Locating and Correcting Reading Difficulties / Edition 8

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Overview

Updated and revised throughout, this new edition once again provides busy reading instructors with concrete methods for locating and correcting reading difficulties. This well organized book uses clear language to explain the steps involved in understanding the diagnostic/remedial process. Code for marking in oral diagnosis, materials for assessing readers' knowledge of the alphabet, basic sight words and phrases, phonics, structural analysis, and the use of context clues and reading interests are included in helpful appendices. Appropriate for readers interested in Reading Diagnosis and Remediation.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Twenty-eight chapters discuss reading or reading-related abilities, how to recognize difficulty with each ability, and specific recommendations for correcting weaknesses. Some chapters list games and exercises to help correct reading difficulties. Each discussion section explains how to determine whether the difficulty needs treatment or is only a symptom of a more serious problem. Pages have perforations. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130313959
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 12/18/2002
  • Edition description: Eighth Edition
  • Edition number: 8
  • Pages: 539
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 7.42 (h) x 1.14 (d)

Read an Excerpt

The eighth edition of this book, like previous editions, is organized to provide reading specialists, teachers, tutors, and reading education students with specific, concrete methods for locating and correcting reading difficulties. It can be used in classroom or remedial situations and is designed so that busy practitioners can find in one place the essential information they need to help struggling readers overcome their literacy difficulties. Direct instruction, motivational learning activities, and abundant practice in the act of reading are stressed. As in the previous editions, instruction in individual reading skills is recommended where appropriate; however, emphasis is also placed on the use of strategic approaches to the teaching of reading. ORGANIZING TO ASSIST STRUGGLING READERS

This book is composed of 29 chapters, divided into six major parts, which cover the full range of reading and reading-related skills. While the major features of the previous edition have been retained, this new edition has been updated and reorganized to make the information within more accessible to the reader.

Methods and Approaches. The first section of this book is an introductory chapter that provides information on important principles of effective instruction for students who have reading difficulties. It is hoped that these principles will guide your reading throughout the remainder of the book. This chapter also presents useful techniques or approaches for teaching students with reading difficulties. These techniques/approaches are included in this chapter because they apply to many of the specific reading problems that are the focus of subsequent chapters. Thefirst approach describes a number of oral reading techniques that have been shown to be unusually effective in helping students as they struggle to master decoding skills. Equally important, these techniques are among the most powerful teachers can use to develop students' reading fluency and build a foundation for better reading comprehension. A second method is the language-experience approach, which benefits both beginning and remedial readers. In this section, you will find a thorough description of these approaches and many practical activities for application in the classroom or tutorial setting.

As with previous editions, the Reading Diagnosis Chart (see page xiii) matches the logical development of various reading skills and corresponds to the order of the chapters. The basic format of each chapter is the same. A section titled "Recognized By" defines and/or describes the reading difficulty. The "Discussion" section provides additional background information and explains how to test or otherwise determine if a student is experiencing difficulty in this area. The "Recommendations" section offers an alphabetical listing of specific strategies or activities you may use to help the student overcome the problem. In most chapters, these suggestions are followed by a variety of "Games and Exercises" that may be used to provide students with independent practice.

Emergent Literacy. Part 2 addresses emergent literacy skills. In this edition, Chapter 1 is now devoted entirely to phonemic awareness, reflecting recent research affirming the importance of this area in early reading development. Alphabet knowledge is now addressed separately in Chapter 2. Tests for phonemic awareness (in Appendix B-4) assess rhyming ability, initial sound recognition, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation. Specific instructional procedures added to Chapter 1 are matched to each of the skills tested.

Decoding Skills. In previous editions, Part 3 consisted of chapters focusing on a variety of different oral reading problems. In nearly every case, these problems are caused by some weakness in the reader's decoding skills. For this reason, decoding skills are now presented before oral reading difficulties. In these chapters you will learn how to assess and teach various decoding skills such as sight vocabulary, phonics, structural analysis, and the use of context clues.

