LMF Lexical Markup Framework

Overview

The community responsible for developing lexicons for Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Readable Dictionaries (MRDs) started their ISO standardization activities in 2003. These activities resulted in the ISO standard – Lexical Markup Framework (LMF).
After selecting and defining a common terminology, the LMF team had to identify the common notions shared by all lexicons in order to specify a common skeleton (called the core model) ...

See more details below
Other sellers (Hardcover)
  • All (5) from $107.79   
  • New (4) from $107.79   
  • Used (1) from $107.79   
Sending request ...

Overview

The community responsible for developing lexicons for Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Readable Dictionaries (MRDs) started their ISO standardization activities in 2003. These activities resulted in the ISO standard – Lexical Markup Framework (LMF).
After selecting and defining a common terminology, the LMF team had to identify the common notions shared by all lexicons in order to specify a common skeleton (called the core model) and understand the various requirements coming from different groups of users.
The goals of LMF are to provide a common model for the creation and use of lexical resources, to manage the exchange of data between and among these resources, and to enable the merging of a large number of individual electronic resources to form extensive global electronic resources.
The various types of individual instantiations of LMF can include monolingual, bilingual or multilingual lexical resources. The same specifications can be used for small and large lexicons, both simple and complex, as well as for both written and spoken lexical representations. The descriptions range from morphology, syntax and computational semantics to computer-assisted translation. The languages covered are not restricted to European languages, but apply to all natural languages.
The LMF specification is now a success and numerous lexicon managers currently use LMF in different languages and contexts.
This book starts with the historical context of LMF, before providing an overview of the LMF model and the Data Category Registry, which provides a flexible means for applying constants like /grammatical gender/ in a variety of different settings. It then presents concrete applications and experiments on real data, which are important for developers who want to learn about the use of LMF.

Contents

1. LMF – Historical Context and Perspectives, Nicoletta Calzolari, Monica Monachini and Claudia Soria.
2. Model Description, Gil Francopoulo and Monte George.
3. LMF and the Data Category Registry: Principles and Application, Menzo Windhouwer and Sue Ellen Wright.
4. Wordnet-LMF: A Standard Representation for Multilingual Wordnets, Piek Vossen, Claudia Soria and Monica Monachini.
5. Prolmf: A Multilingual Dictionary of Proper Names and their Relations, Denis Maurel, Béatrice Bouchou-Markhoff.
6. LMF for Arabic, Aida Khemakhem, Bilel Gargouri, Kais Haddar and Abdelmajid Ben Hamadou.
7. LMF for a Selection of African Languages, Chantal Enguehard and Mathieu Mangeot.
8. LMF and its Implementation in Some Asian Languages, Takenobu Tokunaga, Sophia Y.M. Lee, Virach Sornlertlamvanich, Kiyoaki Shirai, Shu-Kai Hsieh and Chu-Ren Huang.
9. DUELME: Dutch Electronic Lexicon of Multiword Expressions, Jan Odijk.
10. UBY-LMF – Exploring the Boundaries of Language-Independent Lexicon Models, Judith Eckle-Kohler, Iryna Gurevych, Silvana Hartmann, Michael Matuschek and Christian M. Meyer.
11. Conversion of Lexicon-Grammar Tables to LMF: Application to French, Éric Laporte, Elsa Tolone and Matthieu Constant.
12. Collaborative Tools: From Wiktionary to LMF, for Synchronic and Diachronic Language Data, Thierry Declerck, Pirsoka Lendvai and Karlheinz Mörth.
13. LMF Experiments on Format Conversions for Resource Merging: Converters and Problems, Marta Villegas, Muntsa Padró and Núria Bel.
14. LMF as a Foundation for Servicized Lexical Resources, Yoshihiko Hayashi, Monica Monachini, Bora Savas, Claudia Soria and Nicoletta Calzolari.
15. Creating a Serialization of LMF: The Experience of the RELISH Project, Menzo Windhouwer, Justin Petro, Irina Nevskaya, Sebastian Drude, Helen Aristar-Dry and Jost Gippert.
16. Global Atlas: Proper Nouns, From Wikipedia to LMF, Gil Francopoulo, Frédéric Marcoul, David Causse and Grégory Piparo.
17. LMF in U.S. Government Language Resource Management, Monte George.

