Literature for Composition : Essays, Fiction, Poetry, and Drama - Text Only / Edition 7by Barnet, Sylvan / Cain, William / Burto, William E. Barnet, Sylvan / Cain, William / Burto, William E.
Literature for Composition offers the most extensive and practical coverage of argument; the most appealing, richly illustrated case studies; and the most diverse and compelling literary selections available today. Based on the assumption that students should encounter first-rate writing -- not simply competent prose -- this defining text helps students/i>… See more details below
Literature for Composition offers the most extensive and practical coverage of argument; the most appealing, richly illustrated case studies; and the most diverse and compelling literary selections available today. Based on the assumption that students should encounter first-rate writing -- not simply competent prose -- this defining text helps students discover the pleasure and insights gained through the study of great literature. Literature for Composition also offers students detailed assistance in critical thinking and in developing an argument from annotations and rough notes into a finished essay.
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Table of Contents
Contents by Genre.
List of Illustrations.
Preface to Instructors.
Letter to Students.
I. GETTING STARTED: FROM RESPONSE TO ARGUMENT.
1. The Writer as Reader.
Reading and Responding.
Kate Chopin Ripe Figs.
Reading as Re-creation.
Making Reasonable Inferences.
Reading with Pen in Hand.
Recording Your First Responses.
Identifying Your Audience and Purpose.
Your Turn: A Writing Assignment.
A Sample Essay by a Student: "Ripening."
2. The Reader as Writer.
Developing a Thesis, Drafting and Writing an Argument.
Pre-writing: Getting Ideas.
Annotating a Text.
More about Getting Ideas: A Second Story by Kate Chopin.
Kate Chopin Story of an Hour.
Brainstorming for Ideas for Writing.
Focused Free Writing.
Keeping a journal.
Arguing with Yourself: Critical Thinking.
Arguing a Thesis.
Drafting Your Argument.
A Sample Draft: "Ironies in an Hour."
Revising an Argument.
Outlining an Argument.
Soliciting Peer Review.
Final Version of the Sample Essay: "Ironies of Life in Kate Chopin's 'The Story of an Hour.’
A Brief Overview of the Final Version.
Writing with a Word processor.
Checklist: Writing with a Word Processor.
Your Turn: THREE STORIES.
Kate Chopin D’s Baby.
Kate Chopin The Storm.
* Tobias Wolff, Powder.
A Note About Literary Evaluations.
3. Reading Literature Closely: Explication.
What is Literature?
Literature and Form.
Form and Meaning.
Robert Frost The Span of Life.
Reading in Slow Motion.
Langston Hughes Harlem.
Working Toward an Explication.
Some journal Entries.
Sample Essay by a Student (Final Version): “Langston Hughes' 'Harlem.'”
Explication as Argument 47.
Checklist: Drafting an Explication.
Why W trite? Purpose and Audience.
Your Turn: Poems for Explication.
William Shakespeare Sonnet 73 (That time of year thou mayst in me behold).
* John Donne, Holy Sonnet XIV (Batter my heart, three-personed God.)
William Blake London.
Emily Brontë Spellbound.
Li-Young Lee I Ask My Mother to Sing.
* Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner.
4. Reading Literature Closely: Analysis.
Analyzing a Story from the Hebrew Bible: The Judgment of Solomon.
The Judgment of Solomon.
Analyzing the Story.
Other Possible Topics for Analysis.
Analyzing a Story from the New Testament: The Parable of the Prodigal Son.
The Parable of the Prodigal Son.
Comparison: An Analytic Tool 63.
A Sample Essay by a Student: "Two New Women."
Looking at the Essay.
Checklist: Revising a Comparison.
Evaluation in Explication and Analysis.
Choosing a Topic and Developing a Thesis in an Analytic Paper.
Analyzing a Story.
James Thurber The Secret Life of Walter Mitty.
Working Toward a Thesis: Journal Entries.
Developing the Thesis: List Notes.
Sample Draft by a Student: "Walter Mitty Is No Joke.”
Developing an Argument.
Coherence in Paragraphs: Using Transitions.
Checklist: Revising Paragraphs.
Review: Writing an Analysis.
A Note on Technical Terminology.
A Lyric Poem and a Student's Essay.
Aphra Behn Song Love Armed.
A Sample Essay by a Student: "The Double Nature of Love."
Checklist: Editing a Draft.
Your Turn: Five Short Stories and Five Poems for Analysis.
* Edgar Allan Poe The Cask of Amontillado.
