Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing (with Lit21 CD-ROM Version 1.5) / Edition 5

Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing (with Lit21 CD-ROM Version 1.5) / Edition 5

by Laurie G. Kirszner, Stephen R. Mandell

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ISBN-10: 141300640X

ISBN-13: 9781413006407

Pub. Date: 10/10/2003

Publisher: Cengage Learning

Combining the broadest selection of literature available, with time-proven and class-tested writing instruction, and the extraordinary Lit21 CD-ROM, the new editions of LITERATURE: READING, REACTING, WRITING, Fifth Edition provide all the help that students need to make literature a part of their lives.


Combining the broadest selection of literature available, with time-proven and class-tested writing instruction, and the extraordinary Lit21 CD-ROM, the new editions of LITERATURE: READING, REACTING, WRITING, Fifth Edition provide all the help that students need to make literature a part of their lives.

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Cengage Learning
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
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6.80(w) x 9.50(h) x 2.40(d)

Table of Contents

Preface. 1. Understanding Literature. Imaginative Literature. Conventional Themes. The Literary Canon. Luisa Valenzuela, "All about Suicide". Wole Soyinka, "Telephone Conversation". Thinking Critically. Interpreting Literature. Evaluating Literature. The Function of Literary Criticism. Checklist: Evaluating Literary Criticism. 2. Reading and Writing About Literature. Reading Literature. Previewing. Highlighting. Checklist: Using Highlighting Symbols. Maya Angelou, "My Arkansas". Annotating. Writing About Literature. Planning an Essay. Considering your Audience. Understanding Your Purpose. Writing To Respond. Writing To Interpret. Writing To Evaluate. Choosing a Topic. Finding Something to Say. Brainstorming. Keeping a Journal. Seeing Connections: Listing. Deciding on a Thesis. Preparing an Outline. Drafting an Essay. Revising and Editing an Essay. Strategies for Revision. The Revision Process. Thesis Statement. Support. Topic Sentences. Introductions and Conclusions. Sentences and Words. Using and Documenting Sources. Checklist: Using Sources. Checklist: Conventions for Writing About Literature. Exercise: Two Student Papers. Student Paper: "Initiation into Adulthood". Student Paper: "Hard Choices". FICTION. 3. Understanding Fiction. Defining Fiction. The Short Story. Gary Gildner, "Sleepytime Gal". Margaret Atwood, "Happy Endings". *Jonathan Safran Foer, "A Primer for the Punctuation of Heart Disease". A Final Note. 4. Reading and Writing About Fiction. Reading Fiction. Active Reading. Alberto Alvaro Rios, The Secret Lion. Previewing. Highlighting and Annotating. Writing About Fiction. Planning an Essay. Choosing a Topic. Finding Something to Say. Brainstorming. Seeing Connections. Listing. Deciding on a Thesis. Preparing an Outline. Drafting an Essay. Student Paper: Symbols in "The Secret Lion" First Draft. First Draft Commentary. Revising and Editing an Essay. Student Paper: Symbols in "The Secret Lion" Second Draft. Second Draft Commentary. Student Paper: Symbols in "The Secret Lion" Final Draft. Final Draft Commentary. 5. Plot. Conflict. Stages of Plot. Order and Sequence. A Final Note. Checklist: Writing about Plot. Kate Chopin, "The Story of an Hour". Nadine Gordimer, "Once upon a Time". *Stephen Dobyns, "Kansas". William Faulkner, "A Rose for Emily". Lorrie Moore, "How to Talk to Your Mother (Notes)". Writing Suggestions: Plot. 6. Character. Round and Flat Characters. Dynamic and Static Characters. Motivation. Checklist: Writing About Character. John Updike, "A and P". Katherine Mansfield, "Miss Brill". Charles Baxter, "Gryphon". *Jhumpa Lahiri, "The Third and Final Continent". *Mary Ladd Gavell, "The Swing". Writing Suggestions: Character. 7. Setting. Historical Setting. Geographical Setting. Physical Setting. Checklist: Writing About Setting. Kate Chopin, The Storm. Sherman Alexie, This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona. *Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal. Tillie Olsen, I Stand Here Ironing. *Pam Houston, Cowboys Are My Weakness. Writing Suggestions: Setting. 