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This two-volume work covers ultrafast structural and electronic dynamics of elementary processes at solid surfaces and interfaces, presenting the current status of photoinduced processes. Providing valuable introductory information for newcomers to this booming field of research, it investigates concepts and experiments, femtosecond and attosecond time-resolved methods, as well as frequency domain techniques.
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This two-volume work covers ultrafast structural and electronic dynamics of elementary processes at solid surfaces and interfaces, presenting the current status of photoinduced processes. Providing valuable introductory information for newcomers to this booming field of research, it investigates concepts and experiments, femtosecond and attosecond time-resolved methods, as well as frequency domain techniques.
The whole is rounded off by a look at future developments.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780955881558
  • Publisher: Gilbert Knowle Publishers
  • Publication date: 4/14/2012
  • Pages: 116
  • Product dimensions: 5.83 (w) x 8.27 (h) x 0.28 (d)

Meet the Author

Uwe Bovensiepen received his Ph.D. degree in physics in 2000 from the Freie Universität Berlin (FUB), Germany, for his experimental work on phase transitions in ultrathin ferromagnetic film systems. In 2000, he worked as a postdoc at the Fritz-Haber Institute, where he started femtosecond time-resolved experiments at interfaces. In 2001 he moved to the FUB, where he set up a femtosecond laboratory to investigate ultrafast dynamics in solids and at interfaces in the group of Martin Wolf. He received his habilitation in 2005 and was supported by a Heisenberg fellowship of the DFG afterwards. In 2009, he was appointed as a full professor at the University of Duisburg-Essen.

Hrvoje Petek obtained his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemistry at the MIT and at the University of California at Berkeley in 1980 and 1985. From 1985 he was a Postdoctoral Fellow and Research Associate at the Institute for Molecular Science. In 1993, he became a Group Leader at the Hitachi Advanced Research Laboratory, where he set up first femtosecond time-resolved photoemission experiments in Japan. In 2000, he was appointed Professor of Physics at the University of Pittsburgh, where he is also the Co-Director of the Petersen Institute for NanoScience and Engineering. Professor Petek is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Progress in Surface Science.

Martin Wolf received his Ph.D. degree in physics in 1991 from the FUB, Germany, for his work on photochemistry at metal surfaces performed under the direction of Gerhard Ertl. After a postdoctoral period in Austin, Texas, with Mike White, and at IBM Yorktown Heights, with Tony Heinz, he set up a laboratory for femtosecond surface spectroscopy at the Fritz-Haber-Institute, Berlin. In 2000, he was appointed as a full professor for experimental physics at the FUB and in 2008 as a director at the Fritz-Haber-Institute.

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Table of Contents

Preface IX

List of Contributors XI

Colour Plates XV (after page 154)

1 The Electronic Structure of Solids 1
Uwe Bovensiepen, Silke Biermann, and Luca Perfetti

1.1 Single-Electron Approximation 2

1.1.1 The Drude Model of the Free Electron Gas 2

1.1.2 The Electronic Band Structure: Metals, Insulators, and Semiconductors 4

1.2 From Bloch Theory to Band Structure Calculations 6

1.2.1 Bloch Theory 6

1.2.2 The Tight Binding Approach to the Solid 7

1.2.3 Band Structure Calculations 8

1.3 Beyond the Band Picture 8

1.3.1 Mott’s Hydrogen Solid 9

1.3.2 Mott Insulators in Nature 10

1.4 Electronic Structure of Correlated Materials 14

1.4.1 The Hubbard Model 14

1.4.2 Dynamical Mean Field Theory 16

1.4.3 Electronic Structure Calculations 17

1.4.4 Ordered States 18

1.4.5 Cooperation Between Lattice Instabilities and Electronic Correlations: The Example of Vanadium Dioxide 21

References 23

2 Quasi-Particles and Collective Excitations 27
Evgueni V. Chulkov, Irina Sklyadneva, Mackillo Kira, Stephan W. Koch, Jose M. Pitarke, Leonid M. Sandratskii, Pawe? Buczek, Kunie Ishioka, Jörg Schäfer, and Martin Weinelt

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Quasi-Particles 30

2.2.1 Electrons and Holes 30

2.2.2 Phonons 31 Adiabatic Approximation 31 Harmonic Approximation 31 Lattice Dynamics 32 Phonons at Surfaces 33

2.2.3 Electron–Phonon Coupling in Metals 34

2.2.4 Excitons: Electron–Hole Pairs in Semiconductor Quantum Wells 38 Microscopic Theory 39 Excitonic Resonances and Populations 41 Terahertz Spectroscopy of Exciton Populations 43 Excitonic Signatures in the Photoluminescence 44