Guy de Maupassant The Necklace.
* Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall.
José Armas El Tonto del Barrio.
Leslie Marmon Silko The Man to Send Rain Clouds.
* Robert Frost, Come In.
Elizabeth Bishop Filling Station.
* Robert Herrick To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time.
* Lyn Lifshin My Mother and the Bed.
* Martín Espada Bully.
5. Other Kinds of Writing about Literature.
What Paraphrase Is.
The Value of Paraphrase.
Writing a Literary Response.
Story by a Student: "The Ticket (A Different View of 'The Story of an Hour')."
Poem Based on a Poem.
William Blake The Tyger.
X. J. Kennedy For Allen Ginsberg.
Rewriting a Poem.
William Butler Yeats Annunciation.
William Butler Yeats Leda and the Swan .
William Butler Yeats Leda and the Swan .
Mona Van Duyn Leda.
William Carlos Williams This is just to say.
Reviewing a Dramatic Production.
A Sample Review by a Student: "An Effective Macbeth."
The Review Reviewed.
6. Reading and Writing about Visual Culture.
The Language of Pictures.
Analyzing a Picture: Navajo Dancers Entertaining a Tourist Train.
Notes and a Sample Essay by a Student.
The Analysis Analyzed.
Thinking about Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California.
A Sample Documented Essay by a Student.
Photographers on Photography.
Lou Jacobs Jr. What Qualities Does a Good Photograph Have?
An American Picture Album: Ten Images.
II. UP CLOSE: THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT LITERARY WORKS AND LITERARY FORMS.
7. Critical Thinking: Asking Questions and Making Comparisons.
What Is Critical Thinking?
Asking and Answering Questions.
Comparing and Contrasting.
Analyzing and Evaluating Evidence.
Thinking Critically: Asking Questions and Comparing--E. E. Cummings's "Buffalo
E. E. Cummings Buffalo Bill's.
Emily Dickinson: Three Versions of a Poem, and More.
Emily Dickinson I felt a Funeral, in my Brain.
Emily Dickinson I felt a Cleaving in my Mind-.
Emily Dickinson The Dust behind I strove to join.
Imaginative Play: Thinking about Four Poems.
William Butler Yeats The Wild Swans at Coole.
Gwendolyn Brooks We Real Cool.
Andrew Hudgins The Wild Swans Skip School.
Anonymous The Silver Swan.
8. Reading and Writing about Essays.
Types of Essays.
The Essayist's Persona.
Pre-writing: Identifying the Topic and. Thesis.
Brent Staples Black Men and Public Space.
Summary and Analysis.
Preparing a Summary.
Stating the Thesis of an Essay.
Drafting a Summary.
Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Essays.
Your Turn: Essays for Analysis.
Langston Hughes Salvation.
* Laura Vanderkam Hookups Starve the Soul.
* Amy Tan Fish Cheeks.
9. Reading and Writing about Fiction.
Stories True and False.
Grace Paley Samuel.
Elements of Fiction.
Plot and Character.
Setting and Atmosphere.
Narrative Point of View.
Style and Point of View.
Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Fiction.
Your Turn: Short Stories for Analysis.
Anton Chekhov Misery.
Eudora Welty A Worn Path.
* Oscar Cesares Yolanda.
10. Thinking and Writing Critically about Short Stories: Two Case Studies.
Case Study: Writing about Flannery O'Connor.
Flannery O'Connor A Good Man Is Hard to Find.
Flannery O'Connor Revelation.
Remarks from Essays and Letters.
From "The Fiction Writer and His Country."
From "Some Aspects of the Grotesque in Southern Fiction.
From "The Nature and Aim of Fiction."
From "Writing Short Stories."
On Interpreting "A Good Man Is Hard to Find."
"A Reasonable Use of the Unreasonable.
Case Study: Writing about John Updike.
John Updike A&P (with manuscript pages).
* John Updike Pygmalion (with manuscript pages).
* John Updike The Rumor.
* John Updike Oliver’s Evolution.
* John Updike on the Art of Fiction.
11. Fiction into Film.
Asking Questions, Thinking Critically, and Making Comparisons.
Film as a Medium.
Comparing Filmed and Printed Stories.
Getting Ready to Write.
Drafting an Essay.
Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Film.
Suggestions for Further Reading.
* Joyce Carol Oates Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?
* Joyce Carol Oates Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? and Smooth
Talk. Short Story into Film.
Your Turn: Thinking about Filming Fiction.