Oral Reading, Comprehension, and Study Skills. Part 4 consists of 10 chapters on specific oral reading difficulties such as poor pronunciation, omissions, repetitions, and so on. Part 5 addresses comprehension skills. Part 6 addresses instruction in study skills and other skills essential to success in school. THE APPENDICES: TOOLS FOR LOCATING AND CORRECTING READING DIFFICULTIES

We encourage readers to use the materials provided in the appendices for locating reading difficulties to construct their own diagnostic kits. These appendices include a code for marking in oral diagnosis and, as previously noted, a new set of tests for phonemic awareness. The appendices also include materials and directions for assessing students' knowledge of the alphabet, basic sight words and phrases, phonics, structural analysis, contractions, the use of context clues, and two reading interest surveys. A new test for assessing the reading interests of older students and adults has been added to this edition. Altogether, more than 30 different diagnostic tests are provided in these appendices. Specific directions and important points to remember are provided for administering each test or survey instrument.

Thirteen appendices have been provided for correcting reading difficulties. The first, a new appendix titled "Books for Emergent Readers," consists of lists of rhyming books, books with alliteration, and alphabet books. You will also find appendices for basic sight word sentences, a phonics primer, and newly revised phonogram lists, including sentences and other new features in this popular phonics instructional program. Next is an appendix titled "Words for Teaching Short and Long Vowels," followed by "Words, Sentences, and Stories for Teaching Structural Analysis." The remaining appendices address prepositional phrases, prefixes and suffixes, the cloze procedure, a chart for graphing students' progress in using the technique of repeated readings, a description of and charts for graphing students' progress in using the precision reading technique, charts for graphing words per minute and comprehension, and suggestions for interviewing parents of disabled readers.

Finally, definitions of terms appear in a glossary at the end of the book.

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Table of Contents

How to Use This Book
Reading Diagnosis Chart
Making Your Own Diagnostic Kit From the Appendices
Pt. 1 Introduction 1
Introduction: Important Principles and Useful Methods for Teaching Students With Reading Difficulties 3
Pt. 2 Emergent Literacy Skills 23
1 Phonemic Awareness 25
2 Alphabet Knowledge 31
Pt. 3 Decoding Skills 35
3 Basic Sight Words Not Known 37
4 General Sight Vocabulary Not Up to Grade Level 49
5 Phonics Difficulties: Consonants 59
6 Phonics Difficulties: Vowels 71
7 Phonics Difficulties: Blends, Digraphs, or Diphthongs 79
8 Structural Analysis Difficulties 81
9 Contractions Not Known 89
10 Inadequate Ability to Use Context Clues 93
Pt. 4 Specific Oral Reading Difficulties 97
11 Poor Pronunciation 99
12 Omissions 105
13 Repetitions 109
14 Inversions or Reversals 111
15 Insertions 115
16 Substitutions 117
17 Guesses at Words 121
18 Word-by-Word Reading 125
19 Incorrect Phrasing 129
20 Voicing, Lip Movements, Finger Pointing, and Head Movements 137
Pt. 5 Comprehension Skills 139
21 Word Meaning/Vocabulary Knowledge Inadequate 141
22 Comprehension Inadequate 153
Pt. 6 Study Skills and Other Abilities 183
23 Low Rate of Speed 185
24 Inability to Adjust Reading Rate 189
25 High Rate of Reading at the Expense of Accuracy 193
26 Inability to Skim or Scan 195
27 Inability to Locate Information 199
28 Undeveloped Dictionary Skills 205
29 Written Recall Limited by Spelling Skill 211
Appendices for Locating Reading Difficulties 215
Appendices for Correcting Reading Difficulties 345
Glossary 523
Index 531
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Introduction

The eighth edition of this book, like previous editions, is organized to provide reading specialists, teachers, tutors, and reading education students with specific, concrete methods for locating and correcting reading difficulties. It can be used in classroom or remedial situations and is designed so that busy practitioners can find in one place the essential information they need to help struggling readers overcome their literacy difficulties. Direct instruction, motivational learning activities, and abundant practice in the act of reading are stressed. As in the previous editions, instruction in individual reading skills is recommended where appropriate; however, emphasis is also placed on the use of strategic approaches to the teaching of reading.

