Literature: Reading Fiction, Poetry, and Drama / Edition 5

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This anthology offers a lively introduction to the study of fiction, poetry, and drama, and is appropriate for introduction to literature courses as well as literature-based composition courses.

Known for its clear presentation of the formal elements of literary analysis, DiYanni's Literature effectively balances classical, modern, and contemporary works across the three major genres, blending well-known writers with a diverse gathering of newer, international figures. This literary breadth is supplemented by extensive coverage of writing about literature, making DiYanni an excellent resource for literature instructors who want a full-featured anthology.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780072996241
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
  • Publication date: 1/28/2002
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Product dimensions: 6.70 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 2.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert DiYanni is Professor of English at Pace University, Pleasantville, New York, where he teaches courses in literature, writing, and humanities. He has also taught at Queens College of the City University of New York, at New York University in the Graduate Rhetoric Program, and most recently in the Expository Writing Program at Harvard University. He received his B.A. from Rutgers University (1968) and his Ph.D. from the City University of New York (1976).

Robert DiYanni has written articles and reviews on various aspects of literature, composition, and pedagogy. His books include Literature: Reading, Fiction, Poetry, Drama and the Essay; The McGraw-Hill Book of Poetry; Women’s Voices; Like Season’d Timber: New Essays on George Herbert; and Modern American Poets: Their Voices and Visions (a text to accompany the Annenberg-funded telecourse, Voices and Visions). With Kraft Rompf, he edited The McGraw-Hill Book of Poetry, (1993) and The McGraw-Hill Book of Fiction (1995). With Pat Hoy, he edited Encounters: Readings for Inquiry and Argument (1997).

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Table of Contents


Reading Literature

The Pleasures of Reading Literature

The Pleasures of Fiction

The Dog and the Shadow

Learning to Be Silent

*Reading the Parable in Context

The Pleasures of Poetry

Robert Frost, Dust of Snow

*Reading Frost's poem in Context

The Pleasures of Drama

Understanding Literature: Experience/ Interpretation/ Evaluation

Writing About Literature

Reasons for Writing about Literature

*Reading a play in Context

Ways of Writing about Literature

The Writing Process






Luke, The Prodigal Son

The Experience of Fiction

The Interpretation of Fiction

*Reading in Context

The Evaluation of Fiction

John Updike, A&P

The Act of Reading Fiction

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour


Early Forms: Parable, Fable, and Tale

Aesop, The Wolf and the Mastiff

Petronius, The Widow of Ephesus

The Short Story

The Nonrealistic Story

The Short Novel


Plot and Structure

Frank O'Connor, Guests of the Nation


Kay Boyle, Astronomer's Wife


Bobbie Ann Mason, Shiloh

Point of View

William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily

Language and Style

James Joyce, Araby


Eudora Welty, A Worn Path

Irony and Symbol

D. H. Lawrence, The Rocking-HorseWinner


Reasons for Writing about Fiction

Informal Ways of Writing about Fiction

Katherine Anne Porter, Magic

Formal Ways of Writing about Fiction

Student Papers on Fiction

Questions for Writing about Fiction

Suggestions for Writing


Reading Edgar Allan Poe, Flannery O'Connor, and Sandra Cisneros in Depth

*Edgar Allan Poe in Context

*Poe and Journalism / Poe and The Horror Story / Poe and The Detective Story / The Dimension of Style/ Timeline

Edgar Allan Poe: Stories:

*The Black Cat

*The Cask of Amontillado

*The Fall of the House of Usher

*The Purloined Letter

*Edgar Allan Poe: Letters, Essays

*Critics on Poe

Flannery O'Connor in Context

*Southern Gothic / The Catholic Dimension / O'Connor's Irony/ Timeline

Flannery O'Connor: Stories:

Good Country People

A Good Man is Hard to Find

Everything That Rises Must Converge

*The Life You Save May Be Your Own

Flannery O'Connor: Letters, Essays

Critics on O'Connor

*Sandra Cisneros in Context

Culture and Identity / Literature of the American Southwest / The Feminist Dimension/ Timeline

*Sandra Cisneros: Stories:

*Barbie Q


*There was a Man, There was a Woman

*Woman Hollering Creek

*Sandra Cisneros on Herself

*Critics on Cisneros



*Chinua Achebe, Marriage is a Private Affair

*James Baldwin, Sonny's Blues

Jorge Luis Borges, The Garden of Forking Paths

*Anton Chekhov, The Kiss translated by CONSTANCE GARNETT

Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal

*F. Scott Fitzgerald, Babylon Revisited

Gabriel Garcia Marquez, A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings translated by GREGORY RABASSA

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper

Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown

*Ernest Hemingway, Soldier's Home

*Zora Neale Hurston, Spunk

James Joyce, The Boarding House

James Joyce, The Dead

*Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis translated by ALEXIS WALKER

Katherine Mansfield, Bliss

Tillie Olsen, I Stand Here Ironing

Luigi Pirandello, War

Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

Isaac Bashevis Singer, Gimpel the Fool translated by SAUL BELLOW

Jean Stafford, Bad Characters

*Eudora Welty, Why I Live at the P.O.


*Sherman Alexie, Indian Education

*Julia Alvarez, The Kiss

*Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings

Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson

Raymond Carver, Cathedral

*Anita Desai, Diamond Dust

*Nathan Englander, The Tumblers

*Ursula Hegi, To the Gate

Mary Hood, How Far She Went

*Gish Jen, Who's Irish

Ha Jin, Taking a Husband

Jamaica Kincaid, Girl

*James Alan McPherson, Why I Like Country Music

*Bharati Mukherjee, The Tenant

*Alice Munro, An Ounce of Cure

*Edna O'Brien, Long Distance

Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried

*Annie Proulx, The Bunchgrass Edge of the World

Leslie Silko, Yellow Woman

Amy Tan, Rules of the Game

Alice Walker, Everyday Use

*Louisa Valenzuela, I'm Your Horse in the Night

*John Edgar Wideman, Damballah



The Experience of Poetry

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays

*Reading in Context

The Interpretation of Poetry

Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

*Reading in Context

The Evaluation of Poetry

Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer's Tigers

The Act of Reading Poetry

Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz


Narrative Poetry

Lyric Poetry


Voice: Speaker and Tone

Stephen Crane, War is Kind

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess

Muriel Stuart, In the Orchard

Gerard Manley Hopkins, "Thou art indeed just, Lord, if I contend"

Anonymous, Western Wind

Henry Reed, Naming of Parts

Jacques Prevert, Family Portrait


William Wordsworth, I wandered lonely as a cloud

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy

William Wordsworth, It is a beauteous evening

Robert Herrick, Delight in Disorder

Adrienne Rich, Rape


Elizabeth Bishop, First Death in Nova Scotia

William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree

Robert Browning, Meeting at Night

H.D., Heat

Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones

Figures of Speech: Simile and Metaphor

William Shakespeare, That time of year thou may'st in me behold

John Donne, Hymn to God the Father

Robert Wallace, The Double-Play

Louis Simpson, The Battle

Judith Wright, Woman to Child

Symbolism and Allegory

Peter Meinke, Advice to My Son

Christina Rossetti, Up-Hill

William Blake, A Poison Tree

Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken

George Herbert, Virtue

Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death


John Donne, The Sun Rising

Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed

William Butler Yeats, An Irish Airman Foresees His Death

Robert Frost, The Silken Tent

e.e. cummings, "Me up at does"

Stevie Smith, Mother, Among the Dustbins

Sound: Rhyme, Alliteration, Assonance

Gerard Manley Hopkins, In the Valley of the Elwy

Thomas Hardy, During Wind and Rain

Alexander Pope, Sound and Sense

Bob McKenty, Adam's Song

May Swenson, The Universe

Helen Chasin, The Word Plum

Rhythm and Meter

Robert Frost, The Span of Life

George Gordon, Lord Byron, The Destruction of Sennacherib

Anne Sexton, Her Kind

William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow

Structure: Closed Form and Open Form

John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer

Walt Whitman, When I heard the learn'd astronomer

e.e. cummings l(a

e.e. cummings, [Buffalo Bill's]

William Carlos Williams, The Dance

Denise Levertov, O Taste and See

Theodore Roethke, The Waking

*Christine Kane Molito, Reflections in Black & Blue

C.P. Cavafy, The City translated by EDMUND KEELEY AND PHILIP SHERRARD


Emily Dickinson, Crumbling is not an instant's Act



William Blake, London

William Butler Yeats, A Dream of Death

Emily Dickinson, The Wind begun to knead the Grass

D.H. Lawrence, Piano

*Langston Hughes, Ballad of Booker T.