12. Reading and Writing about Drama.
Types of Plays.
Elements of Drama.
Characterization and Motivation.
Organizing an Analysis of a Character.
Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Drama.
Thinking about a Filmed Version of Play.
Writing About a Filmed Play.
Your Turn: P1ays for Analysis.
A Note on Greek Tragedy.
Thinking Critically about a Tragedy: Sophocles's Antigone.
August Wilson, Fences.
13. Thinking Critically about Drama.
Tennessee Williams The Glass Menagerie.
Tennessee Williams's Production Notes.
The Screen Device.
A Sample Essay by a Student.
Final Version of the Student's Essay: "The Solid Structure of The Glass Menagerie."
14. Reading and Writing about Poetry.
Elements of Poetry.
The Speaker and the Poet
Emily Dickinson I'm Nobody! Who are you?
Emily Dickinson Wild Nights--Wild Nights.
The Language of Poetry: Diction and Tone.
* William Shakespeare Sonnet 146 (Poor soul, the center of my sinful earth).
Writing about the Speaker.
Robert Frost The Telephone.
* William Shakespeare Sonnet 130 (My mistress eyes).
* Dana Gioia Money.
Imagery and Symbolism.
* Edmund Waller Song (Go, Lovely Rose).
William Blake The Sick Rose.
* Linda Pastan, Jump Cabling.
Verbal Irony and Paradox.
Robert Herrick Upon Julia's Clothes.
A Sample Essay by a Student: "Herrick's Julia, Julia's Herrick."
The Analysis Analyzed.
Christina Rossetti In an Artist s Studio.
William Butler Yeats The Balloon of the Mind C.
Annotations and Journal. Entries.
A Sample Essay by a Student: "Explication of W. B. Yeats's 'The Balloon of the Mind.’”
Rhythm and Versification: A Glossary for Reference.
Patterns of Sound.
* Billy Collins Sonnet.
Blank Verse and Free Verse.
Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Poetry.
Your Turn: Poems about People, Places, and Things.
Robert Browning My Last Duchess.
E. E. Cummings anyone lived in a pretty bow town.
Sylvia Plath Daddy.
Louise Erdrich Indian Boarding School: The Runaways.
Etheridge Knight For Malcolm, a Year After.
Basho An Old Pond.
* Thomas Hardy Neutral Tones.
William Butler Yeats Sailing to Byzantium.
James Wright Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy's Farm in Pine Island, Minnesota.
Anonymous Deep River.
William Carlos Williams The Red Wheelbarrow.
Walt Whitman A Noiseless Patient Spider.
* Thomas Hardy The Photograph.
15. Thinking Critically about Poetry: Three Studies. Case Study: Writing about Emily Dickinson.
Emily Dickinson I heard a Fly buzz--when I died--.
Emily Dickinson The Soul selects her own Society.
Emily Dickinson These are the days when Birds come back.
Emily Dickinson Papa above!
Emily Dickinson There's a certain Slant of light.
Emily Dickinson This World is not Conclusion.
Emily Dickinson I got so I could bear his name--.
Emily Dickinson Those- dying, then.
Emily Dickinson Apparently with no surprise.
Emily Dickinson Tell al l the Truth but tell it slant.
A Sample Essay by a Student: "Religion and Religious Imagery in Emily Dickinson."
* Case Study: America Sings the Blues: A Collection of Songs and Poems.
* Short Views.
* W. C. Handy St. Louis Blues.
* Bessie Smith Thinking Blues.
* Robert Johnson Walkin Blues.
* Paul Laurence Dunbar Blue.
* W. H. Auden Funeral Blues.
* Langston Hughes Too Blue.
* Johnny Cash Folsom Prison Blues.
* Merle Haggard Workin Man Blues.
* Linda Pastan, Mini Blues.
* Allen Ginsberg Father Death Blues.
* Charles Wright Laguna Blues.
* Sherman Alexie Reservation Blues.
* Marilyn Chin Blues on Yellow.
Case Study: Writing about Literary Visions (Word and Image).
Jane Flanders Van Gogh s Bed.
William Carlos Williams The Great Figure.
Adrienne Rich Mourning Picture.
Cathy Song Beauty and Sadness.
Mary Jo Salter The Rebirth of Venus.
Anne Sexton The Starry Night.
W. H. Auden Mus e des Beaux Arts.
X. J. Kennedy Nude Descending a Staircase.
Greg Pape American Flamingo.
Carl Phillips Luncheon on the Grass.
