANE This is Not a Movie.
9. Reading and Writing About Fiction.
Stories True and False.
Elements of Fiction.
Plot and Character.
Setting and Atmosphere.
Narrative Point of View.
Style and Point of View.
Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing About Fiction.
Your Turn: Short Stories for Analysis.
ANTON CHEKHOV Misery.
EUDORA WELTY A Worn Path.
*ISABEL ALLENDE If You Touched My Heart.
ALICE ELLIOTT DARK In the Gloaming.
10. Thinking and Writing Critically About Short Stories: Two Casebooks.
Case Study: Writing about Ralph Ellison's "Battle Royal."
BOOKER T. WASHINGTON Atlanta Exposition Address.
W. E. B. DU BOIS Of Our Spiritual Strivings.
W. E. B. DU BOIS Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others.
GUNNAR MYRDAL On Social Equality.
RALPH ELLISON On Negro Folklore.
RALPH ELLISON Life in Oklahoma City.
Casebook: Writing about Flannery O'Connor.
FLANNERY O'CONNOR Revelation.
Remarks from Essays and Letters.
On Interpreting "A Good Man Is Hard to Find."
11. Looking at Pictures, Writing Stories.
The Impulse to Tell Stories.
*A. S. BYATT Christ in the House of Martha and Mary.
*Your Turn: Picture to Story.
12. Fiction into Film.
Asking Questions, Thinking Critically, and Making Comparisons.
Film as a Medium.
Comparing Filmed and Printed Stories.
Getting Ready to Write.
Drafting an Essay.
* Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Film.
Suggestions for Further Reading.
Short Story and a Student's Essay on the Filmed Version.
Sample Essay by a Student: Enjoying Mother's Revolution_.
Your Turn: Thinking about Filming Fiction.
13. Reading and Writing About Drama.
Types of Plays.
Elements of Drama.
Characterization and Motivation.
Organizing an Analysis of a Character.
* Checklist: Getting ideas for Writing About Drama.
*Writing about a Filmed Version of a Play.
*Checklist: Writing about a Filmed Play.
Your Turn: Plays for Analysis.
A Note on Greek Tragedy.
SUSAN GLASPELL Trifles.
*LUIS VALDEZ Los Vendidos.
14. Thinking Critically About Drama.
TENNESSE WILLIAMS, Production Notes.
Preliminary Notes by a Student.
Final Version of the Student's Essay: "The Solid Structure of The Glass Menagerie".
15. Reading and Writing About Poetry.
Elements of Poetry.
The Speaker and the Poet.
EMILY DICKINSON Wild Nights-Wild Nights.
The Language of Poetry: Diction and Tone.
Writing About the Speaker.
Imagery and Symbolism.
Verbal irony and Paradox.
Sample Essay by a Student: "Herrick's Julia, Julia's Herrick."
The Analysis Analyzed.
Annotations and Journal Entries.
** Checklist: Explication.
Rhythm and Versification: A Glossary for Reference.
Patterns of Sound.
Blank Verse and Free Verse.
* Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing About Poetry.
Your Turn: Poems About People, Places, and Things.
E. E. CUMMINGS anyone lived in a pretty how town.
SYLVIA PLATH Daddy.
LOUISE ERDRICH Indian Boarding School: The Runaways.
*ETHERIDGE KNIGHT For Malcolm, A Year After Places.
WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS Sailing to Byzantium.
JAMES WRIGHT Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy's Farm in Pine Island, Minnesota.
*YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA Facing It.
DEREK WALCOTT A Far Cry from Africa.
WALT WHITMAN A Noiseless Patient Spider.
MARY OLIVER Hawk.
16. Thinking Critically About Poetry.
Case Study: Writing About Emily Dickinson.
EMILY DICKINSON The Soul selects her own Society.
EMILY DICKINSON These are the days when Birds come back.
EMILY DICKINSON Papa above!
EMILY DICKINSON There's a certain Slant of light.
EMILY DICKINSON This World is not Conclusion.
EMILY DICKINSON I got so I could hear his name-.
EMILY DICKINSON Because I could not stop for Death.
EMILY DICKINSON Those-dying, then 449 Apparently with no surprise.
EMILY DICKINSON Tell all the Truth but tell it slant.
A Sample Essay by a Student: "Religion and Religious Imagery in Emily Dickinson."
III. STANDING BACK: ARGUING INTERPRETATIONS AND EVALUATIONS, AND UNDERSTANDING CRITICAL STRATEGIES.
17. Arguing an Interpretation.
Interpretation and Meaning.
Is the Author's Intention a Guide to Meaning?