William Carlos Williams, This is Just to Say

Kenneth Koch, Variations on a Theme by William Carlos Williams

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Carrion Comfort

Gary Layne Hatch, Terrier Torment; or, Mr. Hopkins and his Dog

William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?

Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?

Robert Frost, Dust of Snow

Bob McKenty, Snow on Frost


*Horace, Eheu fugaces, Postume, Postume translated by DAVID FERRY AND BY HELEN ROWE HENZ

*Francesco Petrarca, S'amor non e, che dunque e quel ch'io siento translated by ROBERT M. DURLING AND BY MARK MUSA

Rainer Maria Rilke, Der Panther translated by STEPHEN MITCHELL AND BY C.F. MCINTYRE

Guillaume Apollinaire, Le Pont Mirabeau translated by RICHARD WILBUR AND BY W.S. MERWIN

Juan Ramon Jimenez, Nocturno Sonado translated by ELEANOR L. TURNBULL AND BY THOMAS MCGREEVY


Christopher Marlowe: The Passionate Shepherd to His Love

Sir Walter Raleigh, The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd

William Shakespeare, Not marble, nor the gilded monuments

Archibald MacLeish, Not marble Nor the Gilded Monuments

*William Blake, Nurse's Song (Innocence); Nurse's Song (Experience)

Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach

Anthony Hecht, The Dover Bitch: A Criticism of Lfe

William Carlos Williams, Queen-Ann's-Lace

Anne C. Coon, Queen Anne's Lace

*Ovid, Siesta time in sultry summer

*Jay Parini, Amores (After Ovid)

Poetry and Song

Ecclesiastes, To Everything There is a Season

Pete Seeger, Turn, Turn, Turn!

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory

Paul Simon, Richard Cory

Langston Hughes Dream Deferred

Langston Hughes, Same in Blues

*Woody Guthrie, This Land Is Your Land

*Sonya Sanchez, Blues

Lonnelle Johnson, No Mo' Blues

*Bessie Smith, Lost Your Head Blues

*John Newton, Amazing Grace

Don Maclean, Vincent

Poetry and Painting

Vincent Van Gogh, Starry Night

Anne Secton, The Starry Night

Robert Fagles, The Starry night

Francesco de Goya, The Third of May, 1808

David Gewanter, Goya's The Third of May, 1808

Pieter Breughel the Elder, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus

W.H. Auden, Musee des Beaux Arts

William Carlos Williams, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus

William Blake, The Sick Rose (painting)

William Blake, The Sick Rose (poem)

Henri Matisse, The Dance

Natalie Safir, Matisse's Dance

*Michelangelo Buonarotti, A goiter it seems I got from this backward craning translated by John Frederick Nims

*Michelangelo Buonarotti, Sistine Chapel Ceiling (Detail)

*Rembrandt van Rijn, The Return of the Prodigal Son

*Elizabeth Bishop, The Prodigal

Kitagawa Utamaro, Girl Powdering Her Neck

*Cathy Song, Girl Powdering Her Neck

*Gustave Klimt, The Kiss

Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Short Story on a Painting of Gustav Klimt

*Romare Bearden, At Five in the Afternoon

*Federico Garcia Lorca, Lament for Ignacio Sánchez Mejías (pt. 2)


Reasons for Writing about Poetry

Informal Ways of Writing about Poetry

Robert Graves, Symptoms of Love

Formal Ways of Writing about Poetry

Sylvia Plath, Mirror

Student Papers on Poetry

Questions for Writing about Poetry

Suggestions for Writing


Reading Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, and Langston Hughes in Depth

*Emily Dickinson in Context

*The 19th-Century New England Literary Scene

Dickinson and Modern Poetry / Dickinson and Christianity / Dickinson's Style/ Timeline

Emily Dickinson, I cannot dance upon my Toes (326)

Emily Dickinson, The soul selects her own Society (303)

Emily Dickinson: Poems

*67 Success is counted sweetest

*108 Surgeons must be very careful

*185 "Faith" is a fine invention

199 I'm "wife"--I've finished that

214 I taste a liquor never brewed

241 I like a look of Agony

249 Wild Nights--Wild Nights!

*252 I can wade Grief

258 There's a certain Slant of light

280 I felt a Funeral, in my Brain

324 Some keep the Sabbath going to Church

*328 A Bird came down the walk

341 After great pain, a formal feeling comes

348 I dreaded that first Robin, so

*365 Dare you see a Soul at the White heat?