John Updike Before the Mirror.
Wislawa Szymborska Brueghel’s Two Monkeys.
Thinking and Writing about Poems and Pictures: A Sample Essay.
III. STANDING BACK: ARGUING INTERPRETATIONS AND EVALUATIONS, AND UNDERSTANDING CRITICAL STRATEGIES.
16. Arguing an Interpretation.
Interpretation and Meaning.
Is the Author's Intention a Guide to Meaning?
What Characterizes a Sound Interpretation?
An Example: Interpreting Pat Mora's "Immigrants."
Pat Mora Immigrants.
Thinking Critically about Responses to Literature.
Two Interpretations by Students.
Robert Frost Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.
Sample Essay by a Student: "Stopping by Woods--and Going, On."
Sample Essay by a Student: Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening' as a Short Story."
Your Turn: Poems for Interpretation.
John Milton When I Consider How My Light Is Spent.
Robert Frost Mending Wall.
William Wordsworth A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal.
T. S. Eliot The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock.
John Keats Ode on a Grecian Urn.
17. Arguing an Evaluation.
Criticism and Evaluation.
Are There Critical Standards?
Morality and Truth as Standards.
Other Ways of Thinking about Truth and Realism.
Your Turn: Poems and Stories for Evaluation.
Matthew Arnold Dover Beach.
Anthony Hecht The Dover Bitch.
Robert Frost Design.
Ira Gershwin The Man That Got Away.
Katherine Mansfield Miss Brill.
18. Writing about Literature: An Overview of Critical. Strategies.
The Nature of Critical Writing.
Criticism as Argument: Assumptions and Evidence.
Some Critical Strategies.
Formalist Criticism (New Criticism).
Archetypal Criticism (Myth Criticism).
Psychological or Psychoanalytical Criticism.
Gender Criticism (Feminist, and Lesbian and Gay Criticism).
Your Turn: Putting Critical Strategies to Work.
Suggestions for Further Reading.
IV. A THEMATIC ANTHOLOGY.
* 19. Journeys.
* Short Views.
* Joan Didion, On Going Home.
* Charles de Secondat, Baron de la Br de et de Montesquieu, Persian Letters.
Toni Cade Bambara The Lesson.
Bobbie Ann Mason Shiloh.
* Anonymous (Japanese) The Mountain-Climber.
* John Keats On first looking into Chapman s Homer.
* Percy Bysshe Shelley Ozymandias.
Alfred, Lord Tennyson Ulysses.
* Carl Sandburg Limited.
* Countee Cullen Incident.
* William Stafford Traveling Through the Dark.
* Robert Frost The Pasture.
* Wendell Berry Stay Home.
* Adrienne Rich, Diving into the Wreck.
Derek Walcott A Far Cry from Africa.
Sherman Alexie On the Amtrak.
* Christina Rossetti Uphill.
Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death.
20. Love and Hate.
* Short Views.
Sei Shonagon A Lover s Departure.
Judith Ortiz Cofer I Fell in Love, or My Hormones Awakened.
Ernest Hemingway Cat in the Rain.
A Student's Notes and Journal Entries on "Cat in the Rain."
Asking Questions about a Story.
Sample Essay by a Student: "Hemingway's American Wife."
Second Example: An Essay Drawing on Related Material in the Chapter.
Sample Essay by a Student: "Hemingway's Unhappy Lovers."
William Faulkner A Rose for Emily.
Zora Neale Hurston Sweat.
* Bel Kaufman Sunday in the Park.
Case Study: Writing about Raymond Carver.
Raymond Carver Mine.
Raymond Carver Little Things.
Raymond Carver What We Talk about When We Talk about Love.
Raymond Carver Cathedral.
Talking about Stories.
Michael Gerber and Jonathan Schwarz What We Talk about When We Talk About Doughnuts.
Anonymous Western Wind.
Christopher Marlowe Come Live with Me and Be My Love.
Sir Walter Raleigh The Nymphs Reply to the Shepherd.
John Donne The Bait.
William Shakespeare Sonnet 29 (When, in disgrace with Fortune and men s eyes).
William Shakespeare Sonnet 116 (Let me not to the marriage of true minds).
John Donne A Valediction: Forbidding Morning.
Andrew Marvell To His Coy Mistress.
William Blake The Garden of Love.
William Blake A Poison Tree.
Walt Whitman When I Heard at the Close of the Day.
Walt Whitman I Saw in Louisiana a Live-Oak Growing.