What Characterizes a Sound Interpretation?
An Example: Interpreting Pat Mora's "Immigrants."
Thinking Critically About Responses to Literature.
Sample Essay by a Student: "Stopping by Woodsand Going On."
Sample Essay by a Student: "'Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening' as a Short Story."
Your Turn: Poems for Interpretation.
ROBERT FROST Mending Wall.
WILLIAM WORDSWORTH A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal.
T. S. ELIOT The Love Song of J. Afred Prufrock.
18 Arguing an Evaluation.
Criticism and Evaluation.
Evaluative Language and the Canon.
Are There Critical Standards?
Morality and Truth as Standards.
Other Ways of Thinking About Truth and Realism.
Your Turn: Poems and Stories for Evaluation.
ANTHONY HECHT The Dover Bitch.
ROBERT FROST Design.
IRA GERSHWIN The Man That Got Away.
LOUISE BOGAN Women.
AMBROSE BIERCE An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge.
*KATHERINE MANSFIELD Miss Brill.
19. Writing About Literature: An Overview of Critical Strategies.
The Nature of Critical Writing.
Criticism as Argument: Assumptions and Evidence.
Some Critical Strategies.
Archetypal Criticism (Myth Criticism).
Historical Criticism (Biographical, Marxist, New Historical).
Psychological or Psychoanalytical Criticism.
Gender Criticism (Feminist, and Lesbian and Gay Criticism).
Your Turn: Putting Critical Strategies to Work.
Suggestions for Further Reading.
IV. A THEMATIC ANTHOLOGY.
20. Love and Hate.
JUDITH ORTIZ COFER I Fell in Love, or My Hormones Awakened.
LOUIS MENAND Love Stories.
*ANDREW SULLIVAN The Love Bloat.
A STUDENT'S ANNOTATIONS AND JOURNAL ENTRIES.
ASKING QUESTIONS ABOUT A STORY.
A SECOND EXAMPLE: AN ESSAY DRAWING ON RELATED MATERIAL IN CHAPTER.
WILLIAM FAULKNER A Rose for Emily.
ZORA NEALE HURSTON Sweat.
*CASE STUDY : WRITING ABOUT RAYMOND CARVER.
*Raymnond Carver Little Things.
*Raymond Carver What We Talk about When We Talk about Love.
*Raymond Carver Cathedral.
*Raymond Carver Talking about Stories.
*Raymond Carver On Rewriting.
*Michael Gerber and Jonathan Schwarz What We Talk about When We Talk about Doughnuts.
CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE Come Live with Me and Be My Love.
SIR WALTER RALEIGH The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd.
JOHN DONNE The Bait.
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 29 (When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes).
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 116 (Let me not to the marriage of true minds).
JOHN DONNE A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning.
ANDREW MARVELL To His Coy Mistress.
WILLIAM BLAKE The Garden of Love.
WILLIAM BLAKE A Poison Tree.
ROBERT BROWNING Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister.
WALT WHITMAN When I Heard at the Close of the Day.
WALT WHITMAN I Saw in Louisiana a Live-Oak Growing.
CHRISTINA ROSSETTI A Birthday.
EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY Love Is Not All: It Is Not Meat nor Drink.
ROBERT FROST The Silken Tent.
ADRIENNE RICH Novella.
ADRIENNE RICH X1.
ROBERT PACK The Frog Prince.
JOSEPH BRODSKY Love Song.
ELLEN BRYANT VOIGHT Quarrel.
NIKKI GIOVANNI Love in Place.
CAROL MUSKE Chivalry.
*KITTY TSUI A Chinese Banquet.
21. Gender Roles: Making Men and Women.
SCOTT RUSSELL SANDERS The Men We Carry in Our Minds ... and How They Differ from the Real Lives of Most Men.
RICHARD WRIGHT The Man Who Was Almost a Man.
BOBBIE ANN MASON Shiloh.
DORIS LESSING A Woman on a Roof.
GLORIA NAYLOR The Two.
ALICE MUNRO Boys and Girls.
THREE NURSERY RHYMES.
What are little boys made of?
The Milk Maid.
DOROTHY PARKER General Review of the Sex Situation.
RITA DOVE Daystar.
ROBERT HAYDEN Those Winter Sundays.
MURIEL RUKEYSER Myth.
THEODORE ROETHKE My Papa's Waltz.
LUCILLE CLIFTON Wishes for sons.
SHARON OLDS Rites of Passage.
FRANK O'HARA Homosexuality.
SHEL SILVERSTEIN A Boy Named Sue.
TESS GALLAGHER I Stop Writing the Poem.