419 We grow accustomed to the Dark

435 Much Madness is divinest Sense

*448 This was a Poet--It is that

449 I died for Beauty--but was scarce

465 I head a Fly buzz--when I died

*480 "Why do I love" You, Sir?

*501 This World is not Conclusion.

*508 I'm ceded--I've stopped being Theirs--

*512 The Soul has Bandaged moments--

536 The heart asks Pleasure--first

*547 I've seen a Dying eye

*569 I reckon--when I count at all--

585 I like to see it lap the Miles

599 There is a pain--so utter

*632 The Brain--is wider than the Sky

650 Pain--has an element of Blank

*657 I dwell in Possibility--

*668 "Nature" is what we see

*709 Publication--is the Auction

744 Remorse--is Memory--awake

754 My Life had stood--a Loaded Gun

986 A narrow Fellow in the Grass

1068 Further in Summer than the Birds

1078 The Bustle in a House

1100 The last Night that She lived

1129 Tell all the Truth but tell it slant

*1138 A spider sewed at night

*1142 The Props assist the House

1463 A Route of Evanescence

1624 Apparently with no surprise

*1705 Volcanoes be in Sicily

1732 My life closed twice before its close

Questions for Reflection

Three Poems with Altered Punctuation

Poems Inspired by Dickinson

*Jane Hirshfield, Three Times My Life has Opened

*Jane Kenyon, Notes from The Other Side

*Billy Collins, Taking Off Emily Dickinson's Clothes

*Linda Pastan, Emily Dickinson

Emily Dickinson: Letters / Critics on Dickinson

*Robert Frost in Context

*The Popularity of Frost / Frost and Nature / Frost and the Sonnet / Frost's Voices/ Timeline

Robert Frost: Poems


The Tuft of Flowers

Mending Wall


*After Apple-Picking

Home Burial

*The Oven Bird

Hyla Brook

*"Out, Out--"

Putting in the Seed

Fire and Ice

For Once, Then Something

*The Need of Being Versed in Country Things

Two Look at Two

Once by the Pacific

Acquainted with the Night

Tree at My Window



Desert Places

Provide, Provide

The Most of It

*Never Again Would Birds' Song Be the Same

Questions for Reflection

Frost: Letters and Essays / Critics on Frost

*Langston Hughes in Context

*The Harlem Renaissance / Hughes and Music / Hughes's Influences / Hughes's Style