Edna St. Vincent Millay Love Is Not All: It Is Not Meat nor Drink.
Robert Frost The Silken Tent.
Adrienne Rich Novella.
Adrienne Rich XI (from Twenty-One Love Poems).
Robert Pack Frog Prince.
Joseph Brodsky Love Song.
Nikki Giovanni Love in Place.
Carol Muske Chivalry.
Kitty Tsui A Chinese Banquet.
* Terrence McNally Andre s Mother 822.
21. Making Men and Women.
* Short Views.
* Steven Doloff The Opposite Sex.
* Gretel Erlich About Men.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman The Yellow Wallpaper.
Richard Wright The Man Who Was Almost a Man.
Gloria Naylor The Two.
Alice Munro Boys and Girls.
Anonymous Nursery Rhyme What Are Little Boys Made Of.
Anonymous Higamus, Hogamus.
Dorothy Parker General Review of the Sex Situation.
Rita Dove Daystar.
Robert Hayden Those Winter Sundays.
Theodore Roethke My Papa's Waltz.
Sharon Olds Rites of Passage.
Frank O'Hara Homosexuality.
Tess Gallagher I Stop Writing the Poem.
Julia Alvarez Woman's Work.
Marge Piercy Barbie Doll.
Henrik Ibsen A Doll's House.
22. Innocence and Experience.
* Short Views.
Maya Angelou Graduation.
Nathaniel Hawthorne Young Goodman Brown.
James Joyce Araby .
Langston Hughes One Friday Morning.
Isaac Bashevis Singer The Son from America.
William Blake Infant Joy.
William Blake Infant Sorrow.
William Blake The Echoing Green.
Gerard Manley Hopkins Spring and Fall.
A. E. Housman When I Was One-and-Twenty (A Shropshire Lad #13).
E. E. Cummings in Just-.
Louise Glück The School Children.
Louise Glück Gretel in Darkness.
Case Study: Writing about Shakespeare's Hamlet.
A Note on the Elizabethan Theater.
A Note on Hamlet on 'the Stage.
A Note on the Text of Hamlet.
William Shakespeare The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.
Ernest Jones Hamlet and the Oedipus Complex.
Anne Barton The Promulgation of Confusion.
Stanley Wells On the First Soliloquy.
Elaine Showalter Representing Ophelia.
Claire Bloom P1aying Gertrude on Television.
Bernice W. Kliman The BBC Hamlet: A Television Production.
Stanley Kauffmann At Elsinore.
Will Saretta Branagh s Film of Hamlet.
23. Studying America in Crisis: Responding to Literature of The Civil War, The Great Depression, The
Vietnam War, and September 11, 2001.
1. The Civil War.
* Short Views.
* Jefferson Davis, Inaugural Address.
* Mary Boykin Chesnut, Mary Chesnut s Civil War, November 28, 1861.
* Abraham Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address.
* Martha Liggan.
* W. E. B Du Bois, The Lesson for Americans.
* Ambrose Bierce, A Horseman in the Sky.
* Stephen Crane, An Episode of War.
* Daniel Decatur Emmett Dixie.
* Julia Ward Howe Battle Hymn of the Republic.
* Herman Melville The March into Virginia.
* Herman Melville Dupont's Round Fight.
* Herman Melville Shiloh.
* Sidney Lanier The Dying Words of Jackson.
* Walt Whitman, Vigil Strange I Kept on the Field One Night.
* Walt Whitman Reconciliation.
* Andrew Hudgins At Chancellorsville.
2. The Great Depression.
* Short Views.
* Studs Terkel Interviews Emma Tiller, Cesar Chaves, and Diana Morgan.
* Tillie Olsen I Stand Here Ironing.
* Anonymous How the Money Rolls In.
* E. Y. (Yip) Harburg Brother, Can You Spare a Dime.
* Alfred Hayes Joe Hill.
* Langston Hughes Out of Work.
* David Wagoner Hooverville.
3. The Vietnam War.
* Short Views.
* Molly Ivins A Short Story about the Vietnam War Memorial.
* Tim O Brien The Things They Carried.
Yusef Komunyakaa Facing It.
4. September 11, 2001.
* Short Views.
John Updike Talk of the Town: September 11, 2001.
* Michael Kinsley How to Live a Rational Life.
* Catherine Stimpson Suffering.
* Billy Collins The Names.
* Deborah Garrison September Poem.
24. Identity in America.
* Short Views.
