The Longman Handbook For Writers And Readers / Edition 4

The Longman Handbook For Writers And Readers / Edition 4

by Chris M. Anson, Robert A. Schwegler

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ISBN-10: 0321233034

ISBN-13: 9780321233035

Pub. Date: 07/14/2004

Publisher: Pearson Education

The journey to better grades starts here.

With easy-to-understand answers to the questions you have about grammar, the writing process, the research process, and documentation, The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers, Fifth Edition, will help you succeed in any course that involves writing and research. With a distinctive focus on writing


The journey to better grades starts here.

With easy-to-understand answers to the questions you have about grammar, the writing process, the research process, and documentation, The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers, Fifth Edition, will help you succeed in any course that involves writing and research. With a distinctive focus on writing for different audiences–academic, public, and workplace–The Longman Handbook will enable you to communicate more effectively, while its superior support for writing across the curriculum and up-to-date documentation coverage will help you get better grades in all of your courses.

The new Fifth Edition offers the following critical enhancements to help you succeed:

  • Expanded coverage of argument and critical thinking (Chapter 11)
  • New coverage of visual argument (Chapter 12)
  • New, practical advice about writing in online environments including learning in online courses and the need for critical thinking when communicating via IMing, text messaging, and blogging (Chapter 14)
  • Expanded coverage of writing across the curriculum, with a new chapter on writing in the social and natural sciences (Chapter 18), an updated and expanded chapter on writing in literature and other humanities (Chapter 17), and new student samples that provide models of writing different kinds of assignments in various disciplines
  • Even more help in conducting online research, including expanded coverage of using databases (Chapter 23)
  • New “source samples” in both MLA and APA styles give you screenshots of actual sources and show you how to cite them
  • 15 new“Community” boxes summarize graphically how conventions differ in academia, the public arenas, and the workplace, so you can write more effectively for each audience

The handbook “offers an approach (to critical thinking and writing) that fits with all of our courses, no matter what the discipline [ . . . . ] The Longman Handbook is one that we hope students will retain on their bookshelves long after they are done with school.”

–Karen Bilda, Cardinal Stritch University

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Pearson Education
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5.56(w) x 8.52(h) x 1.61(d)

Table of Contents

Part 1 Writing for Readers


1.   Writers, Readers, and Communities

a.   Academic, work, and public communities

b.   Analyzing communities

c.   Realities and myths of the composing process


2.   Discovering and Planning 

a. Discovering topics for writing

b.   Exploring writing tasks and situations

c.   Generating ideas and information

d.   Structuring ideas and information

e.   Patterns of generalization and support

f. Planning in electronic environments

g.   Planning: Paper in progress.


3.   Purpose, Thesis, and Audience

a.   Recognizing your purpose

b.   Using purpose to guide your writing

c.   Developing a thesis

d. Kinds of thesis statements

e. Recognizing audiences and specific kinds of readers

f.   Adapting content, structure, and style to communities of readers


4.   Drafting

a.  Moving from planning to drafting

b.   Drafting strategies

c.   Collaborative drafting

d.   Drafting: Paper in progress


5.   Revising, Editing, and Proofreading

a.   Major revisions

b.   Minor revisions

c.   Collaborative revising

d. Revising: Paper in progress

e.   Editing your own writing

f. Collaborative editing

g.   Computers and editing

h.   Proofreading


6.   Paragraphs

a.   Paragraph focus: Recognizing

b.   Paragraph focus: Creating

c.   Paragraph coherence: Recognizing

d. Paragraph coherence: Creating

e.   Paragraph development: Recognizing and creating

f. Special-purpose paragraphs: Academic, public, and workplace


7.   Clear and Effective Sentences

a.   Clear sentences

b.   Direct sentences

c.   Emphatic sentences

d.   Revising for variety



Part 2 Critical Thinking and Argument


8.   Thinking Critically

a.   What is critical thinking?