Langston Hughes: Poems

*The Negro Speaks of Rivers

*Mother to Son

*I, Too

*My People

*The Weary Blues

*Young Gal's Blues

*Morning After

Trumpet Player

*Dream Boogie

*Ballad of the Landlord

*Madam and the Rent Man

*When Sue Wears Red

*Listen Here Blues

*Consider me

*Theme for English B

*Aunt Sue's Stories


*Let America Be America Again

*I'm Still Here

*Questions for Reflection

*Hughes: Essays / Critics on Hughes



Anonymous, Barbara Allan

Anonymous, Edward, Edward

William Blake, The Clod and the Pebble

William Blake, The Lamb

William Blake, The Tyger

William Blake, The Garden of Love

Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How do I love thee

Robert Burns, A Red, Red Rose

*Thomas Campion, There is a Garden in Her Face

Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan

John Donne, Song: Go and catch a falling star

John Donne, The Canonization

John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning

John Donne, The Flea

John Donne, Death, be not proud

John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God

George Gordon, Lord Byron, She walks in beauty

Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid

Thomas Hardy, Channel Firing

Thomas Hardy, Afterwards

George Herbert, The Altar

*George Herbert, The Pulley

Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes

Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to make Much of Time

Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur

Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall: To a Young Child

A.E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty

A.E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young

*Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, The soote season

Ben Jonson, On My First Son

Ben Jonson, Song: To Celia

John Keats, When I have fears that I may cease to be

John Keats, La Belle Dame sans merci

*John Keats, The Eve of St. Agnes

John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn

John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress

John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent

John Milton, On the Late Massacre in Piedmont

*Sir Thomas Nashe, A Litany in Time of Plague

Edgar Allan Poe, To Helen

Edgar Allan Poe, The Raven

Alexander Pope, from An Essay on Man

William Shakespeare, When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes

William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds

William Shakespeare, Th' expense of spirit in a waste of shame

William Shakespeare, My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias

*Edmund Spenser, One day I wrote her name upon the strand

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle: A Fragment

Walt Whitman, One's-Self I Sing

Walt Whitman, A noiseless patient spider

*Walt Whitman, Crossing Brooklyn Ferry

William Wordsworth, The world is too much with us

William Wordsworth, The Solitary Reaper

William Wordsworth, Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey

Thomas Wyatt, They flee from me


W.H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen

W.H. Auden, In Memory of W.B. Yeats

*W.H. Auden, Funeral Blues

Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina

Elizabeth Bishop, One Art

*Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool

Gwendolyn Brooks, First fight. Then fiddle

*Hart Crane, My Grandmother's Love Letters

Countee Cullen, Incident

e.e. cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town

e.e. cummings, i thank You god for this most amazing

Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear he Mask

T.S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

Philip Larkin, A Study of Reading Habits

*D.H. Lawrence, Hummingbird

D.H. Lawrence, Snake

*D.H. Lawrence, When I Read Shakespeare

*Robert Lowell, Epilogue

Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica

Claude McKay, The Tropics in New York

Marianne Moore, Poetry

Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est

Sylvia Plath, Blackberrying

*Ezra Pound, The Garden

Ezra Pound, The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter

John Crowe Ransom, Piazza Piece

Theodore Roethke, Elegy for Jane

Anne Sexton, Two Hands

William Stafford, Traveling through the Dark

Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird

*Wallace Stevens, The Snow Man

May Swenson, Women

Dylan Thomas, Fern Hill

Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night

Jean Toomer, Song of the Sun

Jean Toomer, Reapers

Richard Wilbur, Death of a Toad

William Carlos Williams, Spring and All

William Carlos Williams, Danse Russe

William Carlos Williams The Young Housewife

James Wright, Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy's Farm

James Wright, A Blessing

William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming

William Butler Yeats, The Wild Swans at Coole

William Butler Yeats, Led and the Swan

William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium

*William Butler Yeats, A Coat

*William Butler Yeats, The Scholars

*William Butler Yeats, When You are Old

*William Butler Yeats, Adam's Curse


*Diane Ackerman, Spiders

*Sherman Alexie, Indian Boy Love Songs 1 and 2

Margaret Atwood, This is a Photograph of me

*Margaret Atwood, Spelling

Jimmy Santiago Baca, from Meditations on the South Valley XVII

*Michael Blumenthal, Today I am Envying the Glorious Mexicans

*Eavan Boland, Anorexic

*David Bottoms, Sign for My Father, who Stressed the Bunt

*Neal Bowers, Driving Lessons

Raymond Carver, Photograph of My Father in His Twenty-Second Year

*Sandra Cisneros, Pumpkin Eater

Lucille Clifton, Homage to My Hips

*Judith Ortiz Cofer, The Game

*Billy Collins, Duck / Rabbit

*Jennifer Ritter Compasso, All I Hear is Silence

*Doretta Cornell, Steady as Any Ship My Father

Grergory Corso, Marriage

*Joseph Coulson, After the Move

*Allen Curnow, The Cake Uncut

*Mark Doty, Golden Retrievals

*Rita Dove, Testimonial

Rita Dove, Canary

Louise Erdrich, Indian Boarding School: The Runaways

Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Constantly Risking Absurdity

*Carolyn Forche, The Memory of Elena

Nikki Giovanni, Ego Tripping

*Nikki Giovanni, Nikki Rosa

*Louise Gluck, The School Children

*Jori Graham, Mind

Donald Hall, My son, my executioner

*Donald Hall, Kicking the Leaves

*Joy Haarjo, Eagle Poem

Robert Hass, Meditation at Lagunitas

Seamus Heaney, Digging

Seamus Heaney, Mid-Term Break

*Edward Hirsch, For the Sleepwalkers

*Jane Hirshfield, The Heart's Country Knows Only One

*Garrett Hongo, What For

*Milton Kessler, Fingertip

Galway Kinnell, Saint Francis and the Sow

Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It

*Li Young Lee, I Ask My Mother Why

*Brad Leithauser, From R.E.M.