8. Point of View. First Person Narrator. Unreliable Narrators. Third Person Narrator. Omniscient. Limited Omniscient. Objective. Selecting an Appropriate Point of View. Limited Omniscient Point of View. First-Person Point of View (Child). First-Person Point of View (Adult). Omniscient Point of View. Selecting An Appropriate Point of View: Review. Checklist: Writing about Point of View. *Bessie Head, Looking for a Rain God. Edgar Allen Poe, The Cask of Amontillado. Richard Wright, Big Black Good Man. *Gish Jen, Chin. William Faulkner, Barn Burning. Writing Suggestions: Point of View. 9. Style, Tone, and Language. Style and Tone. The Uses of Language. Formal and Informal Diction. Imagery. Figures of Speech. A Final Note. Checklist: Writing about Style, Tone, and Language. James Joyce, Araby. *Andrea Barrett, The Littoral Zone. Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place. Flannery O''Connor, A Good Man is Hard to Find. Tim O''Brien, The Things They Carried. Writing Suggestions: Style, Tone, and Language. 10. Symbol and Allegory. Literary Symbols. Recognizing Symbols. The Purpose of Symbols. Allegory. Checklist: Writing About Symbol and Allegory. Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown. Shirley Jackson, The Lottery. Alice Walker, Everyday Use. *Raymond Carver, Cathedral. *Richard Russo, Dog. Writing Suggestions: Symbol and Allegory. 11. Theme. Interpreting Themes. Identifying Themes. Checklist: Writing About Theme. David Michael Kaplan, Doe Season. D. H. Lawrence, The Rocking-Horse Winner. Hisaye Yamamoto, Seventeen Syllables. Eudora Welty, A Worn Path. *Rick Bass, The Fireman. Writing Suggestions: Theme. 12. Charlotte Perkins Gilman''s The Yellow Wallpaper: A Casebook for Reading, Research, and Writing. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Why I Wrote "The Yellow Wallpaper"? Elaine R. Hedges, Scudder''s Comment on "The Yellow Wallpaper." Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, From The Madwoman in the Attic. Ann J. Lane, From To Herland and Beyond: The Life and Works of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Denise D. Knight, ed., Charlotte Perkins Gilman, From The Diaries of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Lucy Stone and Antoinette Brown Blackwell, Petition to the New Jersey Legislature. Judiciary Committee of the New Jersey Assembly, Response to the Petition by Lucy Stone and Antoinette Brown Blackwell. Lise Stevens, Postpartum Depression. Patricia J. Williams, Beyond the Village Pale. Topics for Further Research. 13. Joyce Carol Oates'' Where are You Going, Where have You Been?: A Casebook for Reading Research, and Writing. Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Joyce Carol Oates, When Characters from the Page Are Made Flesh on the Screen. Gretchen Schulz and R. J. R. Rockwood, From In Fairyland, without a Map: Connie''s. Exploration Inward in Joyce Carol Oates'' "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" Mike Tierce and John Michael Grafton, From Connie''s Tambourine Man: A New Reading of Arnold Friend". Bob Dylan, It''s All Over Now, Baby Blue. Joyce M. Wegs, "Don''t You Know Who I Am?" The Grotesque in Oates''s "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" Laura Kalpakian, Where Are you Going, Where Have You Been (book review). Stephen Slimp, Oates''s "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" Don Moser, The Pied Piper of Tuscon. The Pied Piper of Hamelin. Charles Perrault, Little Red Riding Hood. Topics for Further Research. Student Paper. 14. Fiction for Further Reading. *Chinua Achebe, Dead Man''s Path. Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson. *Donald Barthelme, City of Churches. *Amy Bloom, Hold Tight. T.Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake. *Ethan Canin, The Carnival Dog, the Buyer of Diamonds. *Stephen Crane, The Open Boat. *Junot Diaz, Aguantado. Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, The Disappearance. Louise Erdrich, Fleur. Gabriel Garcia Marquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings: A Tale for Children. *Tim Gautreaux, Same Place, Same Things. Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Birthmark. *Raj Kamal Jha, Domestic Help. Ha Jin, Sabateur. James Joyce, Eveline. Jamaica Kincaid, Girl. Bernard Malamud, The German Refugee. Herman Melville, Bartleby the Scribner. Alice Munro, Boys and Girls. *V. S. Naipaul, B. Wordsworth. Joyce Carol Oates, Shopping. *Flannery O''Connor, Good Country People. Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall. Carol Shields, Fifteen Minutes in the Life of Larry Weller. John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums. Amy Tan, Two Kinds. Anne Tyler, Teenage Wasteland. POETRY. 15. Understanding Poetry. Marianne Moore, Poetry. Nikki Giovanni, Poetry. Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica. Defining Poetry. William Shakespeare, That Time of Year Thou Mayst in Me Behold. Louis Zukofsky, I Walk in the Old Street. E. E. Cummings, l-a. Approaching Poetry. Recognizing Kinds of Poetry. Narrative Poetry. Lyric Poetry. 16. Discovering Themes in Poetry. Adrienne Rich, A Woman Mourned by Daughters. Raymond Carver, Photograph of my Father in His Twenty Second Year. Judith Ortiz Cofer, My Father In the Navy: A Childhood Memory. Poems About Parents. Theodore Roethke, My Papa''s Waltz. Dylan Thomas, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night. Lucille Clifton, My Mama Moved among the Days. Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays. Seamus Heaney, Digging. Simon J. Ortiz, My Father''s Song. *Yehuda Amichai, My Father. *Jill Bialosky, The Boy Beheld his Mother''s Past. Poems about Love. Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love. Sir Walter Raleigh, The Nymph''s Reply to the Shepherd. Thomas Campion, There Is a Garden in Her Face. William Shakespeare, My Mistress'' Eyes Are Nothing like the Sun. Robert Browning, Meeting at Night. Robert Browning, Parting At Morning. Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Edna St. Vincent Millay, What Lips My Lips Have Kissed. W. H. Auden, Stop All the Clocks, Cut Off the Telephone. Dorothy Parker, General Review of the Sex Situation. Sylvia Plath, Wreath for a Bridal. Ted Hughes, A Pink Wool Knitted Dress. Poems About War. Rupert Brooke, The Soldier. Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth. William Butler Yeats, An Irish Airman Foresees His Death. Robert Lowell, For the Union Dead. Denise Levertov, What Were They Like. *Carl Phillips, On the Notion of Tenderness in Wartime. Boris Slutsky, How Did They Kill My Grandmother. Billy Joel, Goodnight Saigon. Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It. *Wislawa Szymborska, The End and the Beginning. 17. Reading and Writing About Poetry. Reading Poetry. Active Reading. Previewing. Highlighting and Annotating. Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays. Seamus Heaney, Digging. Writing About Poetry. Planning an Essay. Choosing a Topic. Seeing Connections. Listing. Deciding on a Thesis. Preparing an Outline. Drafting an Essay. Student Paper: A Comparison of Two Poems about Fathers (First Draft). First Draft Commentary. Revising and Editing an Essay. Student Paper: A Comparison of Two Poems about Fathers (Second Draft). Second Draft Commentary. Student Paper, Digging For Memories (Final Draft). Final Draft Commentary. 18. Voice. Emily Dickinson, I''m Nobody! Who Are You? The Speaker in the Poem. Louise Gluck, Gretel in Darkness. Leonard Adame, My Grandmother Would Rock Quietly and Hum. Langston Hughes, Negro. Robert Browning, My Last Duchess. Leslie Marmon Silko, Where Mountain Lion Lay Down with Deer. Janice Mirikitani, Suicide Note. *Deborah Garrison, An Idle Thought. *James Tate, Nice Car, Camille. *Dorianne Laux, The Shipfitter''s Wife. The Tone of the Poem. Robert Frost, Fire and Ice. Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed. Amy Lowell, Patterns. *Adam Zagajewski, Try to Praise the Mutilated World. William Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much with Us. Sylvia Plath, Morning Song. Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. *Steve Kowit, The Grammar Lesson. Irony. Robert Browning, Porphyria''s Lover. Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias. Ariel Dorfman, Hope. W.H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen. Anne Sexton, Cinderella. Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham. *Sherman Alexie, How to Write the Great American Indian Novel. *Rachel Rose, What We Heard about the Japanese. *Rachel Rose, What the Japanese Perhaps Heard. Checklist: Writing about Voice. Writing Suggestions: Voice. 19. Word Choice, Word Order. Sipho Sepamla, Words, Words, Words. Word Choice. Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn''d Astronomer. William Stafford, For the Grave of Daniel Boone. James Wright, Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio. Adrienne Rich, Living in Sin. E. E. Cummings, In Just-. Theodore Roethke, I Knew a Woman. *Robert Pinsky, ABC. Levels of Diction. Margaret Atwood, The City Planners. Jim Sagel, Baca Grande. *Wanda Coleman, Sears Life. *Mark Halliday, The Value of Education. Barbara L. Greenberg, The Faithful Wife. Richard Wilbur, For the Student Strikers. Charles Bukowski, Dog Fight. Dialect. Faye Kicknosway, Gracie. Robert Burns, John Anderson My Jo. Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool. Word Order. Edmund Spenser, One Day I Wrote Her Name upon the Strand. E. E. Cummings, Anyone Lived In A Pretty How Town. A. E. Housman, To An Athlete Dying Young. Emily Dickinson, My Life Had Stood--A Loaded Gun. Checklist: Writing About Word Choice, Word Order. Writing Suggestions: Word Choice, Word Order. 20. Imagery. Jane Flanders, Cloud Painter. William Carlos Williams, Red Wheelbarrow. Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro. Gary Snyder, Some Good Things to be Said for the Iron Age. Suzanne E. Berger, The Meal. William Carlos Williams, The Great Figure. *Michael Chitwood, Division. *Lam Thi My Da, Washing Rice. *Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, The Alley of Flowers. *Edward Hirsch, Man on a Fire Escape. *Maxine Kumin, Vignette. *Michael McFee, Valentine''s Afternoon. Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay. Jean Toomer, Reapers. Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum est. Checklist: Writing about Imagery. Writing Suggestions: Imagery. 21. Figures of Speech. William Shakespeare, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer''s Day? Simile, Metaphor, and Personification. Langston Hughes, Harlem. Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Constantly Risking Absurdity. Audre Lorde, Rooming Houses Are Old Women. Robert Burns, Oh, My Love Is like A Red, Red, Rose. John Updike, Ex-Basketball Player. Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner. Marge Piercy, The Secretary Chant. John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning. *E.B. White, Natural History. *Bei Dau, A Bouquet. *Martin Espada, My Father as Guitar. *Mary Jo Salter, Kangaroo. Hyperbole and Understatement. Sylvia Plath, Daddy. David Huddle, Holes Commence Falling. Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband. Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress. Robert Frost, Out, Out--. Donald Hall, My Son, My Executioner. Margaret Atwood, You Fit Into Me. *Sherod Santos, Spring Elegy. Metonymy and Synecdoche. Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta Going to the Wars. *Thomas Lux, Henry Clay''s Mouth. Apostrophe. Sonia Sanchez, On Passing thru Morgantown, Pa. *Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California. Checklist: Writing About Figures of Speech. Writing Suggestions: Figures of Speech. 22. Sound. Walt Whitman, Had I the Choice. Rhythm. Gwendolyn Brooks, Sadie and Maud. Meter. Emily Dickinson, I Like to See It Lap the Miles. Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer''s Tigers. Etheridge Knight, For Malcolm, a Year After. Alliteration and Assonance. Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle. N. Scott Momaday, Comparatives. Robert Herrick, Delight in Disorder. Rhyme. Ogden Nash, The Llama. Richard Wilbur, A Sketch. Gerald Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty. W. H. Auden, As I Walked Out One Evening. *Kelly Cherry, Nobody''s Fool. *Lydia Davis, A Mown Lawn. *Robert Francis, Pitcher. *Alan Shapiro, A Parting Gift. *Mona Van Duyn, The Beginning. Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky. Checklist: Writing About Sound. Writing Suggestions: Sound. 23. Form. John Keats, On the Sonnet. *Billy Collins, Sonnet. Closed Form. Blank Verse. Stanza. The Sonnet. William Shakespeare, When, in Disgrace with Fortune and Men''s Eyes. Claude McKay, The White City. John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman''s Homer. Gwendolyn Brooks, First Fight. Then Fiddle. *Mona Van Duyn, Minimalist Sonnet. The Sestina. Alberto Alvaro Rios, Nani. Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina. The Villanelle. Theodore Roethke, The Waking. William Meredith, In Memory of Donald A. Stauffer. The Epigram. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, What Is an Epigram? William Blake, Her Whole Life Is an Epigram. *Martin Espada, Why I Went to College. Haiku. Richard Brautigan, idow''s Lament. Matsuo Basho, Four Haiku. Carolyn Kizer, After Basho. Open Form. Carl Sandburg, Chicago. Louise Gluck, Life is a Nice Place. E. E. Cummings, The Sky Was Can Dy. Walt Whitman, from Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking. Diane Wakoski, Sleep. Robert Hayden, Monet''s Waterlillies. William Carlos Williams, Spring and All. Carolyn Forche, The Colonel. *Pat Mora, Immigrants. *Czeslaw Milosz, Christopher Robin. Concrete Poetry. May Swenson, Women. George Herbert, Easter Wings. *Greg Williamson, Group Photo with Winter Trees. Checklist: Writing About Form. Writing Suggestions: Form. 24. Symbol, Allegory, Allusion, and Myth. William Blake, The Sick Rose. Symbol. Robert Frost, For Once, Then Something. Jim Simmerman, Child''s Grave, Hale County, Alabama. Emily Dickinson, Volcanoes Be in Sicily. Langston Hughes, Island. Theodore Roethke, Night Crow. Allegory. Christina Rossetti, Uphill. Adrienne Rich, Diving into the Wreck. Allusion. Wole Soyinka, Future Plans. William Meredith, Dreams of Suicide. Delmore Schwartz, The True-Blue merican. Myth. Countee Cullen, Yet Do I Marvel. Louise Erdrich, Windigo. William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan. Derek Walcott, Sea Grapes. W. H. Auden, Musèe des Beaux Arts. *T. S. Eliot, The Journey of the Magi. *Elizabeth Holmes, The Fathers. Checklist: Writing about Symbol, Allegory, Allusion, and Myth. Writing Suggestions: Symbol Allegory, Allusion, and Myth. 25. The Poetry of Emily Dickinson: A Casebook for Reading, Research, and Writing. Emily Dickinson, "Success is counted sweetest". Emily Dickinson, "Faith is a fine invention". Emily Dickinson, "I taste a liquor never brewed--". Emily Dickinson, "Safe in their Alabaster Chambers--". Emily Dickinson, "Heaven" -- Is what I cannot reach!" Emily Dickinson, "Wild Nights--Wild Nights!" Emily Dickinson, "The Soul Selects Her own Society". Emily Dickinson, "Nature--sometimes sears a Sapling--". Emily Dickinson, "Some keep the Sabbath going to Church--". Emily Dickinson, "After great pain, A formal feeling comes--". Emily Dickinson, "I Read My Sentence--Steadily--". Emily Dickinson, "We grow accustomed to the Dark--". Emily Dickinson, "Much Madness is divinest Sense--". Emily Dickinson, "This is my letter to the World". Emily Dickinson, "I heard a fly buzz--when I died--". Emily Dickinson, "The Brain--is wider than the Sky--". Emily Dickinson, "I dwell in Possibility--". Emily Dickinson, "One need not be a Chamber--to be Haunted--". Emily Dickinson, "Because I could not stop for Death--". Emily Dickinson, "The Only News I know". Emily Dickinson, "I never saw a Moor--". Emily Dickinson, "The Bustle in a House". Emily Dickinson, "Tell all the Truth but tell it slant--". Emily Dickinson, "There is no Frigate like a Book". Emily Dickinson, "That Love is all there is,". Thomas H. Johnson and Theodora Ward, From The Letters of Emily Dickinson. Burdick, E. Miller, From Emily Dickinson and the Life of Language. Judith Farr, From The Passion of Emily Dickinson. Richard B. Sewall, From The Life of Emily Dickinson. Judy Jo Small, From Positive as Sound: Emily Dickinson''s Rhyme. Allen Tate, Emily Dickinson. Shankar Vedantam, Did a Bipolar Trait bring a Turn for the Verse? Michael Ryan, Vocation According to Dickinson. Suzanne Juhasz, Christanne Miller, and Martha Nell Smith, Emily Dickinson''s Feminist Humor. James L. Dean, Dickinson''s "Wild Nights!" Research Questions. Student Paper The Musicality of Emily Dickinson''s Poetry. 26. The Poetry of Langston Hughes: A Casebook for Reading, Research, and Writing. Langston Hughes, The Negro Speaks of Rivers. Langston Hughes, The Weary Blues. Langston Hughes, I, To. Langston Hughes, Ballad of the Landlord. Langston Hughes, The Ballad of Booker T. Langston Hughes, Theme for English B. Langston Hughes, Dream Boogie. Langston Hughes, Birmingham Sunday (September 15, 1963). Langston Hughes, Old Walt. Langston Hughes, Genius Child. Langston Hughes, Lenox Avenue: Midnight. Langston Hughes, Park Bench. Langston Hughes, The Un-American Investigators. Langston Hughes, Dinner Guest: Me. Langston Hughes, The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain. Langston Hughes, To Negro Writers. Langston Hughes, My Adventures as a Social Poet. Arnold Rampersad, The Origins of Poetry in Langston Hughes. Herman Beavers, Dead Rocks and Sleeping Men: Aurality in the Aesthetic of Langston Hughes. Steven C. Tracy, "Midnight Ruffles of CatGut Lace": The Boogie Poems of Langston Hughes. Karen Jackson Ford, Do Right to Write Right: Langston Hughes Aesthetics of Simplicity. George B. Hutchinson, Langston Hughes and the "Other" Whitman. C. D. Rogers, "Hughes''s ''Genius Child''". Research Questions. Student Paper: Challenging the Father/Challenging the Self: Langston Hughes''s "The Negro Speaks of Rivers". 