ORGANIZING TO ASSIST STRUGGLING READERS

This book is composed of 29 chapters, divided into six major parts, which cover the full range of reading and reading-related skills. While the major features of the previous edition have been retained, this new edition has been updated and reorganized to make the information within more accessible to the reader.

Methods and Approaches. The first section of this book is an introductory chapter that provides information on important principles of effective instruction for students who have reading difficulties. It is hoped that these principles will guide your reading throughout the remainder of the book. This chapter also presents useful techniques or approaches for teaching students with reading difficulties. These techniques/approaches are included in this chapter because they apply to many of the specific reading problems that are the focus ofsubsequent chapters. The first approach describes a number of oral reading techniques that have been shown to be unusually effective in helping students as they struggle to master decoding skills. Equally important, these techniques are among the most powerful teachers can use to develop students' reading fluency and build a foundation for better reading comprehension. A second method is the language-experience approach, which benefits both beginning and remedial readers. In this section, you will find a thorough description of these approaches and many practical activities for application in the classroom or tutorial setting.

As with previous editions, the Reading Diagnosis Chart (see page xiii) matches the logical development of various reading skills and corresponds to the order of the chapters. The basic format of each chapter is the same. A section titled "Recognized By" defines and/or describes the reading difficulty. The "Discussion" section provides additional background information and explains how to test or otherwise determine if a student is experiencing difficulty in this area. The "Recommendations" section offers an alphabetical listing of specific strategies or activities you may use to help the student overcome the problem. In most chapters, these suggestions are followed by a variety of "Games and Exercises" that may be used to provide students with independent practice.

Emergent Literacy. Part 2 addresses emergent literacy skills. In this edition, Chapter 1 is now devoted entirely to phonemic awareness, reflecting recent research affirming the importance of this area in early reading development. Alphabet knowledge is now addressed separately in Chapter 2. Tests for phonemic awareness (in Appendix B-4) assess rhyming ability, initial sound recognition, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation. Specific instructional procedures added to Chapter 1 are matched to each of the skills tested.

Decoding Skills. In previous editions, Part 3 consisted of chapters focusing on a variety of different oral reading problems. In nearly every case, these problems are caused by some weakness in the reader's decoding skills. For this reason, decoding skills are now presented before oral reading difficulties. In these chapters you will learn how to assess and teach various decoding skills such as sight vocabulary, phonics, structural analysis, and the use of context clues.

Oral Reading, Comprehension, and Study Skills. Part 4 consists of 10 chapters on specific oral reading difficulties such as poor pronunciation, omissions, repetitions, and so on. Part 5 addresses comprehension skills. Part 6 addresses instruction in study skills and other skills essential to success in school.

THE APPENDICES: TOOLS FOR LOCATING AND CORRECTING READING DIFFICULTIES

We encourage readers to use the materials provided in the appendices for locating reading difficulties to construct their own diagnostic kits. These appendices include a code for marking in oral diagnosis and, as previously noted, a new set of tests for phonemic awareness. The appendices also include materials and directions for assessing students' knowledge of the alphabet, basic sight words and phrases, phonics, structural analysis, contractions, the use of context clues, and two reading interest surveys. A new test for assessing the reading interests of older students and adults has been added to this edition. Altogether, more than 30 different diagnostic tests are provided in these appendices. Specific directions and important points to remember are provided for administering each test or survey instrument.

Thirteen appendices have been provided for correcting reading difficulties. The first, a new appendix titled "Books for Emergent Readers," consists of lists of rhyming books, books with alliteration, and alphabet books. You will also find appendices for basic sight word sentences, a phonics primer, and newly revised phonogram lists, including sentences and other new features in this popular phonics instructional program. Next is an appendix titled "Words for Teaching Short and Long Vowels," followed by "Words, Sentences, and Stories for Teaching Structural Analysis." The remaining appendices address prepositional phrases, prefixes and suffixes, the cloze procedure, a chart for graphing students' progress in using the technique of repeated readings, a description of and charts for graphing students' progress in using the precision reading technique, charts for graphing words per minute and comprehension, and suggestions for interviewing parents of disabled readers.

Finally, definitions of terms appear in a glossary at the end of the book.

Read More Show Less

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