*Audre Lorde, Hanging Fire

*J.D. McClatchy, Hummingbird

Tom Molito, Cosmic Simplicities

Sharon Olds, Size and Sheer Will

Mary Oliver, Poem for My Father's Ghost

*Simon Ortiz, A Story of How a Wall Stands

*Robert F. Panard, On His Deafness

Linda Pastan, Ethics

*Molly Peacock, Now Look What Happened

Marge Piercy, A Work of Artifice

*Robert Pinsky, Dying

*Craig Raine, A Martian Sends a Postcard Home

Alberto Rios, A Dream of Husbands

Kraft Rompf, Waiting Table

*Mary Jo Salter, Welcome to Hiroshima

*Sonya Sanchez, Towhomitmayconcern

Gertrude Schnackenberg, Signs

*Cathy Song, Lost Sister

Gary Soto, Behind Grandma's House

*Ellen Bryant Voigt, Two Trees

*C.K. Williams, Invisble Mending

*Baron Wormser, Friday Night

*A Selection of World Poetry

Anna Akhmatova (Russia), from Requiem translated by MAX HAYWARD

Bella Akhmadulina (Russia), The Bride translated by STEPHAN STEPANCHEV

Yeuda Amichai (Israel), A Pity. We Were such a Good Invention TRANSLATED BY ASSIA GUTTMAN

Chairil Anwar (Indonesia), At the Mosque translated by BURTON RAFFEL

Charles Baudelaire (France), The Albatross translated by RICHARD WILBUR

Matsuo Basho (Japan) Three Haiku translated by ROBERT HASS

Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), the Blind Man translated by ALASTAIR REID

Breyten Breytenback,(South Africa), The Black City translated by LEON DE KOCK AND SONIA VAN SCHALWYK

Rosario Castellanos (Mexico), Chess translated by MAUREEN AHERN

Paul Celan (Romania) Fugue of Death translated by DONALD WHITE

Bei Dao (China), Declaration translated by BONNIE S. MCDOUGALL

Bernard Dadie (Ivory Coast) I Give You Thanks My God

Odysseus Elytis (Greece), Drinking the Corinthian Sun translated by KIMON FRIAR

Faiz Ahmed Faiz (Pakistan), Before You Came translated by AGHA SHAHID ALI

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Germany), Nature and Art translated by JOHN FREDERICK NIMS

Zbigniew Herbert (Poland), Pebble translated by CZESLAW MILOSZ AND PETER DALE SCOTT

Vicente Huidobro (Cuba), Ars Poetica translated by DAVID M. GUSS

Ono No Komachi (Japan), Submit to You translated by H. SATO AND B. WATSON

Osip Mandelstam (Russia), The Stalin Epigram translated by CLARENCE BROWN AND W.S. MERWIN

Cszeslaw Milosz (Poland), A Song on the End of the World translated by ANTHONY MILOSZ

Cszeslaw Milosz (Poland), Encounter translated by THE AUTHOR AND LILLIAN VALLEE)

Eurgenio Montale (Italy), The Eel translated by JOHN FREDERICK NIMS

Pablo Neruda (Chile), Ode to My Socks translated by ROBERT BLY

Jose Emilio Pacheco (Mexico), Boundaries translated by JOHN FREDERICK NIMS

Nicanor Parra (Chile), Piano Solo translated by WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS

Boris Pasternak (Russia), Hamlet translated by JON STALLWORTHY AND PETER FRANCE

Octavio Paz (Mexico), The Street translated by MURIEL RUKEYSER

A. K. Ramanujan (India), Pleasure

Rainer Maria Rilke (Germany) The Cadet Picture of My Father TRANSLATED BY ROBERT LOWELL

George Seferis (Greece), Narration translated by EDMUND KEELEY AND PHILIP SHERRARD

Leopold Senghor (Senegal), I Am Alone translated by MELVIN DIXON

Wole Soyinka (Nigeria), Hamlet

Wislawa Szymborska (Poland), Bodybuilders' Contest translated by STANLEY BARANCZAK AND CLARE CAVANAGH