27. Poetry for Further Reading. Sherman Alexie, Defending Walt Whitman. Maya Angelou, Africa. Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan. Anonymous, Western Wind. Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach. *John Ashbery, Myrtle. *Elizabeth Alexander, Apollo. Margaret Atwood, This Is A Photograph of Me. *Robin Behn, Whether or Not There Are Apples. *Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish. William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper. William Blake, The Lamb. *William Blake, To See a World in a Grain of Sand. William Blake, London. William Blake, The Tyger. *Eavon Boland, The Emigrant Irish. Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book. Gwendolyn Brooks, The Ballad of Rudolph Reed. Gwendolyn Brooks, The Chicago Defender Sends a Man to Little Rock. Gwendolyn Brooks, Medgar Evers. George Gordon, Lord Byron, She Walks in Beauty. *Shulamith Wechter Caine, Intellectual Heritage. *Raphael Campo, Oysters. *Phyllis Capello, In Memory of Jenny and Evelyn Who Were Playing When the Stoop Collapsed. *Lucille Clifton, the mississippi river empties into the gulf. *Judith Ortiz Cofer, Claims. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan. *Billy Collins, Lines Lost Among Trees. *Hart Crane, To Brooklyn Bridge. *Victor Hernandez Cruz, Anonymous. E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill''s. E. E. Cummings, Next To Of Course God America I. Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, The Brides Come to Yuba City. John Donne, Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God. John Donne, Death Be Not Proud. John Donne, Song. *Mark Doty, A Display of Mackerel. Rita Dove, The Satisfaction Coal Company. *Gregory Djanikan, Immigrant Picnic. *Stephen Dunn, Waiting with Two Members of a Motorcycle Gang for My Child to Be Born. Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask. T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. James A. Emanuel, Emmett Till. Louise Erdrich, Indian Boarding School: The Runaways. Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night. Robert Frost, Birches. Robert Frost, Desert Places. Robert Frost, Mending Wall. Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken. Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. *Frederico Garcia Lorca, Arbole Arbole. *Deborah Garrison, Please Fire Me. Nikki Giovanni, Nikki-Rosa. *Jorie Graham, I Was Taught Three. H. D., Heat. H. D., Helen. *Marilyn Hacker, I''m Four. *Rachel Hadas, Thick and Thin. *Joy Harjo, Morning Song. Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain. Robert Hayden, Homage to the Empress of the Blues. *Seamus Heaney, Mid-term Break. Gerard Manley Hopkins, God''s Grandeur. Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover. *Garett Kaoru Hongo, The Hongo Store 29 Miles Volcano Hilo, Hawaii. *Andrew Hudgins, Desert Island. Ted Hughes, Visit. *Donald Justice, On the Death of Friends in Childhood. *Donald Justice, School Letting Out. John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci: A Ballad. John Keats, Bright Star! Would I Were Steadfast as Thou Art. John Keats, Ode on a Gredian Urn. John Keats, When I Have Fears. *Aron Keesbury, On the Robbery across the Street. *Jane Kenyon, A Boy Goes into the World. Philip Larkin, Aubade. *Li-Young Lee, The Gift. *Phillip Levine, Llanto. *Harry McCabe, Evening at the Shack. Claude McKay, If We Must Die. *James Merrill, Page from the Koran. *M.S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death. John Milton, When I Consider How My Light Is Spent. Pablo Neruda, The United Fruit Co. *Dan Nester, Pay Per View ètude. *Sharon Olds, The One Girl at the Boys Party. Sharon Olds, Rite of Passage. *Frank O''Hara, Autobiographia Literaria. *Mary Oliver, Alligator Poem. Michael Ondaatje, Dates. *Gregory Orr, Once the two of us. Linda Pastan, Ethics. Linda Pastan, Marks. *Lucia Perillo, Scott Wonders if His Daughter Will Understand Tragedy if He Kills Rock and Roll. Marge Piercy, Barbie Doll. Marge Piercy, The Friend. *Robert Pinsky, If You Could Write One Great Poem, What Would You Want It to Be About? Sylvia Plath, Metaphors. Sylvia Plath, Mirror. Ezra Pound, The River-Merchant''s Wife: A Letter. Henry Reed, Naming of Parts. Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy. Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory. *Kay Ryan, That Will to Divest. Carl Sandburg, Fog. *Sonia Sanchez, right on: white america. Anne Sexton, Sylvia''s Death. William Shakespeare, Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds. William Shakespeare, Not Marble, nor the Gilded Monuments. Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ode to the West Wind. *Charles Simic, Spring. *Louis Simpson, A Shearling Coat. Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning. Cathy Song, Lost Sister. Gary Soto, Black Hair. *Wole Soyinka, Hamlet. Barry Spacks, On Finding a Yiddish Newspaper on the Riverside Line. William Stafford, Traveling through the Dark. Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar. Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream. *Mark Strand, Old Man Leaves a Party. *Virgil Suárez, Aguacero. Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses. *John Updike, Rainbow. Gina Valdes, My Mother Sews Blouses. Margaret Walker, Lineage. Edmund Waller, Go, Lovely Rose. James Welch, The Man from Washington. Phyllis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America. Walt Whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider. Walt Whitman, from Song of Myself. *C.K. Williams, Tantrum. William Carlos Williams, The Dance. William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802. William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud. William Wordsworth, My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold. William Wordsworth, She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways. William Wordsworth, The Solitary Reaper. William Butler Yeats, Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop. William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree. William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium. William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming. 28. Biographical Sketches of Selected Poets. DRAMA. 29. Understanding Drama. Dramatic Literature. The Origins of the Modern Theater. The Ancient Greek Theater. The Elizabethan Theater. The Modern Theater. Kinds of Drama. Tragedy. Comedy. A Note on Translations. August Strindberg, The Stronger. *Jane Martin, Beauty. 30. Reading and Writing About Drama. Reading Drama. Active Reading. Previewing. Highlighting or Annotating. Writing About Drama. Planning an Essay. Choosing a Topic. Finding Something to Say. Seeing Connections. Deciding on a Thesis. Preparing an Outline. Drafting an Essay. Student Paper: The Women''s Role in Trifles (First Draft). First Draft Commentary. Revising and Editing an Essay. Student Paper: Confinement and Rebellion in Trifles (Second Draft). Second Draft Commentary. Student Paper: Desperate Measures: Acts of Defiance in Trifles (Final Draft). Final Draft Commentary. 31. Plot. Plot Structure. Plot and Subplot. Plot Development. Flashbacks. Foreshadowing. Checklist: Writing About Plot. Susan Glaspell, Trifles. *Sam Shepard, True West. Henrik Ibsen, A Doll House. Writing Suggestions: Plot. 32. Character. Character''s Words. Formal and Informal Language. Plain and Elaborate Style. Tone. Irony. Character''s Actions. Stage Directions. Actor''s Interpretations. Checklist: Writing About Character. Anton Chekov, The Brute. Paddy Chayefsky, Marty. *David Auburn, Proof. Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman. Writing Suggestions: Character. 33. Staging. Stage Directions. The Uses of Staging. Costumes. Props. Scenery and Lighting. Music and Sound Effects. A Final Note. Checklist: Writing About Staging. Milcha Sanchez-Scott, The Cuban Swimmer. Sophocles, Oedipus the King. William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night''s Dream. Writing Suggestions: Staging. 34. Theme. Titles. Conflicts. Dialogue. Characters. Staging. A Final Note. Checklist: Writing About Theme. Wendy Wasserstein, Tender Offer. *Margaret Edson, Wit. Sophocles, Antigone. August Wilson, Fences. Writing Suggestions: Theme. 