b.   Building a chain of reasoning

c.   Persuasive reasoning

d.   Critical thinking: Academic, Public, and Workplace


9.   Reading Critically

a.   Read to understand

b.   Read to respond and evaluate

c.   Reading into writing: Written response and reading journals


10. Constructing an Argument

a.   Recognizing an issue

b.   Developing your point of view and purpose

b.   Creating an argumentative thesis

c. Addressing specific audiences or communities of readers


11. Developing, Supporting, and Documenting an Argument

a. Reasoning that supports your claim

b.   Evidence that supports your claim

c.   Visual argument

d.   Incorporating counterarguments

e.   Logical strategies

f. Data-warrant-claim (Toulmin) reasoning

g.   Emotional strategies

h.   Logical and illogical reasoning

g.   Documenting short argumentative or position papers


12. Creating a Visual Argument

a.     Presenting an issue

b.   Providing evidence


Part 3    Presenting Your Work


13. Designing Documents

a.   Goals of document design

b.   Format choice

c.   Layout  

d.   Typeface choices

e.   Visuals

f. Web pages

g.   Model documents


14. Writing Online

a.   Online writing

b.   Avoiding plagiarism and acting ethically online

c.   E-mail choices

d.   Online communities

e.   Virtual classrooms

15. Speaking Effectively

a.   Effective oral presentation

b.   Speech Anxiety

c.   Group presentations and public forums


Part 4 Writing for Specific Communities


16. Academic Writing: General Education

a. Analyzing assignments

b.  Common information-driven assignments

c. Summaries


d. Literature reviews

e. Annotated bibliographies


f.  Essay exams


g. Short documented paper


h. Common point-driven assignments

i. Critiques


j. Reviews


k.  Essay exams


l.  Position papers


17.   Writing in Literature and Other Humanities

a.   Research in literary study and related fields

b.   Reading literary texts

c.   Writing about literary texts

d.   The text analysis


e.   Analyzing and interpreting visual texts

f. Reviews and critical analyses (critiques) in the humanities



18.   Writing in the Social and Natural Sciences

a.   Research in the social sciences

b.   Common writing assignments in social science courses

c.   Reviews of research


d.   Informative reports

e.   Research reports


f. Research in the natural sciences

g.   Common writing assignments in natural science courses

h.   Lab reports


i.   Abstracts


j. Informative reports

k.   Reports of original research


19.  Public Writing

a. Goals of public writing

b. Analyzing public audiences

c. Types of public writing

d. Flyers

e. Letters to the editor

f. Speaking in public settings


20.  Workplace Writing

a. Goals of workplace writing

b. Business writing process

c. Business letters

d. Memos

e. Email

f. Résumés and application letters



Part 5 Researching and Writing


21. Getting Started: Researching and Writing

a. Identifying a subject or project

b.   Kinds of research writing

c. Choosing a topic

d.   Narrowing a topic

e.   Research questions

f. Preliminary thesis

g.   Summarizing, paraphrasing, and synthesizing

h.   Reading sources critically

i. Audience inventory

j. Developing a search strategy

k.   Timeline


22. Library Resources

a.   Organization of library resources

b.   General resources

c.   Online catalogs

d.   Periodicals, print and electronic indexes, and government documents

e.   Evaluating library resources


23. Databases

a.   Reference databases

b.   Full-text databases

c.   Databases containing abstracts

d.   Indexing or bibliographic databases

e. Resource databases

f. Evaluating database resources

24. Internet Resources

a.   Internet search strategy

b.   Search engines

c.   Kinds of Web sites

d.   Evaluating online resources


25. Field Resources and Fieldwork

a. Field research

b.   Meaningful field research

c.   Surveys

d.   Interviews

e.   Human subjects’ consent and approval

f. Ethnographies


26. Avoiding Plagiarism and Integrating Sources

a.   What is plagiarism?

b.   The problem of intention

c.   When to document sources

d.   Citing responsibly

e.   Sources in context

f. Integrating sources for specific purposes

g.   Quotations, summaries, facts, and visuals

h.   Common knowledge


27.  Writing, Revising, and Presenting Research

a.   Planning and drafting

b.   Informative research paper

c.   Persuasive research paper

d.   Presenting strategies


Part 6 MLA Documentation

28. MLA Documentation

a.   Using in-text citations

b.   MLA in-text citations: Examples

c.   Informative footnotes and endnotes

d.   MLA Works Cited list: Examples

e.   Sample MLA paper


Part 7 APA Documentation


29. APA Documentation

a. Using in-text citations

b.   Content footnotes

c.   APA in-text citations: Examples

d.  APA References list: Examples

e.   Sample APA paper


Part 8 CMS and CSE Documentation


30. CMS Documentation

a.   Using endnotes and footnotes

b.   CMS notes: Examples

c.   CMS bibliography entries: Examples

d.   Sample CMS paper


31. CSE Documentation

a.   Recognizing scientific and engineering styles

b.   Analyzing the documentation style of a publication

c.   CSE scientific in-text citations

d.   CSE scientific references list: Examples


Part 9 Grammar


32. Sentence Elements and Patterns

a.   Words

b.   Subjects and predicates

c.   Phrases and clauses

d.   Sentence types


33. Verbs

a.   Simple present and past tense

b.   Participles: Recognizing and editing

c. Editing progressive and perfect tenses

d.   Troublesome verbs (lie, lay, sit, set)