About the Authors

Gil Francopoulo works for Tagmatica (www.tagmatica.com), a company specializing in software development in the field of linguistics and documentation in the semantic web, in Paris, France, as well as for Spotter (www.spotter.com), a company specializing in media and social media analytics.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848214309
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 4/8/2013
  • Series: ISTE Series
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Chapter 1. LMF – Historical Context and Perspectives 1
Nicoletta CALZOLARI, Monica MONACHINI and Claudia SORIA

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. The context 2

1.3. The foundations: the Grosseto Workshop and the “X-Lex” projects 4

1.4. EAGLES and ISLE . 5

1.5. Setting up methodologies and principles for standards 6

1.6. EAGLES/ISLE legacy 10

1.7. Interoperability: the keystone of the field 14

1.8. Bibliography 15

Chapter 2. Model Description 19
Gil FRANCOPOULO and Monte GEORGE

2.1. Objectives 19

2.2. The ISO specification 19

2.3. Means of description 20

2.4. Core model 21

2.5. Core model and extension packages 22

2.6. Morphology extension 23

2.7. Machine-Readable Dictionary extension 26

2.8. NLP syntax extension 27

2.9. NLP semantic extension 29

2.10. Multilingual notation extension 31

2.11. NLP morphological pattern extension 33

2.12. NLP multiword expression pattern extension 36

2.13. Constraint expression extension 38

2.14. Conclusion 39

2.15. Bibliography 40

Chapter 3. LMF and the Data Category Registry: Principles and Application 41
Menzo WINDHOUWER and Sue Ellen WRIGHT

3.1. Introduction 41

3.2. Data category specifications 42

3.3. The ISOcat Data Category Registry 44

3.3.1. A web user interface 44

3.4. LMF and data categories 45

3.5. Conclusions and future work 49

3.6. Bibliography 49

Chapter 4. Wordnet-LMF: A Standard Representation for Multilingual Wordnets 51
Piek VOSSEN, Claudia SORIA and Monica MONACHINI

4.1. Introduction 51

4.2. The KYOTO project 52

4.3. LMF and Wordnet representation 54

4.4. Wordnet-LMF 56

4.5. Conclusions 62

4.6. Bibliography 65

Chapter 5. Prolmf: A Multilingual Dictionary of Proper Names and their Relations 67
Denis MAUREL, Béatrice BOUCHOU-MARKHOFF

5.1. Motivation 67

5.2. Prolmf basis 69

5.3. More on lexica and relations in Prolmf 73

5.4. Conclusion 77

5.5. Bibliography 79

5.6. Appendix 80

Chapter 6. LMF for Arabic 83
Aida KHEMAKHEM, Bilel GARGOURI, Kais HADDAR and Abdelmajid BEN HAMADOU

6.1. Introduction 83

6.2. Modeling of the basic properties 85

6.3. Modeling of the morphologic extension 86

6.4. Modeling of the morphologic pattern extension 88

6.5. Modeling of the syntactic extension 90

6.6. Modeling of the semantic extension 92

6.7. Arabic LMF applications 94

6.8. Implementation 95

6.9. Conclusion 96

6.10. Bibliography 96

Chapter 7. LMF for a Selection of African Languages 99
Chantal ENGUEHARD and Mathieu MANGEOT

7.1. Introduction 99

7.2. Less-resourced languages 99

7.3. From published dictionaries to LMF 102

7.4. Illustrations 104

7.5. Difficulties and proposals 113

7.6. Conclusion 117

7.7. Acknowledgments 117

7.8. Bibliography 117

Chapter 8. LMF and its Implementation in Some Asian Languages 119
Takenobu TOKUNAGA, Sophia Y.M. LEE, Virach SORNLERTLAMVANICH,Kiyoaki SHIRAI, Shu-Kai HSIEH and Chu-Ren HUANG

8.1. Introduction 119

8.2. Lexical specification and data categories 120

8.3. Upper-layer ontology 125

8.4. Evaluation platform 126

8.5. Discussion 128

8.6. Conclusion 129

8.7. Acknowledgments 130

8.8. Bibliography 131

Chapter 9. DUELME: Dutch Electronic Lexicon of Multiword Expressions 133
Jan ODIJK