JULIA ALVAREZ Woman's Work.
MAUD MEEHAN Is There Life After Feminism.
MARGE PIERCY A Work of Artifice.
*CULTURAL CASE STUDY: WRITING ABOUT BARBIE.
*Kevin Leary, Barbie Curtsies to Political Correctness.
*Meg Wolitzer, Barbie as Boy Toy.
*Yona Zeldis McDonough, What Barbie Really Taught Me.
Marge Piercy, Barbie Doll.
*Denise Duhamel, Buddhist Barbie.
22. Innocence and Experience.
LANGSTON HUGHES One Friday Morning.
JOHN UPDIKE A & P.
LILIANA HEKER The Stolen Party.
TONI CADE BAMBARA The Lesson.
WILLIAM BLAKE Infant Sorrow.
WILLIAM BLAKE The Echoing Green.
GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS Spring and Fall: To a Young Child.
A. E. HOUSMAN When I Was One-and-Twenty (A Shropshire Lad # 13).
E. E. CUMMINGS In just-.
LOUISE GLUCK The School Children.
LOUISE GLUCK Gretel in Darkness.
CASE STUDY: WRITING ABOUT SHAKESPEARE'S HAMLET.
A NOTE ON THE ELIZABETHAN THEATER.
A NOTE ON THE TEXT OF HAMLET.
ERNEST JONES Hamlet and the Oedipus Complex.
ANNE BARTON The Promulgation of Confusion.
STANLEY WELLS On the First Soliloquy.
ELAINE SHOWALTER Representing Ophelia.
CLAIRE BLOOM Playing Gertrude on Television.
BERNICE W. KLIMAN The BBC Hamlet: A Television Production.
STANLEY KAUFFMANN At Elsinore.
WILL SARETTA Branagh's Film of Hamlet.
23. Identity in America.
ANNA LISA RAYA It's Hard Enough Being Me.
ANDREW LAM Goodbye, Saigon, Finally 1.
AMY TAN Two Kinds.
LOUISE ERDRICH The Red Convertible.
*KATHERINE MIN Courting a Monk.
THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH The Unguarded Gates.
JOSEPH BRUCHAC III Ellis Island.
EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON Richard Cory.
AURORA LEVINS MORALES Child of the Americas.
GLORIA ANZALDUA To Live in the Borderlands Means You.
JIMMY SANTIAGO BACA So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans.
LANGSTON HUGHES Theme for English B.
PAT PARKER For the white person who wants to know how to be my friend.
MITSUYE YAMADA To the Lady.
CASE STUDY: WRITING ABOUT AMERICAN INDIAN IDENTITY.
ANONYMOUS ARAPAHO Father, Have Pity on Me.
LYDIA HOWARD HUNTLEY SIGOURNEY The Indian's Welcome to the Pilgrim.
WENDY ROSE Three Thousand Dollar Death Song.
NILA NORTHSUN Moving Camp Too Far.
SHERMAN ALEXIE On the Amtrak from Boston to New York City.
REPRESENTATIONSVISUAL AND VERBALOF POCAHONTAS.
MISS BAKER Last Wish of Pocahontas.
GEORGE P. MORRIS Pocahontas.
MOSES Y. SCOTT Pocahontas.
PAULA GUNN ALLEN Pocahontas to Her English Husband, John Rolfe.
JOHN D_ENTREMONT Review of Disney's Pocahontas.
24. Art and Life.
A Note on Connections Between Literature and the Other Arts.
* Six Quotations about the Arts.
*Your Turn: Responding to the Arts.
*Pablo Picasso, Talking about Art.
*Willa Cather, Light on Adobe Walls.
*Ralph Ellison, On Bird, Bird-watching, and Jazz.
*James Baldwin, Sonny_s Blues.
Alice Walker, Everyday Use.
*W. F. Bolton, Might We Too?
*Walt Whitman, That music always round me, unceasing, unbeginning.
*William Wordsworth, The Solitary Reaper.
*John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn.
*Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica.
*Paul Laurence Dunbar, The Quilting.
*Nikki Giovanni, For Saundra.
*Louise Glck, The Mountain.
CASE STUDY: WRITING ABOUT Image and Word.
Thinking and Writing about Poems and Paintings.
A Sample Essay by a Student: Tina Washington, Two Ways of Looking at a Starry Night.
Vincent van Gogh Vincent's Bed in Arles.
WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS The Great Figure.
Charles Demuth I Saw the Figure Five in Gold.
ADRIENNE RICH Mourning Picture.
Edwin Romanzo Elmer Mourning Picture.