e.   Active and passive voice

f.   Clear tense sequence

g.   Subjunctive mood


34. Nouns and Pronouns

a.   Pronoun forms

b.   Common problems with pronouns

c.   Who and whom


35. Agreement

a.   Subject-verb agreement (simple)

b.   Subject-verb agreement (complex)

c.   Pronoun-antecedent agreement


36. Adjectives and Adverbs

a.   What adjectives and adverbs do

b.   Avoiding confusion between adjectives and adverbs

c.   Comparatives and superlatives: Correct forms

d.   Avoiding double negatives


Part 10 Sentence Problems


37. Sentence Fragments

a.     Sentence fragments: Recognizing

b.  Sentence fragments: Editing

c.   Partial sentences


38. Comma Splices and Fused Sentences

a.   Comma splices and fused sentences: Recognizing

b.   Comma splices and fused sentences: Editing


39. Pronoun Reference

a.   Unclear pronoun reference

b.   Nonspecific pronoun reference

c. Matching who, which, and that to antecedents


40.  Misplaced, Dangling, and Disruptive Modifiers

a.   Misplaced modifiers

b.   Dangling modifiers

c.   Disruptive modifiers

d.   Using absolute phrases effectively


41.  Shifts

a.   Person and number

b.   Tense and mood

c.   Voice

d.   Direct and indirect quotation


42. Mixed and Incomplete Sentences

a.   Mixed sentences

b.   Incomplete sentences


43. Parallelism

a.   Building parallelism

b.   Problems with parallelism

c. Creating parallelism beyond the sentence

d.   Parallelism in lists


44. Coordination and Subordination

a.   Creating coordination

b. Problems with coordination

c. Creating subordination

d. Problems with subordination


Part 11  Words and Style


45. Wordiness

a.   Common types of wordiness

b.   Clichés, generalizations and overblown language


46. Style, the Dictionary, and Vocabulary

a.   Style and community

b.   Word choice, Readers’ needs, and Writers’ purposes

c.   Precise diction

d.   Editing for diction

e.   Choosing and using dictionaries

f. Electronic resources

g.   Building vocabulary


47. Appropriate and Respectful Language

a.   Home and community language varieties

b.   How dialects influence writing

c.   Sexist language

d.   Discriminatory language


Part 12 Punctuation, Mechanics, and Spelling

48. Commas

a.   Joining sentences

b.   Setting off introductory phrases

c.   Setting off nonrestrictive modifiers

d.   Setting off parenthetical expressions

e.   Using commas in a series

f. Separating coordinate adjectives

g.   Dates, numbers, addresses, place names, people’s titles, and letters

h.   Commas with quotations

i. Commas to make your meaning clear

j. Commas that do not belong


49. Semicolons and Colons

a.   Using semicolons

b.   Using colons


50. Apostrophes

a.   Marking possession

b.   Marking contractions and omissions


51. Quotation Marks

a.   Marking quotations

b.  Block quotations

c. Dialogue

d.   Titles of short works

e.   Special meanings of words and phrases

f. Irony, sarcasm, and authorial distance


52. Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points

a.   Periods

b.   Question marks

c.   Exclamation points


53. Special Punctuation

a.   Parentheses

b.   Brackets

c.   Dashes

d.   Ellipses

e.   Slashes


54. Capitalization

a.   Beginning a sentence

b.   Proper nouns and adjectives

c.   Titles


55. Italics (Underlining)

a. Following conventions

b.   Emphasis


56. Hyphens and Word Division

a.   Dividing words

b.   Joining words


57. Numbers

a.   Spelling out or using numerals

b.   Special conventions

c.   Too many numbers


58. Abbreviations

a.   Familiar abbreviations

b.   Using abbreviations sparingly


59. Spelling

a.   Spelling as you write

b.   Recognizing and correcting spelling errors

c.   Long-term strategies

d.   Spelling and the computer



Glossary of Usage and Terms


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