9.1. Introduction 133

9.2. DUELME 134

9.3. LMF 135

9.4. The DUELME class model 135

9.5. Comparison with the LMF Core Package 137

9.6. Comparison with the LMF NLP multiword expression patterns extension 139

9.7. Conclusions 142

9.8. Acknowledgments 143

9.9. Bibliography 143

Chapter 10. UBY-LMF – Exploring the Boundaries of Language-Independent Lexicon Models 145
Judith ECKLE-KOHLER, Iryna GUREVYCH, Silvana HARTMANN, Michael MATUSCHEK and Christian M. MEYER

10.1. Introduction 145

10.2. Architecture of UBY-LMF 147

10.3. Language independence of UBY-LMF 148

10.4. FrameNet in UBY-LMF 151

10.5. Conclusion 153

10.6. Acknowledgments 154

10.7. Bibliography 154

Chapter 11. Conversion of Lexicon-Grammar Tables to LMF: Application to French 157
Éric LAPORTE, Elsa TOLONE and Matthieu CONSTANT

11.1. Motivation 157

11.2. The Lexicon-Grammar 157

11.3. Lexical entries 160

11.4. Subcategorization frames 163

11.5. Results 170

11.6. Conclusion 171

11.7. Bibliography 172

Chapter 12. Collaborative Tools: From Wiktionary to LMF, for Synchronic and Diachronic Language Data 175
Thierry DECLERCK, Pirsoka LENDVAI and Karlheinz MÖRTH

12.1. Introduction 175

12.2. Wiktionary 175

12.3. Related work 177

12.4. Additional challenges: how to encode the diversity of Wiktionary lexicon in LMF? 179

12.5. Conclusion 183

12.6. Bibliography 184

Chapter 13. LMF Experiments on Format Conversions for Resource Merging: Converters and Problems 187
Marta VILLEGAS, Muntsa PADRÓ and Núria BEL

13.1. Introduction 187

13.2. Automatic merging of resources 188

13.3. Moving from PAROLE Genelex to LMF 191

13.4. Conclusion 197

13.5. Availability of resources 198

13.6. Bibliography 198

Chapter 14. LMF as a Foundation for Servicized Lexical Resources 201
Yoshihiko HAYASHI, Monica MONACHINI, Bora SAVAS, Claudia SORIA and Nicoletta CALZOLARI

14.1. Introduction 201

14.2. Lexical resources as lexical Web services 201

14.3. LMF-aware Web services in the RESTful style 202

14.4. Implementation showcases 203

14.5. Summary 212

14.6. Bibliography 212

Chapter 15. Creating a Serialization of LMF: The Experience of the RELISH Project 215
Menzo WINDHOUWER, Justin PETRO, Irina NEVSKAYA, Sebastian DRUDE, Helen ARISTAR-DRY and Jost GIPPERT

15.1. Introduction . . 215

15.2. Overview of the RELISH interchange format 216

15.3. Mapping of equivalent elements 217

15.4. Complex mappings 219

15.5. Harmonization of linguistic concepts 223

15.6. Conclusions and future work 224

15.7. Bibliography 225

Chapter 16. Global Atlas: Proper Nouns, From Wikipedia to LMF 227
Gil FRANCOPOULO, Frédéric MARCOUL, David CAUSSE and Grégory PIPARO

16.1. Motivation 227

16.2. Preparing recognition 227

16.3. Context of usage 230

16.4. Ontology of types 231

16.5. Main source: Wikipedia 232

16.6. Extraction 233

16.7. Auxiliary machine learning 234

16.8. LMF structures 234

16.9. Example 235

16.10. Results 237

16.11. Current limitations and planned improvements 237

16.12. LMF limitations 238

16.13. Related work 238

16.14. Conclusion 239

16.15. Bibliography 239

Chapter 17. LMF in U.S. Government Language Resource Management 243
Monte GEORGE

17.1. Introduction 243

17.2. Wordscape overview 244

17.3. The goal 245

17.4. The importance of data standards 245

17.5. Language base exchange 246

17.6. Managing multilingual representations 249

17.7. Managing grammatical information 251

17.8. Grammatical information, an MRD example 255

17.9. Managing LBX schema and document instances 258

17.10. Data exchange using LBX 259

17.11. Summary 260

List of Authors 263

Index 267

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)