CATHY SONG Beauty and Sadness.
Kitagawa Utamaro Two Women Dressing Their Hair.
MARY JO SALTER The Rebirth of Venus.
Sandro Botticelli The Birth of Venus.
ANNE SEXTON The Starry Night.
Vincent van Gogh The Starry Night.
W. H. AUDEN Musie des Beaux Arts.
Pieter Bruegel the Elder Landscape with the Fall of Icarus.
X. J. KENNEDY Nude Descending a Staircase.
Marcel Duchamp Nude Descending a Staircase.
GREG PAPE American Flamingo.
John James Audubon American Flamingo.
CARL PHILLIPS Luncheon on the Grass.
Edouard Manet Dijeuner sur l'herbe.
JOHN UPDIKE Before the Mirror.
Pablo Picasso Girl Before a Mirror.
25. LAW AND DISORDER.
*George Orwell, A Hanging.
*Martin Luther King, Jr. Letter from Birmingham Jail.
*Casebook: Writing about The Sacco-Vanzetti Trial.
*Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Remarks to a Reporter.
*Ben Shahn, Drawing with Vanzetti_s Words.
*Bartolomeo Vanzetti (adapted by Selden Rodman), Last Speech to the Court.
*Katherine Anne Porter, Afterward.
*Countee Cullen, Not Sacco and Vanzetti.
*Edna St. Vincent Millay, Justice Denied in Massachusetts.
*Six Very Short Stories.
*John (?), The Woman Taken in Adultery.
*Anonymous, Three Hasidic Tales.
*Franz Kafka, Before the Law.
*Elizabeth Bishop, The Hanging of the Mouse.
*Ursula Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas.
*Case Study: Writing about Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery."
*Encyclopaedia Britannica, Scapegoat.
*Five Short Statements about the Theme.
*Two Interpretations by Students.
*A. E. Housman The Carpenter's Son.
*A. E. Housman Eight O_Clock.
*A. E. Housman Oh who is that young sinner with the handcuffs on his wrists?
*A. E. Housman The laws of god, the laws of man.
*Edgar Lee Masters Judge Selah Lively.
*Claude McKay If We Must Die.
*Jimmy Santiago Baca Cloudy Day.
APPENDIX A Remarks About Manuscript Form.
BASIC MANUSCRIPT FORM.
CORRECTIONS IN THE FINAL COPY.
QUOTATIONS AND QUOTATION MARKS.
Quotation Marks or Underlining?
A Note on the Possessive.
APPENDIX B Writing a Research Paper.
WHAT RESEARCH IS NOT, AND WHAT RESEARCH IS.
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MATERIALS.
Locating Materials: First Steps.
Other Bibliographic Aids.
Two Mechanical Aids: The Photocopier and the Word Processor.
A Guide to Note-Taking.
DRAFTING THE PAPER.
FOCUS ON PRIMARY SOURCES.
What to Document: Avoiding Plagiarism.
How to Document: Footnotes, Internal Parenthetical Citations, and a List of Works Cited (MLA Format).
APPENDIX C New Approaches to the Research Paper: Literature, History, and the World Wide Web.
Case Study on Literature and History: The Internment of Japanese Americans.
DAVID MURA An Argument: On 1942.
Basic Reference Books (Short Paper).
Getting Deeper (Medium Paper).
Other Reference Sources (Long Paper).
Too Much Information?
Encyclopedias: Print and Electronic Versions.
The Internet/World Wide Web.
EVALUATING SOURCES ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB.
* A Checklist: A Review of Using the WWW.
DOCUMENTATION: CITING A WWW SOURCE.
* Checklist: Citing WWW Sources.
ADDITIONAL PRINT AND ELECTRONIC SOURCES.
APPENDIX D Literary Research: Print and Electronic Resources.
LITERATUREPRINT REFERENCE SOURCES.
Other Reference Resources.
Other Useful Sites on Authors.
HISTORYREFERENCE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY SOURCES.
WWW SITES FOR HISTORY.
PERIODICALS: PRINT AND ELECTRONIC SOURCES.
FOR GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY IN THE HUMANITIES.
FOR EVALUATING THE POINT OF VIEW, THE CONTENT, AND THE INTENDED.
AUDIENCE OF SOURCES.
WHAT DOES YOUR OWN INSTITUTION OFFER?
APPENDIX E Glossary of Literary Terms.
Index of Terms.
Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poems.
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I disagree with the first review. I used this textbook in college and it was not easy. I had to do a lot of studying. I guess it just depends upon the level where someone is at. As for me, it is definitely a good textbook for this college student.