2.2.5 Polarons: Electron–Phonon Coupling in Polar and Ionic Solids 46

2.3 Collective Excitations 49

2.3.1 Plasmons: Electron Density Oscillations 49 Surface Plasmons 51 Acoustic Surface Plasmons 52

2.3.2 Magnons: Elementary Excitations in Ferromagnetic Materials 53 Spin Waves in the Heisenberg Model 54 Itinerant Electrons 57 Conclusions 64

2.4 Experimental Access to Quasi-Particle and Collective Excitations 65

2.4.1 Coherent Phonons 65 Coherent Optical Phonons 65 Coherent Acoustic Phonons 74

2.4.2 High-Resolution Angle-Resolved Photoemission 78 Photoemission Spectral Function of Quasi-Particles 78 Experimental Considerations for Photoelectron Spectroscopy 80 Quasi-Particles from Electron–Phonon Interaction 81 Quasi-Particles from Electron–Magnon Interaction 82 Conclusions and Implications 88

2.4.3 Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy 89 Experiment 89 Electron Lifetimes 91 Electron–Phonon Coupling 94 Surface Exciton Formation 97 Magnon Emission 101 Magnon–Phonon Interaction 103

2.5 Summary 105

References 106

3 Surface States and Adsorbate-Induced Electronic Structure 115
Thomas Fauster, Hrvoje Petek, and Martin Wolf

3.1 Intrinsic Surface States 115

3.1.1 Basic Concepts of Surface States 115

3.1.2 Scattering Model of Surface States 116

3.2 Crystal-Induced Surface States 119

3.2.1 Tamm and Shockley Surface States 119

3.2.2 Dangling Bond States 120

3.3 Barrier-Induced Surface States 121

3.3.1 Image Potential States 121

3.3.2 Quantum Well States 124

3.4 Experimental Methods 125

3.4.1 Photoemission 125

3.4.2 Two-Photon Photoemission 128

3.4.3 Scanning Tunneling Methods 133

3.5 Adsorbate-Induced Electronic Structure 135

3.5.1 Bonding at Surfaces 135

3.5.2 Energy-Level Alignment: Alkali–Metal Interfaces as a Model System 138

3.5.3 Electronic Band Structure: Chemisorbed and Physisorbed Adsorbates 147

References 151

4 Basic Theory of Heterogeneous Electron Transfer 155
Daniel Sanchez-Portal, Julia Stähler, and Xiaoyang Zhu

4.1 Resonant Charge Transfer in Chemisorbed Systems 155

4.1.1 Anderson–Grimley–Newns Hamiltonian 156

4.1.2 Main Factors that Determine RCT Decay Rates 158

4.1.3 Theoretical Approaches to Calculate RCT Rates in Realistic Systems 161

4.1.4 Effect of the Adsorbate Motion 163

4.2 Electron Transfer in the Presence of Polar/Polarizable Media 166

4.2.1 Nonadiabatic (Outer Sphere) Electron Transfer 167 Continuum of Accepting States 169

4.2.2 Adiabicity and the Effect of Strong Electronic Coupling 170

4.2.3 Intermediate Coupling and the Impact of Solvent Relaxation 171 Classical Description and a Wide Band Acceptor 174

4.3 Transient Electronic Coupling: Crossover between Limiting Cases 174

4.4 Conclusions 177

References 178

5 Electromagnetic Interactions with Solids 181
Ricardo Díez Muiño, Eugene E. Krasovskii, Wolfgang Schattke, Christoph Lienau, and Hrvoje Petek

5.1 Dielectric Function of Metals 182

5.1.1 Calculations of Dielectric Functions 183

5.2 Band Mapping of Solids by Photoemission Spectroscopy 186

5.2.1 Nonlinear Photoemission as a Band Mapping Tool for Unoccupied States 189

5.3 Optical Excitations in Metals 191

5.3.1 Optical Response of Noble Metals 193

5.3.2 Interband Absorption 195

5.3.3 Intraband Absorption 197

5.3.4 Extended Drude Model 199

5.3.5 Frequency-Dependent Scattering Rate 201

5.3.6 Surface Absorption 204

5.3.7 Summary 206

5.4 Plasmonic Excitations at Surfaces and Nanostructures 206

5.4.1 Drude Model for Optical Conductivity 207

5.4.2 Interaction of Light with a Planar Metallic Surface 208

5.4.3 Surface Plasmon Polariton Fields 210 Planar Interfaces 210

5.4.4 Surface Plasmons in Nanostructured Metal Films 215 Spherical Nanoparticles 215 Elliptical Nanoparticles 219 Diffraction Gratings 220 Adiabatic Metallic Tapers 224

5.4.5 Exciton–Plasmon Coupling 227

5.4.6 Summary 230

References 231

Index 239

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