35. Tennessee Williams'' The Glass Menagerie: A Casebook for Reading, Research, and Writing. Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie. Tennessee Williams, Author''s Production Notes (Preface to the Published Edition). James Fisher, From The Angels of Fructification. Eric P. Levy, From Through the Soundproof Glass. Jacqueline O''Connor, From Dramatizing Dementia: Madness in the Plays of Tennessee Williams. Edwina Dakin Williams, Tennessee Williams, Dakin Williams, and Shepherd Meade, Excerpts from Three Memoirs. Jean Evans and Walter Wager, Excerpts from Two Interviews with Williams. Thomas L. King, Irony and Distance in The Glass Menagerie. Nancy Tischler, Nancy Marie Patterson, From A Student Companion to Tennessee Williams. Roger B. Stein, From The Glass Menagerie Revisited: Catastrophe without Violence. Tom Scanlan, from Family, Drama, and American Dreams. Roger Boxill, The Glass Menagerie. Tennessee Williams, Portrait of a Girl in Glass. Topics for Further Research. Student Paper: Laura''s Gentlemen Caller. 36. William Shakespeare''s Hamlet: A Casebook for Reading, Research, and Writing. William Shakespeare, Hamlet. Elizabeth Mullenix, Reitz, The Sublime or the Ridiculous? Siyang, Zhang, Hamlet''s Melancholy. Vince Escanalar, Foils in Hamlet. Mark Rose, From Reforming the Role. Ellen J. O''Brien, From Revision by Excision: Rewriting Gertrude. June Schlueter and James P. Lusardi, From Study to Stage to Classroom. Sandra K. Fisher, Ophelia''s Mad Speeches. Topics for Further Research. Student Paper: "Reclaiming Shakespeare''s Gertrude: Rejecting Role Revisions on Stage and in Film". WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE. 37. Three Common Writing Assignments. 38. Writing a Research Paper. Choosing a Topic. Looking for Sources. Narrowing Your Topic. Doing Research. Taking Notes. Integrating Sources. Avoiding Plagiarism. Drafting a Thesis Statement. Making an Outline. Writing Your Paper. Documenting Your Sources. Parenthetical References in the Text. Guidelines for Punctuating Parenthetical References. Sample References. The List of Works Cited. Informal Documentation. Content Notes. To Cite Several Sources. To Provide Explanations. Sample Literature Papers with MLA Documentation. Student Paper, And Again She Makes the Journey: Character and act in Eudora Welty''s A Worn Path. Student Paper: "A and P": A Class Act. 39. Using Literary Theory in Your Writing. Formalism. A Formalist Reading: Kate Chopan''s "The Storm". For Further Reading: Formalism. Reader-Response Criticism. Reader-Response Reading''s: Kate Chopin''s "The Storm". For Further Reading: Reader-Response Criticims. Sociological Criticism. Feminist Criticism. A Feminist Reading: Tillie Olsen''s "I Stand Here Ironing". For Further Reading: Feminist Criticism. Marxist Criticism. A Marxist Reading: Tillie Olsen''s "I Stand Here Ironing". For Further Reading: Marxist Criticism. New Historicism. A New Historicist Reading: Charlotte Perkins Gilman''s "The Yellow Wallpaper". For Further Reading: New Historicist Criticism. Psychoanalytic Criticism. Psychoanalytic Terms. A Psychoanalytic Reading: Edgar Allen Poe''s "The Cask of Amontillado". For Further Reading: Psychoanalytic Criticism. Structuralism. A Structuralist Reading: William Faulkner''s "Barn Burning". For Further Reading: Structuralism. Deconstruction. A Deconstructionist Reading: Flannery O''Connor''s "A Good Man Is Hard to Find". For Further Reading: Deconstruction. 40. Writing Essay Exams About Literature. Planning an Essay Exam Answer. Review Your Material. Consider Your Audience and Purpose. Read through the Entire Exam. Read the Question Carefully. Key Words in Exam Questions. Brainstorm to Find Ideas. Shaping an Essay Exam Answer. Stating a Thesis. Making a Scratch Outline. Drafting and Revising an Essay Exam Answer. Appendix A: Literary History: Aristotle to the Twentieth Century. Beginnings: The Greeks and Romas (c. 450 b.c. - a.d. 400). The Middle Agesa (c. A.D. 400 - 1500). The Renaissance (c. 1500-1660). The Enlightenment (c. 1660 - 1798). The Romantic Period (1798 - 1837). The Victorian Period (1837 - 1901). The Modern Period (1901 - Present). Glossary of Literary Terms. Acknowledgements. Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poetry.
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