Shuntaro Tanikawa (Japan), Picnic to the Earth translated by HAROLD WRIGHT

Derek Walcott (Caribbean) Sea Grapes



The Experience of Drama

Isabella Augusta Persse, Lady Gregory, The Rising of the Moon

The Interpretation of Drama

The Evaluation of Drama










*Symbolism and Irony



Reasons for Writing about Drama

Informal Ways of Writing about Drama


Double-columned Notebook

Formal Ways of Writing about Drama

Student Papers on Drama

Questions for Writing about Drama

Suggestions for Writing

CHAPTER 18: THE GREEK THEATER: Sophocles in Context

*Athens in the Golden Age / Greek Tragedy / Sophocles and His Works / Timeline

Sophocles: Plays



Critics on Sophocles

Chapter 19: THE ELIZABETHAN THEATER: Shakespeare in Context

*London in the Age of Elizabeth / *The Arts in the Age of Elizabeth / Stagecraft in the Elizabethan Age / Shakespeare and His Works / Timeline

Shakespeare: Plays

The Tragedy of Othello

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Critics on Shakespeare



*A Note on the Theatre of the Absurd / Timeline

*Ibsen in Context: Ibsen, Exile, and Change

Henrik Ibsen, A Doll House translated by ROLF FJELDE

*Shaw in Context

*Bernard Shaw, Arms and the Man


*Anton Chekhov, A Marriage Proposal translated by ERIC BENTLEY

Susan Glaspell, Trifles

Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun

*Eugene Ionesco, The Gap

Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman

John Millington Synge, Riders to the Sea

*Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie


*David Henry Hwang, M. Butterfly

*Garrison Keillor, Prodigal Son

Josefina Lopez, Simply Maria

Terrence McNally, Andre's Mother

*Milcha Sanchez-Scott, The Cuban Swimmer

*Drew Hayden Taylor, Only Drunks and Children Tell the Truth

Wendy Wasserstein, Tender Offer

August Wilson, Fences



Why Do Research about Literature?

Clarifying the Assignment

Selecting a Topic

Finding and Using Sources

Using Computerized Databases

Using the Internet for Research

Developing a Critical Perspective

Developing a Thesis

Drafting and Revising

Responding to the Ideas of Others: Using One source as a Stimulus for Ideas


Documenting sources

A Research Paper on a Single Work using Multiple Sources

A Research Paper Using Multiple Works and Multiple Sources


Readings for Analysis

William Carlos Williams, The Use of Force

Emily Dickinson, I'm 'wife'--I've finished that

The Canon and the Curriculum

Formalist Perspectives

Biographical Perspectives

Historical Perspectives

Psychological Perspectives

Feminist and Marxist Perspectives

Reader-Response Perspectives

Mythological Perspectives

Structuralist Perspectives

Deconstructive Perspectives

Cultural Studies Perspectives

Using Critical Perspectives as Heuristics


Plato, Poetry and Inspiration TRANSLATED BY BENJAMIN JOWETT


Sir Philip Sidney, An Apology for Poetry

Samuel Johnson, The Metaphysical Poets

William Blake, Art and Imagination

William Wordsworth, Poetry and Feeling

John Keats, The Authenticity of the Imagination

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Poets and Language

Anton Chekhov, Technique in Writing the Short Story TRANSLATED BY CONSTANCE GARNETT

Henrik Ibsen, Notes for the Modern Tragedy TRANSLATED BY A.B. CHATER

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Sprung Rhythm


Bernard Shaw, The Interpreter of Life

Wallace Stevens, Observations on Poetry

T.S. Eliot, The Poet and the Tradition

Bertolt Brecht, Brecht on Theater TRANSLATED BY JOHN WILLETT

George Seferis, Poetry and Human Living TRANSLATED BY A. GAGNOSTOPOULOS

Frank O'Connor, Lyric Poetry and the Short Story


Eudora Welty, The Origin of a Story

Ralph Ellison, Folklore and Fiction

Octavio Paz, The Power of Poetry TRANSLATED BY HELEN LANE

Arthur Miller, Tragedy and the Common Man

*Tennessee Williams, Production Notes to The Glass Menagerie

*Tennessee Williams, The Catastrophe of Success

Eric Bentley, On Drama as Literature and Entertainment

Wendell Berry, Poetry and Song

Audre Lorde, Poems Are Not Luxuries

Mark Strand, Poetry, Language, and Meaning

Margaret Atwood, Our First Stories

Seamus Heaney, Feelings into Words

*Robert Pinsky, The Sounds of Poetry

John Edgar Wideman, Stories Are Letters (To Robby)

Diane Ackerman, What a Poem Knows

Tim O'Brien, On the Importance of Mystery in Plot

Alice Fulton, On the Validity of Free Verse

Hwang, Production notes to accompany M. Butterfly

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