Thomas Jefferson The Declaration of Independence.
Anna Lisa Raya It's Hard Enough Being Me.
* Andrew Lam Who Will Light Incense When Mother Gone.
Amy Tan Two Kinds.
Alice Walker, Everyday Use.
Katherine Min Courting a Monk.
Emma Lazarus The New Colossus.
Thomas Bailey Aldrich The Unguarded Gates.
Joseph Bruchac III Ellis Island.
Edwin Arlington Robinson Richard Cory.
Aurora Levins Morales Child of the Americas.
Gloria Anzaldúa To Live in the Borderlands Means You.
Jimmy Santiago Baca So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans.
Langston Hughes Theme for English B.
Pat Parker For the white person who wants to know bow to be my friend.
Mitsuye Yamada To the Lady.
Luis Valdez Los Vendidos.
Case Study: Writing about American Indian Identity.
Anonymous Arapaho My Children, When at First I Liked the Whites.
Anonymous Arapaho Father, Have Pity on Me.
Lydia Howard Huntley Sigourney The Indian's Welcome to the Pilgrim Fathers.
Robert Frost The Vanishing Red.
Wendy Rose Three Thousand Dollar Death Song.
Nila northSun Moving Camp Too Far.
25. Law and Disorder.
* Short Views.
Henry David Thoreau From Civil Disobedience.
George Orwell A Hanging.
* Zora Neale Hurston A Conflict of Interest.
Martin Luther King Jr. Letter from Birmingham Jail.
Seven Very Short Stories.
Aesop A Lion and Other Animals Go Hunting.
John The Woman Taken in Adultery N.
Anonymous Three Hasidic Tales.
Franz Kafka Before the Law.
Elizabeth Bishop The Hanging of the Mouse.
Three Longer Stories.
Ursula K. Le Guin The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas.
* William Faulkner Barn Burning.
* James Alan McPherson An Act of Prostitution.
Case Study: Writing about Ralph Ellison's Battle Royal.
Ralph Ellison Battle Royal 269.
Booker T. Washington Atlanta Exposition Address.
W. E. B. Du Bois Of Our Spiritual Strivings.
W. E. B. Du Bois Of Mr- Booker T. Washington and Others.
Gunnar Myrdal On Social Equality.
Ralph Ellison On Negro Folklor e.
Ralph Ellison Life in Oklahoma City.
Anonymous Birmingham Jail.
A. E. Housman The Carpenter's Son.
A. E. Housman Eight O'Clock.
A. E. Housman Oh who is that young sinner.
A. E. Housman The laws of God, the laws of man.
Edgar Lee Masters Judge Selah Lively.
Claude McKay If We Must Die.
Jimmy Santiago Baca Cloudy Day.
Susan Glaspell Trifles.
APPENDIX A: Remarks about Manuscript Form.
Basic Manuscript Form.
Corrections in the Final Copy.
Quotations and Quotation Marks.
Quotation Marks or Underlining?
A Note on the Possessive.
APPENDIX B: Writing a Research Paper.
What Research Is Not, and What Research Is.
Primary and Secondary Materials.
Locating Materials: First Steps.
Other Bibliographic Aids.
Two Mechanical Aids: The Photocopier and the Word Processor.
A Guide to Note-Taking.
Drafting the Paper.
Focus on Primary Sources.
What to Document: Avoiding Plagiarism.
How to Document: Footnotes, Internal Parenthetical Citations, and a List of Works Cited (MLA Format).
APPENDIX C: New Approaches to the Research Paper: Literature, History, and the World Wide Web.
Case Study on Literature and History: The Internment of Japanese Americans.
Mitsuye Yamada The Question of Loyalty.
David Mura An Argument: On 1942.
Basic Reference Books (Short Paper).
Getting Deeper (Medium Paper).
Checklist: Researching a Literary-Historical Paper.
Other Reference Sources (Long Paper).
Too Much Information?
Encyclopedias: Print and Electronic Versions.
The Internet/World Wide Web.
Evaluating Sources on the World Wide Web.
Documentation: Citing Sources on the World Wide Web.
Checklist: Citing Sources on the World Wide Web MLA General Conventions.
Additional Print and Electronic Sources.
Search Engines and Directories.
Print Articles on Literature, History, and the WWW.
Evaluating Websites and Materials.
Recommended WWW Sites for Scholarly Citation and the Internet/WWW.
What Does Your Institution Offer.
Glossary of Literary Terms.
Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poems.
Index of Terms.
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